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Dictionary of pastellists before 1800

BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF COLLECTORS

 

This index lists art collectors who have owned pastels, as well as some long established dealers and others owners who may be of interest to users of the Dictionary. It is not a complete list of former owners (for example, owners of single works or those who have inherited family portraits are not normally included). It includes dates of known sales, some inventories and lists of pastels known to have been owned but not sold publicly; pictures traded by dealers are not listed in extenso. All such omissions may be rectified by searching the main articles in Dictionary. Attributions in [ ] indicate changes from those in the source document (e.g. sales catalogue), but for full details of each pastel, see the main article for the artist. Further biographical details will be found in the references cited or in standard biographical sources which we have not attempted to duplicate, but longer entries are given for more obscure subjects including details which may not be readily ascertainable. Note also that some pastellists included in the Dictionary were also active as collectors; details will then be found in the relevant article (signalled by "Dictionary, artists"). Iconographies for a number of eighteenth century connoisseurs may be found in the iconographical genealogies (signalled by "Dictionary, genealogy"). Where collections have passed intact to museums, they are not separately listed (consult the Collections file for complete listings, or use the search facility). Living collectors are omitted except where their collections have been published.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Didier AARON (1923–2009), established the firm dealing in old master pictures, furniture and objets d'art in Paris, London and New York. It is now run by his son.

Sir Robert Henry Edward ABDY, 5th Bt (1896-1976), art collector, of Grosvenor Square, Newton Ferrers and Paris. His predecessor, Sir William Neville Abdy, 2nd Bt (1844-1910), formed an important collection of mainly Italian paintings, sold at Christie's, 5.V.1911. Sir Robert inherited a large fortune which enabled him to lead an eccentric life as a connoisseur and collector, spending two years in the Louvre studying XVIIIe furniture. In divorce papers in 1928 he was described as a dealer. Part of his collection, including pictures from early Flemish to Sickert, was sold at Sotheby's, 28.V.1936.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Peter Quennell, letter to The Times, 25.XI.1976
Pastels: La Tour, Dumont le romain; Perronneau, ??Miron

Alexandre-Denis ABEL DE PUJOL (1785-1861), French painter and portraitist.
Paris, 7.XII.1861:
Lot 56: La Tour, inconnue [B&W 764]

Edgar Vincent, Viscount d'ABERNON (1857–1941), MP for Exeter 1899–1906, PC, diplomat and financier active in the Levant, ambassador to Germany 1920–26, financier; married Lady Helen Venetia Duncombe. They lived at Esher Place, Surrey until it was sold in 1929, in consequence of which a group of pastels and fashion drawings were sold. He owned a pastel by Perronneau as well as those by Glain and La Tour in the 1929 sale.
London, Christie's, 28.VI.1929.

Pietro ACCORSI (1891-1982), from Turin, art dealer. His collection is now in the Fondazione Accorsi, Turin (q.v.).

Rudolph ACKERMANN (1764-1834), colourman and printseller (v. Suppliers), founded the London firm of art dealers in 1783; it remained in business, in Regent Street, Oxford Street, Bond Street and Belgravia, under the control of his son Rudolph Jr (1793–1868) and grandson Arthur (1830–1914), until 2011, trading under the names Arthur Ackermann Ltd and, 1992–2008, as Ackermann & Johnson. There were overseas branches. The firm handled pastels by Rosalba, Boucher, Cotes, Hamilton, Liotard and Sharples.

The brothers John (1721-1792), Robert (1728-1792), James (1732-1794) and William (1738-1822) ADAM, having overextended themselves on the development of the Adelphi, established a lottery under Adam Buildings Act 1772 (13 Geo. III c.75) for the disposal of buildings and certain contents. The lottery took place in .III.1774. The schedule listed, among the drawings, three pastels by Rosalba Carriera.

Adam, v.q. Law Adam

Henry ADAMS (1838-1918), writer, grandson and greatgrandson of US presidents: In a letter to Elizabeth Cameron of 2.VI.1908, he relates that he had visited Mme de Ganay's pastel-show at George Petit's with Mrs Cooper Hewitt. On 1.VIII.1909 he told her that he had bought a "little Boucherian pastel-girl smelling a carnation, because [he] wanted something decadent and refined and soft and pretty and ante-20th century, to hold me up against Boldini." To Ward Thoron, 11.X.1909, he related that Edith Wharton had taken him to a bric-a-brac shop opposite the British Embassy on the faubourg Saint-Honoré where he had found an oil version of Mme de Prie which he thought was by Thoron himself, adding that the picture "repeats my pastel and the Louvre miniature", that he had "enough Mme de Pries" unless he could find the original Van Loo pastel.
Lit.: The letters of Henry Adams, ed. J. C. Levenson & al., 1988, VI: 1906-1918

ADOLF FREDRIK, konung av Sverige (1710-1771).
Dictionary, genealogy, Sverige
Lit.: Lespinasse 1911, p. 305
Inventory (prices in dalers)
1. Un paysage en pastel, par Oudry (Dlr 1200)
23. Tête d'un vieillard, seigné en Pastel (Dlr 50)

Claude-Léon AERTS (1800-1883), notaire, négociant en gros d'étoffes et bibliophile à Metz; his posthumous sale, Nancy, Siméon, 31.III.1884, included two La Tour inconnues, Lots 24, 25.

AGNEW'S (fl. 1817–2013), dealers in old master pictures in London. The firm was established by Thomas Agnew in partnership with V. Zanetti, of Manchester, in 1817, and traded from 43 Old Bond Street from 1876 to 2008. Thomas's son was also Thomas ( -1883), while his son, William Lockett Agnew (1858-1918), ran the firm after the retirement of his uncle Sir William ( -1910) in 1896 and of Morland Agnew in 1913. The firm's stock has included pastels by Rosalba, Greuze, La Tour, Liotard and Perronneau as well as English artists from Greenhill to Lawrence.

Maître Albert-Marie-Vincent AICARD (1853–1933), 55 rue Paradis, Marseille, chevalier de la légion d'honneur 1925, came from a line of avocats au barreau de Marseille. His father, also Albert Aicard, was the subject of a medallion by Jules-Clément Chaplain (musée d'Orsay). He acquired a Perronneau inconnu, 1748 in the outskirts of Dijon, and had owned it for some 45 years by 1927. A sale of his collection of furniture, tapestries, Limoges enamels etc. took place at the château de Saint-Chamaux, Saint-Amancet, on 11-15.X.1931.

Maurice AICARDI (1919-2007), avocat, Palais-Royal, Paris.
Vente succession, Paris, Drouot, Pecheteau-Badin, 26.XI.2007 [with short biography]
Lot 80: Huet, perdrix; Lot 90: a/r Boucher, Mme Deshays; Lot 91: a/r Boucher, jeune fille; Lot 116: a/r La Tour, Monnet; Lot 119: Mercier, auto

Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d'AIGUILLON (1720-1788), gouverneur de Bretagne, ministre, married the marquis de Bréhan's niece. Their son Armand-Désiré, 6e duc d'Aiguillon (1761-1800) presumably inherited the effects of the château d'Aiguillon which were sold at auction in 1790. A number of items of interest were acquired on behalf of the duchesse, but following her arrest she was unable to pay for these lots, which were then transported to the préfecture d'Agen where most were still found in 1861. An inventory was prepared in 6.XII.1794.
Lit.: "Ancienne collection d'Aiguillon", Revue universelle des arts, XIII, 1861, pp. 197f
Pastels: Caffiéri, Causeur; Volaire, 2 marines; Éc. fr., 2 fables de La Fontaine

Cardinale Alessandro ALBANI (1682–1779) commissioned four heads from Rosalba. The first two, of Cleopatra and an unspecified Virtue, cost 164 ducats, as revealed in correpsondence with the cardinal's secretary Giulio Monti (letters of 11.VII.1739, 19.I.1740, 28.I.1741, 1.IV.1741). In 1744 the cardinal commissioned a third, unspecified work , in a personal letter written; a fourth, of "Une Filosofia o una Musa", was referred to in a letter from Albani to artist, 18.iv.1744. These were presumably the four heads he lent to Katherine Read to copy in 1751.

Jean-Baptiste d'ALBERTAS, marquis de Roux (1716-1790), premier président des comptes, aides et finances de Provence, married, in 1745, Marguerite-Françoise de Montullé (1724-1800), sister of the honoraire-amateur de l'Académie royale. Their son Jean-Baptiste-Suzanne, marquis d'Albertas (1747-1829), who followed his father as a judge in the parlement de Provence, was also a collector. They owned pastels by Boucher, Rosalba and Jeanne Natoire, acquired at the Jullienne and La Live de Jully sales (1767, 1770), as well as a wide collection of French, Italian and Dutch paintings and drawings.
Dictionary, genealogy, Montullé

Cardinale Francesco ALBIZZI (1593-1684), Rome. He was trained as a lawyer and only entered the church after the death of his wife in 1623. He became a cardinal in 1654 and a member of the inquisition from 1635, opposing Jansenism. He published several literary works.
Inv. 4.IV.1682: f.13: Un disegno piccolo di pastello testa con cornice nera, et oro

George ALLAN (1736-1800), FSA, of Blackwell Grange, County Durham, eminent antiquary and collector. According to Hutchinson's Antiquities of Durham, which Allan promoted, he had a collection of numerous crayons attributed to Place but which may have included ones by Greenhill. He also owned a pastel by Gainsborough. Anonymous pastels of him and his wife are now in the NPG, London.
Lit.: Burke, Commmoners

Pierre-Joseph-Léon ALLARD-MEEÛS ou Allard de Meeûus (1865-1915), lieutenant au 12ème régiment de Cuirassiers, son of Léon Allard (1829-1900).
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil, 6-7.VI.1910:
Lot 2: Bernard, homme 1757; Lot 7: J.-A.-M. Lemoine, Caroline des Courtils; Lot 8: Lenoir, Mme Danès; Lot 9: Lenoir, inconnue; Lot 11: Naudin, inconnu; Lot 16: Mme Roslin, Roslin; Éc. fr.: Lot 18: Gluck; Lots 20-21: inconnues; Lots 22-24: inconnus

August ALLEBÉ (1838-1927), Dutch painter and lithographer, bequeathed a pastel by Andriessen (Verstegh) to the Rijksmuseum in 1927.

Leon and Charlotte AMAR (fl. 2010), of Palm Beach, donated 64 objects to the Flagler Museum in 2010, including European paintings and furniture as well as Valade's pastel of the marquis de Gourgues.

Nicolas Eustache AMBATIELOS (1885-1956), a Greek shipowner, purchased the La Tour président de Rieux from Gimpel and Wildenstein in 1919 for £48,000 but was unable to complete the purchase. His finances were greatly damaged by a long-running dispute with the British government over the late delivery of nine ships; he sued for £8 million but the case was only decided (against him) after his death.

Antonio AMICI MORETTI ( –1689), argentiere, gioielliere e "diamantaro", Palazzo al Corso, Rome.
Inv. 1.III.1690: f.1003v: Somma, e seguono li quadri di mano di Salvator Rosa/Quadri di mano di Salvator Rosa/Un pastello con una testa rappresenta il ritratto di Salvator Rosa fatto da lui medemo di misura di un palmo e mezzo, e due incirca di altezza con cornice larga un palmo tutta di bell'intaglio tutta dorata con suo vetro per avanti Sta nella prima camera dell'appartamento da basso
f.1017: [Anon.] Un pastello di palmi uno, e di larghezza mezzo con una testa di donna in profilo con vetro avanti di mano di ... con cornice larga un dito colorita colore di noce

Alexandre ANANOFF (1910-1992): born in Tbilisi, Ananoff was an early enthusiast and writer about space, publishing the seminal work L'Astronautique in 1950, the year in which he organised the first international congress on the subject in Paris. By the end of the 1950s he had turned his attention to art history, publishing an important, if flawed, catalogue of Boucher.
Pastels: H. Drouais, dame en Flore

Édouard ANDRÉ (1833-1894) was born into a family of bankers but trained initially as a soldier. He turned to collecting around 1864, a few years later commissioning Henri Parent to build the hôtel on the boulevard Haussmann that now houses the collection he formed with his wife, the painter Nélie [Nelly] Jacquemart (1841-1912). The musée Jacquemart-André is now owned by the Institut de France.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Donateurs 1989; Rieder 2000

Antoine-François, comte ANDRÉOSSY (1761-1828), général, diplomate.
Paris, Navoit, Laneuville, 13-16.IV.1864:
Lot 4: La Tour, Jolyot de Crébillon; Lot 7: Mengs, Tromp; Lot 472: Biard, femme

John Julius ANGERSTEIN (1735-1823), born in St Petersburg, moved to London around 1749 and became a successful merchant and art collector. His collection, formed with advice from Sir Thomas Lawrence, was purchased after his death to form the National Gallery. His daughter Julia married General Sabloukoff; a pastel by Lawrence descended to William Angerstein until the 1896 sale.
London, Christie's, 4.VII.1896:
Lot 101: Lawrence, Mrs Boucherette

Maria ANGIOLILLO (c.1929-2009), widow of Renato Angiolillo (1901-1973), founder of the newspaper Il Tempo; her art collection, sold in London, Christie's, 15.VII.2010, included a pastel boy by J. W. Hien (Lot 600).

Charles-Claude Flahaut de La Billarderie, comte d'ANGIVILLER (1730-1809), directeur-général des Bâtiments 1774. The second comtesse, née Adélaïde-Émilie Filleul (1761-1836), owned a pastel by Labille-Guiard (Brizard) in 1783.
Lit.: Grove 1996; Rosenberg 2007; Procès-verbaux

The ANONYMOUS "amateur de Province" who wrote a letter on the secret of fixing pastel in the Journal œconomique, .II.1758, pp. 63-65, evidently had a collection of pastels, including two by Vivien, presumably of his relatives.

Arthur APPLEBY (1895–1966) and his brother Richard traded from 27 William IV Street, Trafalgar Square and later 10 Ryder Street, specialising in early English watercolours. In the 1970s Arthur's son John Appleby (1929–2009) moved to Jersey, and assembled a varied collection of old master pictures, including a Titian, as well as travel and natural history. The collection was sold after his death by Christie's in a series of sales, notably on 4.XI.2010. Pastels handled by the firm included works by Russell, Hamilton, Cotes and Allais.

Madeleine-Sophie ARNOULD (1744-1802), cantatrice de l'Opéra. The celebrated actress, herself the subject of a rich iconography including pastels by Desangles, Hoin, La Tour and Vigée Le Brun, was also a collector of pictures, objets d'art, porcelain etc. A sale took place in Paris, hôtel d'Aligre, under Chariot and Paillet, with the catalogue printed as a supplement to the Charles Natoire posthumous sale of 14.XII.1778 & seq., but the Arnould sale was postponed until 30–31.XII.1778; both parts of the catalogue were illustrated by Saint-Aubin.
Lit.: Dacier 1909-21
Lot 17: Une jeune Fille flairant un bouquet; ce Morceau, peint en pastel, est aussi de F. Boucher. [40 livres]
Lot 36: Deux différens bustes de Femme, peints en Pastel, dans le goût de Boucher. [21 livres]

Vincenzo Omoboni ASTORI ( -1876), left ten pastels by Rosalba to the Gallerie dell'Academia di Venezia, mostly of members of his mother's family, Le Blond. Only six are now accepted as autograph; three of the remaining ones (including two now in Rome in the Camera dei Deputati) are now attributed to Pavona.
Lit.: Champney 1891; Nepi Scirè 2009

Mme Philippe AUBERTIN, née Anne-Marie, baronne de Wangen de Geroldseck (fl. 1925–47), 21 rue Albéric Magnard, Paris 16e, owned a Perronneau inconnue in 1947.

M. AUBRY (fl. a.1773). The Catalogue d'un cabinet d'artiste, composé de tableaux, desseins, estampes, bronzes, livres d'architecture... suggests that the vendor was an architect, perhaps François Debias-Aubry (p.1716–1773).
Paris, Guilleaumont, Basan, 9.II.1773 & seq.:
Lot 95: Pellegrini: Trois compositions différentes de Vénus & de l'Amour, faites au Pastel [60 livres 1 sol; Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun]
Lot 232: [Anon.]: [Un porte-feuille rempli de différents Dessins; Savoir.] Une tête de vieillard au pastel. [4 livres 16 sols; Framoir]

Benoist AUDRAN le jeune (1698–1792), graveur à Paris.
Vente p.m., Paris, Joullain fils, 30.III.1772 & seq.:
Lot 207: [Anon.]: Plusieurs morceaux peints au pastel, à gouazze & en miniature; ils seront aussi divisés

Le chevalier d'AUFRERY (fl. Toulouse 1784–91): sent numerous pastels to the Salon de Toulouse between 1784 and 1791. "D'Aufrery, chevalier de Malte" was an associé honoraire of the Académie de Toulouse from 1768, and a moderateur 1776–79, while "le chevalier d'Aufrery" was nominated in 1788. The former was Pierre-Clément Carrière-d'Aufrery ( –1806), chevalier de Malte 1755, chargé d’affaires de l'Ordre de Malte dans le Grand Prieuré de Toulouse; the latter was his younger brother Henri-Marie de Carrière, dit chevalier d'Aufrery (1736-1813), chevalier de Saint-Louis, capitaine au régiment de Vivarais-Infanterie, but described as "peu fortuné" in the Revolutionary tribunal. Their eldest brother was abbé Jacques-Henri de Carrière d'Aufrery (1724-1786), conseiller au parlement de Toulouse, secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie de Toulouse and well-known author.
Dictionary, genealogy, Carrière
Pastels: Bauzil; Dupin; Emet; Gounon; Hubert; Vialètes

August, v. Friedrich August

Henri-Eugène-Philippe-Louis, duc d'AUMALE (1822-1897), politician and collector, fifth son of Louis-Philippe (1773-1850) and Marie-Amélie (1782-1866). Exiled to England after 1848; he rebult the Orléans collection from his home in Twickenham. The collection now forms the musée Condé at Chantilly.
v.q. Lenoir
Lit.: Chantilly 2005; Lugt 2779
Pastels: v. Collections, Chantilly

Jules-Marie-François AUSSANT (1805-1872), physician and archaeologist in Rennes; professeur de chimie appliqué, école de médecine de Rennes, 1831; founder member and secretary of the Société des sciences et arts de Rennes; Association bretonne; Société archéologique d'Ille-et-Vilaine; founder, directeur honoraire du musée de Rennes
Lit.: DBF
Paris, 28-30.XII.1863:
Lot 46: La Tour, Goyon de Vaudurant [Vigée Le Brun, Beaujon]

Jacques-André-Joseph Camelot AVED (1702-1766), painter; he was a friend of Chardin and owned nine of his still-lifes at his death.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Chardin 1979

Dr C.-M.-Étienne-Eugène AZAM (1822-1899), a well-known medical man in Bordeaux. He was the son and grandson of eminent doctors, and it was his maternal grandfather Jean Fabas who formed a major collection of over 200 mainly Dutch paintings in the 1820s. Dr Azam lent three pastels (two by Perronneau and a Rosalba) to the Bordeaux 1882 exhibition; one was in his sale p.m., Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, 15.XII.1909.

Giovanni AZZAVEDI ( –1667), commediografo, piazza Pasquino, Rome. His inventory (12.I.1668) included a dozen sheets by Padovanino described as pastels; they were portraits of "beauties", noble ladies, chosen, with their ebony and gilt frames, to decorate his library.
Lit.: Adriano Amendola, "Frames for drawings in Roman collections: a case study," Getty research journal, 4, 2012, pp. 45–56

B

Jean-Louis BABAULT ( –c.1762), marchand joaillier et curieux. His posthumous sale, with a Catalogue raisonné des fossiles, coquilles, mineraux, pierres précieuses, diamants, desseins des grands maîtres des trois ecoles &c. prepared by Picard and Glomy, took place 24.I.1763 & seq. at his house, rue ds Fontaines, près le Temple.
Lot 391: Quatre belles Académies de le Moine, dont une de femme au Pastel. [27 livres]
Lot 398: Trois Desseins de M. Natoire, deux Têtes de femme, dont une belle au Pastel, & une Transfiguration dessinée à la plume, lavée d'encre de la Chine. [7 livres]
Lot 400: Une Tête de femme très-finie au Pastel, par M. Pierre, Artiste de qui le mérite est assez connu par la belle Coupole dont il a décoré la Chapelle de la Vierge à S. Roch. [23 livres 6]
Lot 428: Deux Têtes au pastel, l'une d'homme, & l'autre de femme, par Rosa Alba Carriera, célebre Vénitienne, dont les Pastels ont toujours passé pour des chefs-d'oeuvres. Ceux-ci faisoient partie de la Collection de M. Crozat. [49 livres 15]
Lot 445: Deux Têtes d'Enfant au Pastel, du même [Le Moine] [9 livres]
Lot 446: Une Tête de femme légerement dessinée, par le même. [7 livres 4]
Lot 447: Une autre Tête de femme au Pastel, par Trémollieres. [9 livres 16]
Lot 451: Une Académie de femme au Pastel gracieusement composée par M. Boucher, elle tient une flèche à la main, on l'a gravée sous le titre du trait dangereux. [41 livres]
Lot 452. Un Buste de Femme de profil, avec une main tenant des fleurs, Dessein au Pastel des plus gravieux, de M. Boucher. [24 livres]
Lot 453. Un jeune Eléve de peinture, les mains appuyées sur un Porte-feuille, tenant un crayon, dessiné au Pastel par le même. [12 livres 1]
Lot 455: Une Tête au pastel, très-bien touchée, par M. Natoire. [6 livres]
Lot 457. Une très-belle Tête de Femme au pastel, de M. Perroneau, traitée dans le goût de la Rosa Alba. [48 livres]

Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH (1714-1788): the composer, second son of Johann Sebastian, was an avid collector of portraits of musicians. A substantial collection was catalogued in his estate inventory, printed in 1790; in addition to the pastels it lists (below) several other pastels probably belonged to him. Coloured chlk drawings by artists such as Hardirch were also included. The matter of the Meiningen pastel of his father remains controversial. Several of his letters, notably that of 20.IV.1774 to his father's biographer Johann Nicolaus Forkel, discuss pastels (which he called "dry colours"), the difficulty of transporting them to be copied, and the portrait made by Reifenstein.
Lit.: Richards 2012
Verzeichniss des musikalischen nachlasses des verstorbene Capellmeisters Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach [Nachlaßverzeichnis], Hamburg, 1790
[p. 95] Bach, (Wilh. Friedemann) Musik-Director in Halle, J. S. älteste Sohn. Mit trocknen Farben von Eichler. 4. In goldnen Rahmen, unter Glas.
Bach, (Joh. Ludw.) Meinungischer Kapellmeister. Mit trocknen Farben von Ludw. Bach, seinem Sohne. Kl. 4. In goldnen Rahmen, unter Glas.
[p. 101] Duscheck, (Mad.) Sängerinn und Clavierspielerinn in Prag. In trocknen Farben von E. H. Abel. Gr. Fol. In goldnen Rahmen, unter Glas.
[p. 104] Friedrich, König in Preußen. Mit trocknen Farben. 4. In goldenen Rahmen, unter Glas.
[p. 116] Paradis, (Mar. Theres.) blinde Clavierspielerin. Gezeichnet von Schubart. In goldnen Rahmen, unter Glas.

Karl Bernhard Paul BACH (1878-1968), a postal official in Coburg, grandson of Johann Philipp Bach: a large collection of pastels associated with the Bach family was lent to the Meiningen exhibition of 1904.

Henri BADEROU (1910–1991), historien d'art, marchand, and his wife Suzanne, peintre: their major collection of French drawings and paintings was given to the musée de Beaux-Arts de Rouen in 1975.
Lit.: "La Donation Suzanne et Henri Baderou au musée de Rouen", Études de la Revue du Louvre et des musées de France, i, 1980; Donateurs 1989; Rouen 2013
Pastels: Lemoyne, 2 têtes d'homme; Valade, inconnu; inconnue

Louis-Guillaume BAILLET, baron de SAINT-JULIEN (c.1715 - p.1788), poet, art critic and collector. He was a particular enthusiast for the naturalistic style of Chardin and La Tour.
Lit.: Grove 1996
Paris, Dogue, Remy, 10-13.XII.1759 & seq.:
Lot 376: Boucher: Quatre Desseins de M. Boucher tant aux crayons rouge & noir qu'au Pastel, dont une Léda & un Bain de Nymphe, morceaux très piquans [12 livres]
Paris, 21.VI.1784

La présidente de BANDEVILLE, née Marie-Anne-Catherine Bigot de Graveron (1709-1787), veuve de Pierre-François Doublet, marquis de Bandeville (1705-1761): she acquired several pastels at the Jullienne sale in 1767, including works by Barocci, Boucher and Rosalba. She purchased at other sales, such as the de Selle sale where she bought a pastel by Audran through Remy. Her natural history collection was one of the most important of the day.
Dictionary, genealogy, Doublet
Lit.: Jeffares 2002; Marandet 2003a
Inv. p.m., AN lxxvi 505, 2.VIII.1787
Paris, Hayot, Remy, 3-10.XII.1787:
Carriera, Lot 6: Pellegrini; Lot 7, jeune femme

Henry John Ralph BANKES (1902-1981), bequeathed Kingston Lacy to the National Trust, with the collections built up largely by his great-great uncle William John Bankes (1786-1855), collector and traveller. The estate was originally acquired by Sir John Bankes (1689-1644), chief justice.
Pastels: Greenhill, Betterton

Pietro BARBARIGO (1711-1801), detto lo Zoppo, collezionista. The inventory of his collection, 11.I.1804, included 8 pastels by Rosalba (three members of the Darcy of Holderness family; contessa Simonetta; an autoritratto; a Diana; and two other female portraits).
Lit.: Tormen 2009, p. 246f

Sigismond BARDAC (1856-1919), banker, of Russian origin. René Gimpel bought some of Sigismond's colllection two years before his death; the major sale was in 1920. Sigismond's wife Emma Moÿse (1862-1934) was Fauré's muse (their daughter Dolly inspired the suite); after her divorce in 1905, she married Debussy. Sigismond's brothers Noël (born 1849 in Odessa) and Joseph were also collectors; Joseph's sale was held in 1927. In addition to the three pastels in his 1920 sale, Sigismond Bardac also donated a pastel by Colson to a charity auction in .IV.1917.
Lit.: Gimpel 1963
Paris, Georges Petit, 10-11.V.1920:
Lot 17: Chardin, ?Bachelier; Lot 20: Éc. fr., Un peintre de fleurs; Lot 25: La Tour, Mme Rouillé, Lot 28: Perronneau, Dame sd 1744; Lot 29: Perronneau, Puente-Fuerte; Lot 30: Perronneau, inconnu [Cazotte]
Other pastels: Fragonard, L'Île d'amour; La Tour, Mme Dorizon; Nattier, M & Mme Royer

Pierre-François-Paulin, comte de BARRAL (1745-1822), chevalier de Malte 1747, baron de l'Empire 1810, himself the subject of a pastel at the age of 3½, a notorious libertine; he kept in the château d'Allevard "[une] quantité innombrable de portraits […] représentent de fort jolies femmes, traitées à la façon de Boucher, en costume de nymphes, de bergères ou de déesses… exécutées au pastel." Alphonse Dupasquier, L'Eau minérale sulfureuse d'Allevard, 1841, p. 45

Sir Sydney BARRATT (1898-1975), chemist, industrialist and collector, who acquired Crowe Hall, Bath in 1961. A posthumous sale took place in London, Christie's, 16.XII.2010, and included a pastel by Russell (Lady Hill).

Paul BARROILHET (1810-1871), of 68 rue Blanche, opera singer and collector. "On l'a vu réunir et vendre à plusieurs reprises des collections assez curieuses" (Grand Larousse, 1867, p. 267f); this included a number of paintings by Chardin. According to the Annuaire des artistes et amateurs, 1861, his collection numbered some 250 items. Couture's portrait of the singer is in the Fogg Museum.
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Paris, Pillet, 10.III.1856
Paris, Drouot, Escribe, 29.III., 2-3.IV.1860

Bartolomeo BARZI ( –1644), collector and dealer in pictures as well as wine, Rome.
Inv. 29.XII.1645:
Pastels: Reni, figura; testa

Pierre-François BASAN (1723-1797), graveur, marchand d'estampes, commissaire-priseur.
Lit.: Pierre Casselle, "Pierre François Basan", Mémoires, Paris et Île de France, xxxiii, 1982, pp. 99-185; Marandet 2003a
Paris, Regnault, 1-19.XII.1798:
Lot 75: Boucher: Vénus & les Amours; dessin aux trois crayons mêlés de pastels, sur papier bleu. Haut. 14 pouc. larg. 10 pouc. 10 lign. [Fr28; Juliete]
Lot 76: Boucher: Huit Etudes; Figures académiques, Enfans & Têtes de jeunes filles; aux trois crayons & au pastel [Fr14; Varaine]
Lot 907: Portrait d'une jeune femme peint en pastel, with Ariadne, tapisserie de Lazare Bruandet [Fr 9; Godet]

Rev. Sir Henry BATE DUDLEY, Bt (1745-1824), newspaper editor and supporter of Gainsborough. Two pastel landscapes by the artist, now in the Tate, were donated by Bate Dudlet's nephew Thomas Birch Wolfe.

Lucien-Jean-Baptiste BAUDENS (1804-1857), chirurgien en chef de l'hôpital du Val-de-Grâce à Paris, grand officier de la Légion d'honneur. A military surgeon, he established a hopsital in Algiers and served also in the Crimea.
Vente p.m., Paris, Pillet, 1.VI.1858:
Lot 54: La Tour, inconnue

Baudicour, v. Collette

Henri BAUDOT (1799-1880), avocat, archéologue and président de la Commission des antiquités in Dijon, owned a Perronneau pastel, sold in his p.m. sale, Dijon, Brenot, 14-24.XI.1894.

Pierre-Antoine BAUDOUIN (1723-1769), peintre.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m., Paris, Bullion, J. Folliot, & al., 1.III.1786:
Lot 76. Erigone assise & pressant une grappe de Raisin; on voit près d'elle un jeune Satyre tenant une Tirse. Cette composition, de forme ronde, est peinte au pastel; par M. Durant. Diametre 9 pouces.
Lot 77. La Marchande de Marons & la Marchande de plaisirs, toutes dux faites au pastel; par le même. Hauteur 11 po. 9 l. largeur 8 po. 9 l.

Sir Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount BEARSTED (1853-1927), founder of the Shell Transport and Trading Company (which merged with Royal Dutch in 1907), and of one of the constituents in the banking firm of Hill Samuel. His grandson, Peter Montefiore Samuel (1911-1996), of Farley Hall, Farley Hill, Berkshire, succeeded as 4th Viscount; he was also a director of Hill Samuel and of Shell. He inherited a Liotard sold after his death.
Lit.: Oxford DNB
London, Christie's, 13.XII.1929:
Lot 45: Russell, Rev. & Mrs Pattrick
London, Sotheby's, 10.VII.2002:
Lot 214: Liotard, Lady Fawkener

Nicolas BEAUJON (1712-1786), négociant à Bordeaux et Paris, secrétaire du roi 1766, directeur de la Caisse d'escompte 1767, conseiller d'État 1769. His vast wealth was founded on manipulating the grain market in Bordeaux, and later in life he atoned by endowing the Hospice Beaujon, to be decorated with a portrait by Vigée Le Brun. In 1773 he acquired Mme de Pompadour's hôtel d'Evreux (now the Élysée palace) for 1 million livres, and here he displayed his extraordinary art collection included Holbein's Ambassadors; two Rembrandts; five Rubens; a remarkable series of Dutch pictures by Metsu Van Ostade, Hals, Wouwermann, Van de Velde, Wenix etc., as well as pictures by old and modern French masters. His posthumous sale also included a number of anonymous pastels.
Dictionary, genealogy; essay
Lit.: Gustave Labat, Actes de l'Académie nationale des sciences, belles lettres et arts de Bordeaux, 1901, pp. 47-108, and 1906, pp. 17-31; André Masson, Un mécène bordelais: Nicolas Beaujon 1718-1782, Bordeaux, 1937; André Masson, "La Galerie Beaujon", Gazette des beaux-arts, 1937, pp. 47-59; Élisabeth de La Presle, La Collection du financier Nicolas Beaujon (1718-1786), mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Paris IV Sorbonne, 2004.
Vente p.m., Paris, Girardin, Boileau, Remy, Joullain fils, 25.IV.-4.V.1787:
Tableaux en pastel
Lot 242: Une tricoteuse & une devideuse de laine, bustes de forme ovale, de 15 pouces sur 12 pouces, sous verre, bordure dorée [15 livres]
Lot 243: Une joueuse de vielle & un jeune garçon qui tient de cartes [15 livres]
Lot 244: Deux Femmes, dont une tient une lettre ouverte [10 livres]
Lot 245: Un pierrot qui tient un oiseau, & une Jardinière [18 livres]
Lot 246: Une jeune Paysane donnant à manger à des poules, & un jeune garçon qui fait danser un chien [12 livres]
Lot 247: Une Paysanne qui trait une vache, & un homme assis, tenant un flageolet, en gardant un boeuf [12 livres]
Lot 248: Une buste de Flora & une autre femme [5 livres; Bourbon?]

Rex BEAUMONT (1914-1988), companion of Howard Bury, who inherited Belvedere House, Mullingar in 1912, a Palladian villa built by the 1st Earl of Belvedere in 1740. Beaumont acquired the house on Bury's death; it was sold to the local council in 1982.
Belvedere, Mullingar, Christie's, 9.VII.1980:
Lot 247: Rogers, Lord Charleville; Lots 248-256: Johnston, Perceval family; Lot 277: Hamilton, Lord Charleville

Hugues de BEAUMONT (1874-1947), peintre. Lent a femme âgée by Lenoir to the Paris 1927a exhibition.

Jacques-Firmin BEAUVARLET (1731-1797), graveur.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m.: Paris, Poultier, Regnault, 13.III.1798:
Lot 75: [Anon.]: Des Têtes peintes au pastel & montées sous verre, & plusieurs vieilles Bordures, seront pareillement divisées sous ce no [405 frs 6 avec le lot 74]
Lot 78: Les Elémens, & Hercule & Omphale; ces cinq compositions sont exécutées à la pierre noire, mêlée de sanguine & de pastel, [copie par Beauvarlet] d'après L. Giordano [72 frs 3; Hubert]

Beckett, v. Marcy

Mme Aimé-Louis-Victor BECQ DE FOUQUIÈRES, née Marie-Françoise-Hélène de Groiseilliez (1836-1925): wife of the man of letters (1831-1887), parent of François-Jacques (1866-1945), censeur des théâtres, donor of a painting to the Louvre. Her father-in-law, Aimé-Napoléon-Victor Becq de Fouquières (1811–1880), was married successively to two sisters, the younger, Louise Dedreux (1824–1891), a pastellist.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, 8.V.1925:
Lot 29: La Tour, inconnue [B&W 895]
Other pastels: La Tour, auto; ??Mlle Dangeville

Dr Nicolaas BEETS (1878-1963), onder-directeur of the Rijks Prentenkabinet, Amsterdam until 1920, he was afterwards a dealer. Although specialising in early Dutch painting and drawing, the collection sold at Amsterdam, Mensing, Muller, 9-11.IV.1940 included drawings, pictures, porcelain, netsuke etc. He owned a Perronneau, Mme Schepers, in 1923, which was acquired by the Museum Boijmans-Van Beuningen before 1934.

Michel V BÉGON (1638-1710), intendant de Rochefort: in a letter to his friend Cabart de Villermont of 3.IV.1689, he mentions a pastel of Cabart's son, adding that he has several which are "incomparablement plus beaux". No details are given. An earlier letter of 8.II.1689 expresses the hope that the engraver to be sent to Rochefort "sache faire des pastels". Georges Duplessis (1918) suggests that the pastellist was the engraver Lubin (q.v.).
Lit.: Jal 1872, p. 172; [Georges Duplessis], L'Intermédiaire des chercehurs et curieux, LXXVIII, 1918, 413

Martine-Marie Pol, comtesse de BÉHAGUE (1869-1939), traveller, collector and patron of the arts. She married René-Marie-Hector de Galard de Brassac de Béarn (1862-p.1920), lieutenant de cavalerie, in 1890; she brought a dowry of 3.5 million francs. The couple were divorced 1920. She became the muse of Paul Valéry. She lived at the Hôtel de Béhague (now the ambassade de Roumanie), 123 rue St-Dominique, Paris 7e, which she decorated lavishly in the Byzantine style, with other properties such as the château de Fleury-en-Brière and La Polynésie in the Côte d'Azur. In 1909 she donated an Italian frame for the Mona Lisa to the Louvre. An inventory of her wide ranging collections (including pictures by Titian, Watteau, Tiepolo and Fragonard) is in the Bibliothèque Forney. Some of these were inherited by her nephew Hubert, marquis de Ganay (q.v.).
Lit.: Bottin Mondain 1936; Donateurs 1989; Rosenberg 2007
Paris, Drouot-Richelieu, Laurin Guilloux Buffetaud Tailleur, 29.XI.1995

Carlos de BEISTEGUI (1863-1953), member of a Basque family that settled in Mexico and derived its fortune from silver mining. He was a major donor to the Louvre. His nephew Charles de Beistegui (1894-1970), educated at Eton and Cambridge, was a socialite and decorator; he restored the château de Groussay and the Palazzo Labia in Venice, where a celebrated masked ball was held in 1951.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Stourton 2007
Château de Groussay; Sotheby's, 2-6.VI.1999:
Lot 331: Éc. fr., M. & Mme Cayeux; Lot 363: Oudry, paysage

Mademoiselle Eugénie-Marie-Françoise BELLANGER ( –1789), de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, was married Jean Flamant, marchand-mercier. They had four daughters, two minor, at her death.
Paris, Caudin, Remy & Regnault, 21.III.1791 & seq.:
Lot 131: Deux compositions, peintes en pastels, par Guélard: elles offrent divers fruits posés sur des appuis. Hauteur 10 pouces, largeur 12 pouces

Pietro BELLOTTI (1721-c.1800), Venetian landscape painter, active in Toulouse and Lille; lent pastel landscape by his son to the Salon de Toulouse in 1774
Lit.: Sanchez 2004

Otto BEMBERG (1827-1896), Argentine industrialist and brewer of German origin. As consul general in Paris in the mid-19th century he established connections with France which persisted through the succeeding generations. His son owned a La Tour pastel of Mme de Pompadour, his granddaughter married comte Hubert de Ganay (q.v.), while his great-grandson Georges (1915-2011), novellist, musician and collector, established the Fondation Bemberg in Toulouse (q.v. for holdings). A sale of furniture, objets d'art and pictures took place in Paris, Artcurial, 20.VI.2012, and included a pair of pastels signed "De Villeneuve".

Maxim Benediktovich BENEDIKTOV (1884-1937), musician, composer and art expert, Moscow. His fine collection of Dutch paintings, as well as four pastels by Troost and one by Barbier, was confiscated by the state in 1937 when the owner was arrested and shot, and is now in the Pushkin Museum.

Jan Aarnoud BENNET (1758-1828), professeur d'économie rurale à l'université de Leide; his extensive collections of natural history, scientific insturements, engraved stones and pictures were sold p.m., at his home, Leiden, C. C. van der Hoek, 1.iv.1829 & seq.:
p. 126, no. 47: La mere du marin Haen, capitaine de la flotte de l'Amiral de Ruiter, dessin au pastel.
p. 126, no. 48: Portrait d'homme et de femme, au pastel par B. Vaillant 1686.
p. 127, no. 64a: Etude de tête de femme par C. Troost en pastel sur papr. bleu.
p. 127, vol. B, no. 1: Etude de tête de femme, au pastel par de Wit
p. 127, no. 2: Séraphins au pastel par le même
p. 127, no. 4: Tête de Jésus, au pastel par le même
p. 127, no. 2: Tête de la Vierge, au pastel par le même
p. 133, no. 44 Petite tête au pastel 1732.
p. 134, no. 12: Trois dessins au pastel par Troost.
p. 141, Lot 60: Cinq tableaux au pastel, connu sous le nom de NELRI.

Stanislas-Gabriel, baron BENOIST-MÉCHIN (1854-1923), known for his travels in China and the Middle East, father of Jacques Benoist-Méchin.
Lit.: Chaix d'Est-Ange
Paris, Drouot, 7.V.1912

Henri BÉRALDI (1849-1931), bibliophile and print collector, co-author with Roger Portalis (q.v.) of Les Graveurs du xviiie siècle.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Lugt 230; Edward Fenton, "Edwardian Paris", The Metropolitan Museum of Art bulletin, ix/7, .III.1951, pp. 190-96

Pierre-Jacques Onésyme BERGERET DE GRANCOURT (1715-1785), receveur général des finances, trésorier-honoraire de l'ordre de Saint-Louis, honoraire-associé libre 1754, honoraire amateur 1774 de l'Académie royale de peinture, friend and collector of Fragonard.
Lit.: Procès-verbaux
Inventaire p.m., 14.III.1785
Vente p.m., Paris, rue du Temple, Folliot, Delalande, Julliot fils, 24-29.IV.1786:
François Boucher
Lot 135. Une jeune Fille endormie, vue à mi-corps, la tête posee sur un coussin de taffetas bleu, les épaules couvertes d'un mouchoir de gaze, les cheveux tressés & ornés de fleurs. H. 14 po. 6 l., l. 11 po. 6 l. [24 livres]
Lot 136. Une jeune Fille les cheveux ornés de fleurs, ayant un collier de gaze & rubans, vêtue d'un déshabillé rouge, & la main droite posée sur sa poitrine. H. 14 po. 6 l., l. 11 po. 6 l. [24 livres]
Lot 137. Une jeune Fille coiffée en cheveux, vue à mi-corps, la tête posée sur un oreiller de damas vert, & vêtue d'un juste bleu. H. 14 po. 6 l., l. 11 po. 6 l. [59 livres 19]
M. Greuze
Lot 138: Une jeune Femme, vue à mi-corps, la tête de trois quarts, coiffée d'un bonnet & d'une coiffe de mousseline, largement faite au pastel. H. 11 po. 9 l., l. 9 po. [124 livres 1]

Georges BERNHEIM (1893–1963), Paris dealer. A gallery opened in the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1928 with an exhibition of Miró. He was also recorded at 40 rue de la Boétie, 25 avenue Foch, Paris. In 1932 he moved to a new building which he had constructed at 3 rue Dosne. The stock was seized in 1940 by the ERR.

François-Joachim de Pierre, cardinal de BERNIS (1715-1794). Born to a noble but poor family in Nîmes, he was educated at Louis-le-Grand and Saint-Sulpice. He came to attention through his licentious verse, for which he won a seat at the Académie française in 1744, becoming a protégé of Mme de Pompadour. This led to his appointment as amabssador to Venice in 1751. On his return he was appointed ministre des affaires étrangères (1757), but he fell from grace the following year. In 1764 he was appointed archbishop of Albi, and five years later was made a cardinal and French ambassador to the Holy See. His collection was seized in the Revolution: a manuscript catalogue (repr. Lamouzèle 1909) from 1793 included some 126 items, valued at 10,906 livres. Many of the works, including several pastels, are now in the musée des Augustins, Toulouse.
Dictionary, genealogy, Pierre
Catalogue s.d. [1793]:
42: Une Sainte lisant, peint au pastel [Coypel, Héloïse (Toulouse)]
47: La Tête de saint Michel qui est aux Capucins à Rome, peinte en grisaille et au pastel d'après le Guide [crayon noir, sanguine; attr. Mengs; Toulouse]
48: Une Femme drapée faisant pendant, idem [attr. Mengs; Toulouse]
51 et 51: Deux Éruptions de Vésuve, peintes au pastel [Italian sch.; Toulouse]

Marcel BERNSTEIN ( –1896), 47 avenue d'Iéna, a Jewish financier, diamond merchant and oil magnate of Polish origin, and his wife, née Ida Seligman (1854– ), daughter of a Franco-American banker of Bavarian origins; she was a cousin of the Guggenheims. They owned two Russell pastels (Mrs Jordan; Mrs O'Shea) 1894-1924. Manet made a portrait of their 5-year old son, the playwright Henri Bernstein (1876–1953). A cousin of Charles Ephrussi, Henri Bernstein became editor of the Journal des débats.

Samuel Reading BERTRON (1865-1938), of 935 5th Avenue, New York and Roslyn, Long Island, senior partner of the banking firm of Bertron, Griscom & Co., 40 Wall Street. He was vice-president of the War Relief Clearing House for France and her allies. His role in international diplomacy, such as the peace negotiations between Italy and Turkey, led to his being decorated by Belgium, France (Légion d'honneur, 1920), Italy and Romania. He was involved in support for the early Soviet Russia. A friend of Woodrow Wilson and the Roosevelts, he was also a client of René Gimpel, from whom he bought his pictures: "il n'acheta qu'à moi". He lent four pastels to the Metropolitan Museum's 50th anniversary exhibition in 1920; the Perronneau and La Tour were still shown in the Met. in a 1924 guidebook. A few years later, Bertron's firm got into serious financial difficulties and he had to dispose of the collection.
Lit.: Gimpel 1963
Pastels: Greuze [Vigée Le Brun, enfants Caillou]; La Tour, Jullienne; Perronneau, marquise d'Anglure

Paul Albert BESNARD (1849-1934), pastellist, was born into a family of artists. Trained at the École des Beaux-Arts, he won the grand prix de Rome in 1874, and went on to develop a personal style influenced by impressionism. His many honours included membership of the Académie française. He provided the introduction to Georges Wildenstein's La Tour, 1928.
Lit.: R. Marx, The painter Albert Besnard, Paris, 1893; A.-C. Coppier, Les Eaux-fortes de Besnard, Paris, 1920; C. Mauclair, Albert Besnard, Paris, 1924; G. Lecomte, Albert Besnard, Paris, 1925; Lugt 67a; Grove
Paris, Charpentier, 31.V.-1.VI.1934:
Lot 64: La Tour [Éc. fr.], inconnu; Lot 218: Le Brun [Éc. fr.], inconnu

William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of BESSBOROUGH (1704-1793), politician and art collector. He was Liotard's patron, a member of the Society of Dilettanti and of the Accademia di Disegno in Florence, and a trustee the British Museum from 1768. He was cited as a satisfied client in an advertisement for Jurine's method of fixing crayons in the Gazeteer & new daily advertiser, 28.I.1765. His son Frederick, 3rd Earl of Bessborough (1758-1844) inherited financial difficulties, exacerbated by the gambling debts of his wife, Lady Henrietta Spencer, and the picture collection was disposed of in several sales in 1848 and 1850. The contents of Bessborough House in Ireland was sold by Christie's in 1901. Claude A. Ponsonby's sale (London, Christie's, 28.III.1908) included five Liotards. In 1924 the family acquired Stansted Park (v. Museums).
Dictionary, genealogy, Ponsonby
Lit.: Oxford DNB; R&L, pp. 161f, 269; Lord Bessborough, A place in the forest, 1958
A nobleman from the country, London, Christie's, 5-7.V.1796:
Drawings framed and glazed
ROSALBA. Lot 30: Four female heads of the seasons with plate glass, very capital; were painted for an Elector of Cologne, and bought at Monsieur Julien's sale at Paris for 120 guineas [b/i, £7]; Lot 31: Four female heads, small [£12/1/-, b/i]
London, Christie's, 5-7.II.1801:
5.II.1801, Lot 4: Liotard, Two heads in crayons [£6/16/-; Price]
6.II.1801, Lot 1: Liotard, An Hermaphrodite, in crayons [6 gns; Col. —mudes (?)]
7.II.1801:, Lot 6: Rosalba, Four, the Seasons, very capital, 2 h. x 1 ½ w. [23 gns, b/i]; Lot 7: Maternal Felicity, highly finished, 2 ½ h. x 2 w.; [There are those wd give 1000 Gs for 1 sh Boy!; 15 gns; Duke of St Albans]; Lot 11: Liotard, A Lady at Tambour-work, very highly finished [7 gns; Duff]; Lot 75: A Lady and Child at Breakfast, in crayons, an inimitable performance [Déjeuner Lavergne; 85 gns; Duke of St Albans]
London, Christie's, 7.IV.1801:
Lot 66: Carriera, Portrait of a lady [Head of a Suijes, annotation in Christie's copy; £15/5/-; Duke of St Albans]
London, Christie's, 10.VII.1850:
Lot 13: Liotard, Acmet Pacha, in crayons [Bonneval; 11/-; Rodel]; Lot 23: Portrait of Liotard, by himself, in crayons [7/-; Graves]; Lot 34: Portrait of Liotard in a red cap, in crayons [£2; Lord De Manley]

Julien BESSONNEAU (1842-1916) industrialised the family hemp and rope-making business Bessonneau Angers into a major enterprise which finally closed in 1966. He was also involved in the Cie Anjou Aéronautique The collection of old master and modern pictures auctioned in 1954 is from a subequent generation, possibly the député Julien Bessonneau (1880-1960).
Lit.: Jacques Bouvet, "Julien Bessonneau fils (1880-1960): fortune et infortune d'un industriel angevin", Archives d'Anjou, 1997
Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Rheims, 15.VI.1954:
Lot 71: Nattier, duchesse d'Orléans; Lot 72: Perronneau, homme

Dr Theodore Deodatus Nathaniel BESTERMAN (1904-1976), bibliographer, publisher, expert on Voltaire and psychic research. He established the musée Voltaire in Les Délices, later returning to England where he established the Voltaire Foundation. He owned pastels by Knapton (Pope) and Gardner.

Jean BEURDELEY (1772-1853), a soldier under Napoléon, opened a magasin de curiosités in Paris, moving in 1830 to the Pavillon de Hanovre, 28 boulevard des Italiens which remained the firm's premises until 1894. His son Louis-Auguste-Alfred Beurdeley (1808-1882) was both a dealer in antiques and objets d'art as well as an ébéniste of distinction, numbering Napoleon III and Eugénie among his clients. His illegitimate son Alfred II-Emmanuel Louis Beurdeley (1847-1919) managed the firm from 1875 until his retirement in 1895, when he devoted himself entirely to his prodigious collections housed at his hôtel in the rue de Clichy. He amassed over 1300 drawings, 28,000 prints as well as furniture and an important collection of Chinese porcelain, later dispersed in numerous sales from 1905 to 1920. He left Fr25,000 to the musée des Arts décoratifs in Paris.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Lugt 421, 421S; Bernard Dorival, "La saga Beurdeley (1814-1919)", Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de l'art français, 1989, pp. 191-239; Gimpel 1963; Grove
Paris, 29-30.III.1853:
Lot 79: La Tour, inconnue
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 13-15.III.1905.
Paris, 6-7.V.1920:
Lot 165: La Tour, homme
Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil, Baudoin, Féral, Paulme, 8-10.VI.1920:
Lot 137: Éc. fr. [Ducreux], femme; Lot 251: Nanteuil, homme; Lot 266: Perronneau, marquise d'Entremaux
Paris, 30.XI.-2.XII.1920:
Callet, 2 pstls

Étienne-Edmond Martin, baron de BEURNONVILLE (1825-1906), son of Étienne, baron de Martin-Beurnonville (1789-1876), nephew of the marquis de Beurnonville, and his wife Colette, sister of Frédéric Reiset (q.v.) of the Louvre. Étienne-Edmond formed an important collection of more than 1000 paintings (including works by Rembrandt, Chardin, F.-H. Drouais, Mme de Pompadour, etc.), drawings, sculpture etc.; dispersed in numerous sales between 1872 and 1906.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Grove 1996; R. Herlequin, "Les Beurnonville", Cah. Haut-Marnais, lvii, 1959, pp. 66-78
Paris, 15.IV.1844:
Lot 85: La Tour, Marie-Thérèse
Paris, Drouot, Pillet, 9-16.V.1881:
Lot 88: Greuze, prière; Lot ?: Greuze, dame; La Tour, Lot 122: Buffon [Duval de l'Épinoy], Mme de Pompadour en bergère
Paris, 21-22.V.1883:
Lot 26: La Tour, L'artiste en gilet rouge, habit violet, de ¾ vers la g. [Fr1475]; Lot 33: Perronneau, ?Mme Favart, rubans roses aux cheveux, collier de perles, robe bleue en soie borchée
Paris; 3.VI.1884:
Lot 438: La Tour, inconnue; Lot 439: La Tour, Voltaire
Paris, Drouot, Delestre, 16-19.II.1885:
École française, XVIIIe siècle
Lot 438: Portrait de Mozart enfant. Il est représenté à mi-corps, jouant du piano, en habit rouge, les cheveux relevés et poudrés, pastel, 0.565x0.465 [FFr105; G.U. B–]
Lot 439: Jeune femme en buste, d'aprs Boucher. Pastel, 0.475x0.400. [FFr80]
La Tour?
Lot 441: Homme en bonnet rouge, en buste de face et dirigé à droite, bonnet et habit rouges, bordé de fourrures, 56x42
Lot 442: Homme en buste, à gauche, perruque poudrée avec nœud en rubans tombant sur le cou, cravate et jabot blanc avec gilet rouge, habit bleu, 54x44
Lot 451: Rosalba Carriera, Portrait de Gilles-Marie Oppenor. En buste, dirigé à gauche, un bonnet de soie doublé, manteau à revers brodés, pastel, 0.47x0.34. [FFr10]

Harry BEYER ( –2012), antiques dealer, Salvatorstraße, Munich. He bequeathed his collections, including pictures, Fabergé etc. to the Bayerische Museum in Munich; unwanted items were sold by Ketterer Kunst, 15.V.2013 and included a pastel possibly by Darbes.

Jacques-Claude de BÈZE de Lys (1713-1775), conseiller au parlement de Paris; he married Marie-Thérèse Dezallier d'Argenville, daughter of Antoine-Joseph (q.v.).
Paris, Remy, 3.IV.1775 & seq.:
Lot 126: Un portrait de femme vue de trois quarts, par Rosalba Cariera. Ce morceau est de forme ovale. Hauteur 2 pouces 4 lignes, largeur 19 lig. [20 livres; Gros]
Lot 128: [Anon.]: Une tête de vieillard vu de trois quarts & regardent en haut. Ce tableau ragoûtant est au pastel. Hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 11 pouces 6 lignes [30 livres; Deumery?]

Pierre BEZINE (fl. a.1927), collector of pictures and drawings.
Bruxelles, Fievez, 14-15.VI.1927:
Lot 225: Russell, Blackburn

Jean-Paul BIGNON (1662-1743), abbé, prédicateur du roi, de l'Académie française 1693, was one among several members of the family to be appointed garde de la bibliothèque du roi (1719-41); he was also a conseiller amateur de l'Académie royale de peinture in 1709. His nephew Armand-Jérôme Bignon (1711-1772), also an academician and bibliothécaire du roi, was an art collector.
Lit.: Procès-verbaux
Paris, Remy, .XII.1772:
Deux Bustes de femmes en pastel d'après Fr. Boucher, par Merelle, sous verre, Bordure dorée [36 frs 14]

Pierre-Marie-Sébastien, baron BIGOT DE MOROGUES (1776-1840), from Orléans, politician, agriculturist, mineralogist. He presented a Coypel Autoportrait to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Orléans, in 1825.
Lit.: Klinka-Ballesteros 2005

Martin BIRNBAUM (1878-1970), lawyer, violinist, translator, connoisseur, collector and art dealer; he advised Winthrop (q.v.) on his collection. He gave a Pillement naufrage to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York in 1956.

Guillaume de Gontaut-Biron, marquis de BIRON (1859-1939), of Paris, later Geneva, collector, particularly of French and Italian drawings; he also had a particular interest in frames. Son of Élie, vicomte de Gontaut (1817-1890), ambassadeur de France à Berlin in the 1870s; Biron's sister, Marie de Gontaut-Biron (1847- ) married, in 1876, Archambaud, 3e marquis de Talleyrand; his nephew Hélie, 7e duc de Talleyrand (1882-1968), inherited his uncle's collection of drawings by Tiepolo and Guardi, furniture and ceramics. Under Biron's tutellage, he too became a renowned connoisseur and artistic adviser to a number of wealthy collectors. A sale took place 34 years after his death.
Lit.: Seymour de Ricci 1914; Seligman 1961; J. Byam Shaw, "The Biron collection of Venetian eighteenth-century drawings at the Metropolitan Museum", Metropolitan Museum journal, iii, 1970, pp. 235-58; Donateurs 1989; Céline Lefranc, "Souvenirs du duc de Talleyrand", Connaissance des arts, 633, .XI.2005, pp. 68-73
Paris, Chevallier, 29.III.1900:
Lot 38: Fragonard, L'Amour de l'or
Paris, Georges Petit, 9-11.VI.1914:
Lot 37: La Tour, Mme Dorizon, préparation; Lot 38: La Tour, Dumont le romain, préparation; Lot 39: La Tour, Étude de mains; Lot 55: Roslin, duchesse de Choiseul

André-Gaspard Parfait Prunelé, comte de BIZEMONT (1752-1837), soldier, politician and amateur artist, pupil of Cochin. He founded the école de dessin d'Orléans with Desfriches, and in 1824 he established and became first conservateur of the musée in Orléans.
Lit.: Émile Davoust, Le comte de Bizemont, artiste-amateur orléannais, son œuvre et ses collections, Orléans, 1891; Lugt 128; Klinka-Ballesteros 2005

BLAISOT (fl. Paris c.1820-70), dealer in drawings, prints and maps; no doubt a descendant of the Pierre Blaizot, libraire-géographe de Marie-Antoinette. After his death the business was continued briefly by his son.
Lit.: Lugt 263
Paris, 22-23.XII.1890
Lots 30, 31: La Tour, inconnus

Charles BLANC (1813-1882), art historian.
Pastel: La Tour, autoportrait [pastiche, (Uffizi)]

Émile BLOCH (fl. 1927) owned a Lenoir pastel (Mme Bose) in 1927. An Arthur Bloch lent a Perronneau (Fontenelles) to the Bruxelles 1904 exhibition. A M. Bloch owned a Nanteuil (Condé), sold in 1905.

William Tilden BLODGETT (1823-1875), one of the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Lit.: Robert W. de Forest, "William Tilden Blodgett", The Metropolitan Museum of Art bulletin, i/3, .II.1906, pp. 37-42
Pastels: La Tour, Laideguive

Augustin BLONDEL DE GAGNY (1695-1776), intendant des menus-plaisirs du roi, owner of one of the most important private picture collections in Paris of his time, inherited by his son Barthélémy-Augustin Blondel d'Azincourt (1719-1794), also a collector, and an honorary member of the Paris and Marseille académies.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Inv. p.m., AN lvii, 529, 17.IX.1776; Hébert 1766, I, pp. 36-81; L. Clément de Ris, Les Amateurs d'autrefois, Paris, 1877, pp. 342-58; Bailey 1987; Grove 1996; Bailey 1999
Paris, Remy, 18.IV.1770 & seq.:
Lot 31: Deux Bustes de femmes, peints en pastel par M. Boucher; l'une vue de face, posée sur un oreiller; l'autre est une Dormeuse aussi sur oreiller [La Voluptueuse & La Dormeuse], 14 p. 6 x 11p. 6 [54/?34 livres]; Lot 32: Deux autres Bustes de jeunes Femmes en pastel, par le même; chaque morceau porte 11 pouces de haut sur 8 pouces de large [28 livres 1 sol; Remy pour M.de Bandeville]; Lot 63b: … & un autre dessein de deux têtes d'enfans, au pastel, par M. Natoire [8 livres; Remy]
Paris, Place Vendôme, Remy, 10.XII.1776 - 22.I.1777:
33: Carriera, Une femme plus qu'à mi-corps, habillée richement à l'ancienne mode, elle a les mains gantées & tient un éventail [?miniature; 58 livres 1 sol; Legere]
Tableaux en pastel
372. Un buste de femme, par Joseph Vivien: ce morceau est de forme ovale, il porte 2 pieds de haut, sur 1 pied 8 pouces de large. [82.1; de Besse]
373. [Boucher] Une Vénus à mi-corps vue de trois quarts, & tenant une colombe: hauteur 22 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 18 pouces. [39; de Besse]
374. Le buste de Flore, par François Boucher, & celui d'une jeune femme jouant de la harpe, par Deschamps; ces deux morceaux ont beaucoup de mérite & chacun porte 26 pouces de haut, sur 22 pouces de large. [?78; Joubert de Hontigny]
375. Le portrait de Mademoiselle Riviere, danseuse, par F. Boucher [35.19]
376. Un buste de femme tenant un pigeon, dans le goût de Boucher: hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12 pouces. [150.10; Le Brun]
377. Un portrait de femme, de maître inconnu. [20.4; Paillet]
378. Le portrait de Madame la Marquise de Pompadour. [37.2; Paillet]
379. Le buste d'homme ayant un bonnet sur sa tête, par Coypel: hauteur 14 pouces, largeur 11 pouces. [16]
1101. Le buste d'une jeune musicienne; hauteur 13 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 10 pouces 6 lignes, sous verre & bordure dorée. [13.10; Villercy]
1102. Un autre buste de femme: hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12 pouces. [9 livres; Villercy]
1103. Une aimable femme en habit de cavalier; hauteur 24 pouces, largeur 19 pouces. [12.12 livres; Brisson]
Paris, Alexandre-Joseph Paillet, 10-27.II.1783.

Louis-Jean-André-Hubert van den BOGAERDE (1778-1855), from Bruges.
Brugge, Hauw, 17.X.1827:
Lot 2: [Anon.]: Quatre petits paysages, en pastel, dans des cadres ovales; Lot 4: [Anon.]: Quatre paysages, en pastel; Lot 5: [Anon.]: Quatre idem [Paysages], dito [en pastel]; Lot 6: [Anon.]: Deux idem [Paysages], dito [en pastel]

F. BOHLER (fl. a.1906): no biographical information is provided in Hippolyte Buffenoir's introduction to the sales catalogue. He may be Friedrich Böhler, the luxury item shopkeeper and dealer in antique Meerschaum pipes at Zeil 54, Frankfurt-am-Main. Several dealers were based in Munich: Karl Fischer-Böhler, at Residenzstr. 10, and Julius(q.v.).
Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Roblin, 23.II.1906:
Lot 11: Boze, jeune femme 1792; Lot 18: La Tour, Pommyer, préparation; Lot 27: Perronneau [Allais], Mlle La Roche; Lots 36, 37: Éc. fr., 2 inconnues

Julius BÖHLER (1860-1934), established a gallery in Munich (Briennerstraße 25), around 1880, later managed by his younger son Otto Alfons and grandson Julius Harry (1907-1979). His elder son Julius Wilhelm ( -1966) founded a firm with Fritz Steinmeyer in Luzern c.1920, later with branches in New York and Berlin.

Nicolas-Francois-Jacques BOILEAU (1720-1785), Paris art dealer.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

Jules BOILLY (1796-1874), peintre, son of Louis-Léopold Boilly.
Paris, 19-20.III.1869:
Lot 154: La Tour, Capucin

Symphorien-Casimir-Joseph BOITTELLE [Boitelle] (1813-1897), sénateur, préfet de police de Paris 1858; in 1845 he married a cousin of Baron Haussmann.
Paris, Drouot, 24-25.IV.1866:
La Tour, Lot 71: Cupis; Lot 79: auto
Paris, Pillet, 10-11.I.1867:
Lot 112: La Tour, Cupis
Paris, Pillet, Haro, 2.IV.1874:
Lot 15: Ducreux, auto
Paris, Duchesne, 13.III.1891:
Lot 7: Ducreux, auto

Jean BONNA (1945- ), Swiss banker, bibliophile and collector of drawings from the 15th to the 20th centuries; two large collections were exhibited in 2006.
Lit.: Paris 2006d; Paris 2006e
Pastels: Barocci, jeune femme; Chardin, garçon; & jeune fille; Ducreux, inconnu; Éc. fr., inconnue

François-Armand d'Usson, marquis de BONNAC (1716-1778), soldier, diplomat, amateur artist, owner of one of the most important collections of sea shells of his time.
Dictionary, artists; essay

[?BONNEMET]
Paris, Dufrancastel, 28-30.I.1772:
Tableaux... peints tant sur toile, bois, que pastel:
Lot 37: Un Tableau oval peint par Mignard, représentant une femme [36 livres]
[Anon.] Lot 40: Deux portraits ovales, l'un représentant une Vestale voilée, & l'autre une Femme tenant une rose [40 livres]
Lot 41: Deux autres de même forme, représentant des Femmes tenant des chien & chat [40 livres 1 sol]
Lot 42: Deux autres, portraits de Femme, de forme quarrée, avec de petits chapeaux [24 livres 2 sols]
Lot 43: Quatre Tableaux de fruits. seize pouces de large sur treize de haut [30 livres]
Lot 44: Quatre pots de fleurs peints sur vélin [24 livres]
Lot 47: Un autre, de trente-trois pouces de haut, représentant un Vielleux [10 livres 10 sols]
Lot 48: Quatre petits Tableaux, de trois pouces & demi sur quatre pouces & demi, représentant des Paysages [11 livres]
Lot 49: Six Tableaux, de huit pouces de haut sur six de large, représentant des fruits, insectes & fleurs [9 livres 5 sols]

Louis-Marin BONNET (1736-1793), engraver.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, Pierre-Michel-Louis Blondel, François-Léandre Regnault Delalande, 7.XI.1793:
Lot 46: Douze Pastels & Dessins, d'après la Rosalba, le Prince, &c.

Vicomte Anatole-Fernand de BONNEVAL (1838-1911), chef de bataillon au 65e d'Infanterie, député de l'Indre 1885-91.
Pastels: Perronneau, femme

Jean-Constant-Denis-James-Edmond BORTHON (1825-1889), collector from Dijon, chåteau de Prauthoy. His collection of some 100 pictures, mostly modern but also including works by Chardin, Fragonard, Prud'hon etc., was published in 1890; it passed to his son-in-law, Raoul Broch d'Hotelans (1853-1926), of the château de Novillars, near Besançon; the former cavalry officer was maire de Novillars, and the widower of Marie-Alexandrine-Françoise-Edith Borthon (1855-1890). The chalk drawing of a woman, catalogued with reservations as by La Tour, was evidently too late to be by him.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Catalogue des tableaux et objets d'art de la collection E. Borthon, Dijon, 1890, introduction H. Chabon.
No. 48: La Tour, attr., femme; no. 81: Nattier, Grassin

Bottollier, v. Lasquin

Étienne BOUCHARDY (1799-1849), miniaturist and pastellist, son of a pastellist and miniaturist specialising in physionotraces.
Vente p.m., Paris, 14.V.1850:
p. 3: Environ 20 pastels par La Tour et Sicardi

François BOUCHER (1703-1770), peintre.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m.: Paris, Vieux Louvre, 18.II.-9.III.1771 [produced 98,829 livres in total]:
François Boucher
Lot 355: Le buste d'une jeune fille, en pastel; celui d'un jeune homme, à la pierre noire, & au crayon blanc; une étude de trois figures à mi-corps, avec l'estampe qu'en gravé Demarteau. [50 livres 1 sol]
Lot 360: Un autre buste de femme, plus grand que le précédent, vu de profil & fait au pastel [80 livres 1 sol]
Lot 361: Boucher: Un buste & une tête de femme, l'une & l'autre vus de face, en pastel sur vélin [168 livres 1 sol]
Lot 365 bis: Venus, figure debout, elle regarde deux tourterelles. Ce dessein plein d'agrément est à la sanguine & un peu de pastel sur papier bleu [144 livres 1 sol]

Claude BOUCOT ( -1699), avocat, receveur des domaines et octrois, conseiller secrétaire du roi, garde des rôles des offices de France. His extensive collection of some 70,000 prints and drawings included a number of sheets in portfolios described simply as "pastel", by artists including Dumonstier, Champaigne, Porbus, Giuseppino etc. They are not catalogued in the Dictionary.
Lit.: Martin 1913

Charles-Godefroy de La Tour d'Auvergne, 5e duc de BOUILLON (1706-1771).
Dictionary, genealogy, La Tour d'Avergne
Paris, Remy, 1772 [dates n/k]:
Lot 49: [Anon.] Deux petits tableaux pastels representant des Nimphes de flore ornés de guirlandes de fleurs et d'un chapeau de paille sur la tête. 60 livres 2 sols

André-Charles I BOULLE (1642-1732), ébéniste. Pastels featured in several of his inventories: in an acte de délaissement, 6.X.1715, "13 pastels de Nanteuil en bordure avec des glaces, 280 livres, 39 sans bordure, 390 livres"; inv. après l'indendie de 1720, "Trois portefeuilles de portraits en pastel de Janet, de Dumoutier, Gribelin, Nanteuil et autres maistres". His inv. p.m., 11.III.1732 included the following:
13. Un portrait en pastelle de Monseigneur dans une bordure de bois en feuilles de choux, 6 livres
66. Un pacquet de soixante portraits au crayon et au pastel, avec quelques études de drapperies dessinés par Mellan originaux, 12 livres
69. Deux tableaux en pastel avec des glaces en bordures dorées portraits du roy Louis XIV et de la Reine de Mr de Nanteüil, 15 livres
70. Un portrait en pastel de Louis XIV en bordure dorée avec une verre devant cassé, 6 livres
71. Un petit portrait en pastel plus petit de Louis XIV en rabat, dans une bordure dorée avec un verre par Nanteuil, 3 l. 10 s.
77. Trois portraits en pastelle et bordure dorée avec leurs verres devant, 12 livres
89. Un portrait aux pastelle de Mr Colbert fait par Mr Le Brun dans sa bordure de bois garny d'une glace devant, 100 s.
90. Un portrait aux pastelles de Mr Champaigne par le mesme en bordure avec une glace, 100 s.

Louis de BOULLONGNE (1654-1733), premier peintre du roi 1725, secrétaire du roi, directeur de l'Académie royale. His son, Jean de Boullongne (c.1690-1769), contrôleur général des finances, conseiller amateur de l'Académie royale de peinture 1734, possessed the two Rosalbas that belonged to de Morville; they were the highlights of his collection, according to Dumesnil 1858, III, p. 369. His son was Jean-Nicolas de Boullongne, comte de Nogent-sur-Seine (1726-1787), maître des requêtes, honoraire-associé libre 1760, honoraire amateur 1777 de l'Académie royale de peinture.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Procès-verbaux
Paris, Georges Bizet, Folliot, 8-12.V.1787; 19-24.XI.1787:
Lot 13: Carriera, 2 pendants [re-presented 2.V.1791; 6.I.1794]

Georges BOURGAREL (?1857-1920), collector of XVIIIe drawings.
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreil, 15-16.VI.1922:
Lot 84: Fragonard, L'Amour de l'or
Paris, Drouot, 13-15.XI.1922:
Lot 69: Bréhan, a/r Fragonard, Buste de vieillard à la tocque

Claude BOURGELAT (Lyon 1712 – Paris 1779), auteur, véterinaire. His posthumous inventory, 3.i.1779, included "Trois têtes en pastel sous verre blanc avec cadre de bois doré"; "un tableau représentant Louis Quinze en pastel fixé sous verre et dans sa bordure dorée"; and "dix autres petits tableaux de pastel fixés sous verre avec bordure dorée".
Lit.: Hugues Plaideux, "L'inventaire après décès de Claude Bourgelat", Bulletin de la Société française de l'histoire de la médecine et des sciences véterinaires, 2010, X, pp. 121-54

Sir Francis BOURGEOIS (1756-1811), art dealer and collaborator with Noel Desenfans (1744-1807), who assembled a collection of over 180 pictures for Stanislaw August Poniatowski between 1790 and the king's abdication in 1795. Bourgeois's collection of some 370 pictures was eventually bequeathed to Dulwich College.
Lit.: Beresford 1998; G. A. Waterfield, in Houston 1999
Pastels: Bacciarelli, 2 pstls

[?Antoine] BOURLAT DE MONTREDON ( -1777), amateur and collector, from Carcassone. He was the brother and heir of Pierre-Louis Bourlat (another brother, Arnaud, was based in Marseille), and a cousin of the financier Guillaume Castanier d'Auriac. He spent some 40 years in Constantinople before returning to France. The Italian school was well represented in his sale.
Lit.: Lugt 248; Pierre-Augustin Guys, Voyage littéraire de la Grèce, 1783, I, pp. 312ff
Vente p.m., Paris, Joullain fils, 16.III.-1.IV.1778:
Lot 27: Vénus d'après le Titien, sous glace ; hauteur 16 pouc. 6 lignes, largeur 24 pouces [48 livres 1]
Lot 28: Deux têtes de femmes d'après la Dlle. Rosalba; hauteur 12 pouces, largeur 10 pouces [20 livres 19]

Jacques-Auguste BOUSSAC (1885-1962), industriel, collectionneur de dessins anciens
Lit.: Lugt 729b
Paris, Georges Petit, 10-11.V.1926, Lot 222: Russell Mrs Lushington

Léon BOUSSOD (1826-1896), probably the dealer who sold a Perronneau, Van Robais, to Leopold Goldschmidt. He took over the business of Goupil & Cie (q.v.) in 1879 with another relative, René Valadon, to form Boussod, Valadon & Co. Based in Paris, they had offices in New York, London, Berlin, Brussels and The Hague. Léon's four children included Étienne (1857-1918), who married the daughter of the painter Gérôme and his wife (herself a daughter of Goupil), Jean, also in the firm, and two sisters who married Valadon and Léon Avril. The members of the firm changed from time to time.

Michel BOUVARD DE FOURQUEUX (1719-1789), procureur-général aux comptes, intendant des finances, contrôleur-général des finances 1787-88. According to his estate inventory, there were 14 pastels in the chambre à coucher. A witness at Perronneau's marriage, he remained in correspondence with him and no doubt commissioned the portraits of his daughter and son-in-law Trudaine de Montigny exhibited in 1763.
Lit.: Bonfait 1988

Denys Eyre BOWER (1905-1977), dealer and collector with a somewhat colourful private life. He acquired Chiddingstone Castle in 1956 and bequeathed it to the National Trust who refused the bequest; it is now owned by a private trust together with much of his extensive collections of Japanese, Egyptian and 17th century English antiquities.
London, Christie's, 5.VI.2006, Lot 52: Wright, woman

John BOWES (1811-1885), illegitimate son of the 10th Earl of Strathmore, and his wife, Joséphine-Benoîte Coffin-Chevallier (1825-1874), actress and artist, founded the Bowes Museum (q.v. for holdings of pastels). The collecton was largely assembled in the 12 years before her death while the couple lived in Paris.
Lit.: Caroline Chapman, John & Joséphine. The creation of the Bowes Museum, Durham, 2010

Mrs Victor BOWRING-HANBURY, née Ellen Knott-Hamilton (c.1861-1931), married 1o Robin William Hanbury, 2o Victor Bowring, who added the name Hanbury to his own by deed-pole in 1904; a law suit concerning her first husband's estate was heard in the House of Lords. After her death part of the collection was sold anonymously in London by Puttick & Simpson, 31.V.1932; it included numerous English and continental portraits, among them some ten pastels by Dunkarton, Gainsborough Dupont, Hickel, Hurter, King and Morland.

Jean-Baptiste-Laurent BOYER DE FONSCOLOMBE (1716-1788), lawyer and collector.
Dictionary, genealogy
Paris, Le Brun, 18.I.1790 & seq.
Lot 224: Quatre morceaux, ... une Junon au pastel par Taraval.

Mlle Victoire Ursule Madeleine BOZE (1781-p.1866), daughter of the pastellist, she was also an artist; she left her father's autoportrait to the Louvre.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Gerrit, or Gerret, BRAAMCAMP (1699-1771), Amsterdam merchant and collector, particularly of Dutch 17th century paintings and drawings.
Sale: Amsterdam, Van der Schley, Yver, 31.VII.1771
Lit.: Jean-François de Bastide, Le Temple des arts ou le cabinet de M. Braamcamp, Amsterdam, 1766
Pastels: Xavery, Mme Monti; turc

Hector BRAME (1831-1899) began his career as an actor, but became a picture dealer, at 47 rue Taibout, Paris from 1864. He sometimes worked in association with Goupil & Cie. His son, Hector-Gustave (1866-1936), moved the gallery to 3 rue Laffitte in 1892; later, when the firm merged with that of Jean Lorenceau, Brame & Lorenceau was located at 68, boulevard Malesherbes, Paris 8e. Brame was especially associated with Degas. According to Gimpel, he was "un original, qui ne montre ses tableaux qu'aux gens dont la figure lui plaît".
Lit.: Gimpel 1923; Donateurs 1989

Walter A. BRANDT (1902-1978), a member of banking and trading family of German origin which was based in the City of London from the 1920s. Starting in the 1940s he amassed a large collection of British drawings and watercolours which was partly dispersed in a sale in London, Sotheby's, 7.VII.2011 (the catalogue includes a biography). Pastels included works by or attributed to Downman, Lawrence, Russell and Tomkins.

Edward BRANDUS (1857-1939), New York dealer in modern and old master pictures.
Lit.: "The Brandus Gallery", The art collector, 1898, ix/2, p. 22
New York, Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, 29-30.III.1905:
Lot 122: Ducruex, Marie-Antoinette
New York, Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, 12-14.III.1906:
Lot 31: La Tour, comtesse de Bermont

Mme J. BRASSEUR ( –a.1928), de Lille, presumably related to the Antoine Brasseur (1819–1886), an art dealer from Lille active in Köln; he made a significant donation to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille. Her large collection of miniatures, pictures, ceramics, objets d'art etc. was dispersed in two sales (1919, 1920), followed by a posthumous sale in 1928.
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, Desvouges, 13.III.1920:
Lot 13: Duplessis, Gluck
Vente succession, Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil, 1.VI.1928:
Lot 3: Boucher, Le départ

Anne-Marie de BRAUWERE (fl. a.1831), possibly Mme Jean-Baotiste Wielmaecker, née Anne-Amrie de Brauwere (1753–1831).
Brugge, 20.IX.1831:
Lot 25: [Anon.:] Deux pastels

Bihi-Amalric, comte de BRÉHAN (1734-c.1810sp), maître de camp aux dragons, chambellan du roi Stanislas 1757, honoraire-associé libre 1781, honoraire amateur 1787 de l'Académie royale de peinture; brother of the amateur pastellist, marquis de Bréhan (q.v.).
Lit.: Procès-verbaux

Jacques-Laure Le Tonnelier, bailli de BRETEUIL (1722-1785), amateur and collector; subject of a pastel by La Tour. His first collection was sold in Paris, 9-20.VI.1760 to fund the expenses of his embassy to the Vatican 1758-77, but he formed a second collection in Rome.
Lit.: Michel 2008, p. 145
Pastels: Carriera

BRETONVILLE (fl. a.1872):
Paris, Pillet, Féral, Mannheim, 5-7.II.1872:
Lot 18: La Tour, inconnu

Henri BREUIL (1877-1961), historien, amateur dijonnais, bequests in 1972 of XVIIIe pictures to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, and of manuscripts, drawings, prints and war-time photographs to the bibliothèque de Dijon.
Lit.: Dijon 1973
Pastels: Mme Gault de Saint-Germain, jeune femme

Gaston BRIÈRE (1871-1962) taught at the École du Louvre 1911-38, and was conservateur au musée de Versailles 1933-38 in succession to Pierre de Nolhac and André Pératé. During the war, he was in charge of the national museum depositary at the château de Brissac. His wife (married 1925), Clotilde Brière-Misme (1889-1970), worked at the bibliothèque Jacques Doucet to which she left an important bequest in the 1960s. Brière left two pastels by Bornet to the Louvre.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Claire Bonnotte, Les Nouvelles de l'INHA, 23, .XI.2005

Alexandre-Théodore BRONGNIART (1739-1813), an important architect, was also an art collector. He was connected with pastellists including Voiriot and Vigée Le Brun.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Paris 1986
Paris, Boileau, Paillet, 22.III.1792 & seq.:
Greuze
Lot 30: Une autre belle Tête peinte au pastel, étude pour son sujet de la cruche cassée. Haut. 17 p. larg.13
Lot 31: Une autre Etude aussi buste de Femme, peinte au pastel, caractérisant la volupté. Haut. 17 p. larg 13.
Ces deux derniers morceaux proviennent de la grande vente de M. Randon de Boisset. Voyez le catalogue [400 livres]
Fragonard
Lot 35: Une tête de jeune Femme couronnée de fleurs, très-belle Etude faite au pastel. Haut. 24. p. larg. 20
Lot 36: Une belle autre tête de Vieille Femme, aussi peinte au pastel. Haut. 14 p. larg. 20
Beaudoin [Baudouin] - [Dessins sous Verres.]
Lot 88: Une esquisse dessinée mêlée de pastel, représentant la mort de Virginie. Haut 15 p., larg. 12

François-Louis BROSSARD DE BEAULIEU (1727-1810), painter and father of the portraitist Marie-Renée-Geneviève (q.v.) who bought the three anonymous pastels in his posthumous sale.
Paris, Jean-Ferdinand Olivier, 15.IX.1810:
Lot 69: [Anon.] Trois tableaux pastels et autres art [6 frs 95; Brossard de Beaulieu]

BROSSAYS.
Paris, Bonnefons Amaury, George, 21-23.III.1839:
Lot 75: La Tour, femme allaitant son enfant [Fr75] [?Labille-Guiard, Mme Mitoire]

Heinrich Reichsgraf von BRÜHL (1700-1763), kursächsische Premierminister; amassed a vast collection of pictures, sculpture, porcelain, natural history specimens and books. Visiting count Brühl's palace in Dresden during his tour of Germany c.1749, Thomas Nugent noted the "drawing-room, empannelled with looking-glasses, adorned with rich paintings" and the separate "cabinet furnished with enamels and crayons". After his death Catherine II aquired his collection of works on paper - some 1076 drawings and 31,569 prints - together with some 600 of his paintings.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Thomas Nugent, The grand tour..., London, 2nd ed., 1756, II, p. 265; Tobias Burg, "Two works by Chardin in the collection of Count Heinrich von Brühl", Burlington magazine, cl, .VIII.2008, pp. 529-33

Dominique-Vivant, baron BRUNET-DENON (1779-1846), nephew and heir of baron Vivant Denon (v. Dictionary, artists).
Lit.: Lugt 779
Vente p.m., Paris, 2-15.II.1846:
Lot 181: Boucher, Tête de jeune fille gracieusement couchée sur un oreiller, dessin à plusieurs crayons mêlés de pastel; Lot 409: La Tour, femme

Alberto BRUNI TEDESCHI (1915-1996), industrialist and composer, Castello di Castagneto Po.
London, Sotheby's, 21.III.2007:
Lot 62: Nogari, 2 pendants

Galerie Charles BRUNNER, 11, rue Royale, Paris: dealers who organised the Paris 1911 exhibition of English pastellists. They handled several pastels by John Russell.

Bruno, v. Castel

Tønnes Christian BRUUN DE NEERGAARD (1776-1824), gentilhomme de la chambre du roi de Danemarck, Danish patron, collector, author and amateur artist, honorary member of the Swedish academy of arts. He travelled widely throughout Europe, but settled in Paris. His sale of gouaches and drawings included a number of pastels and drawings with pastel.
Paris, hôtel de Bullion, Gendron, Regnault-Delalande, 29.VIII.1814 & seq.:
45. Jeune Garçon vu à mi-corps, un panais à la main: Morceau peint en pastel. F. Boucher, 1738. Haut. 6 l., Larg. 9 p. [sic]
436. Mariage de la Vierge, et Liseuse, par les Coypel, touchés au pastel [avec 16 autres dessins].
438. Tête d'enfant, pastel par N. Mignard. Adoration des Rois; etc. par Natoire. [21 Pastels et Dessins, les deux premiers Morceaux sous verre].
439. Vierge à genoux sur les nuages, par Vanloo, touché au pastel [avec 17 autres dessins].
440. Tête de femme, par Hall, touché au pastel [avec 6 autres dessins].
441. Deux têtes de femmes, pastel par Merelle [avec 13 autres dessins].
443. Moyse sauvé des eaux; Achille reconnu; et huit autres Compositions et Etudes, par Mr. Callet. Alexandre et Diogène, apr Mr David. Cet article contient 12 Dessins. (Une des Etudes est en pastel, et une sous verre.)
446. Diane et Endymion; Tête de femme, par Mme Le Brun; 7 autres dessins [1 pastel, sous verre; 8 dessins].

Jan de BRUIJN (1681-1742), art dealer in Amsterdam, the subject of a pastel by Troost, collected a number of his genre scenes, which passed to Jan Jacob de Bruyn.
Vente p.m.: Amsterdam, van der Schley, 12.IX.1798

Louis-Maurice BRUZARD (1777-1838), économe du collége Louis le Grand, author of a catalogue of the lithographs of Horace Vernet (1826). In addition to collecting original drawings, he also made copies. There were some 330 lots of drawings in his posthumous sale, as well as more than 12,000 lithographs.
Lit.: Laran, Inventaire du fonds français après 1800, Paris, 1930-
Vente p.m., Paris, Ridel, 23-26.IV.1839:
Lot 58: Chardin, autoportraits [R&T 194, 197, 198]; Lot 244: Prud'hon, Mayer

Jacques-Jean-Baptiste Desmier d'Archiac, comte de BRYAS (1851-1915): born to an established family, his mother was a Vogüé, in 1881 he married Ida de Gramont (1859-1927).
Paris Georges Petit, 4-6.IV.1898:
Lot 43: Danloux, jeune fille
Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Féral, Mannheim, 6.II.1905:
Lot 16: La Tour, inconnu [Jullienne]; Lot 17: Perronneau, ?La marquise d'Anglure

Bubb, v. Melcombe

Richard Plantagenet Temple Nugent Brydges Chandos Grenville, Duke of BUCKINGHAM AND CHANDOS (1797-1861)
Stowe, Christie's, 15.VIII.-30.IX.1848:
12.IX.1848:
Galleries
Lot 24: Mary Queen of Scots [?Hoare], crayons [5½ gns, with another; A. Robertson]
Lot 30: Sir Philip Sydney; and Cardinal Fleury, in crayons. The cardinal is by Robert Pine and bears date 1740 [6 gns; Lister]
Chandos Bedroom
Lot 96 Two female heads, crayons [8 gns; The Misses Yardley]
Lot 97 Venus, crayons (Russell) [5 ½ gns; T. Grissell, Esq.]
Lot 100 The girl with a muff, crayons, a/r Reynolds. This drawing is by Mary Marchioness of Buckingham [£4/10/-; T. Grissell, Esq.]
Addenda
A2 The prodigal son, crayons; a small head; and Cleopatra (S. Rosa, a/r) [5 ½ gns; Town and Emanuel]
23.IX.1848:
Buckingham Rooms
Lot 179 William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, crayons [14 gns; A. Robertson]
Lot 180 Colonel Speed, killed at the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, 1746 [£3/5/-; T. Grissell]
Lot 192: Elizabeth Wyndham, self-portrait, crayons [£1/8/-; Agent]
Lot 232a Three portraits, crayons [13 gns; James Parker]

BUJON, marchand d'antiquités, 53 rue Impériale, Rouen, "brocanteur, quasi-antiquaire, quasi-artiste" according to a review of his submission to the Salon de Rouen of 1836.
Rouen, 29, rue des Bons-Enfants, 19.II.1866:
Lot 147: La Tour, homme et femme

John BULLFINCH (fl. 1690), a print-seller, "bought all Betterton's pictures, amongst which were a great many Crayon pictures of famous Playereses [actors] these he sold to Mr Sykes." He was the subject of a portrait by David Loggan.
Lit.: Vertue 1929, I, p. 52

Jules BURAT (1807-1885), professeur à l'École des arts et métiers, journaliste and collector. His nephew Louis Burat ( -1937) was an agent de change, in Paris; his collection of silver was left to the musée des Arts décoratifs, while his remaining collections of pictures, sculpture, bronzes and XVIIIe furniture built up in the early 1900s were sold in 1937 under the name of Mme Louis Burat. Among the old master pictures were paintings by Nattier, de Troy, Vigée Le Brun and a Fragonard now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. A pastel said to be of La Tour's mother belonged to Mme Burat in 1904.
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Vente p.m., Paris, Georges Petit, 28-29.IV.1885:
Lot 115: La Tour, auto
Mme Louis Burat; Paris, Charpentier, 17.VI.1937:
Lot 2: Coypel, dame
Other pastels: La Tour, Mme de La Tour

Burns, v. Morgan

Sir Francis BURDETT (1770-1844) married one of the banker Thomas Coutts's daughters. One of their daughters, Angela Georgina (1814-1906sp) was created Baroness Burdett-Coutts s.j.; she married Rt Hon. William Bartlett (1854-1921) in 1881. His sale took place in 1922.
Sale p.m., London, 4-5.V.1922:
Lot 10: La Tour, Rousseau; J. R. Smith, Burdett
Other pastels: Hamilton, Barre

Philippe BURTY (1830-1890), collector, art historian, proponent of Japanese art, critic for the Gazette des Beaux-Arts from 1859, editor of the Correspondance of Delacroix, 1878; father-in-law of the porcelain manufacturer Charles Haviland. His novel, Grave Imprudence, appeared in 1880, and has certain similarities with the Goncourts' Manette Salomon.
Lit.: Maurice Tourneux, "Philippe Burty", Gazette des beaux-arts, 1907, xxxvii, pp. 388-402; Jules Renard, Journal; Lugt 2071; Gabriel P. Weisberg, "Philippe Burty: a notable critic of the nineteenth century", Apollo, xci, 1970, pp. 296-300; Chardin 1979; Donateurs 1989; Grove
Paris, Delestre, 2-3.III.1891:
Lot 105: La Tour, inconnu

Andrea BUSIRI VICI (1903-1989), Italian art deco architect, owned a pastel by Voiriot (homme).

Charles BUTLER (1821-1921), of Warren Wood, Hatfield, art collector and bibliophile.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 7.VII.1911:
Read, Miss Beatson

Mme V. B...
Paris, 21-22.VI.1866:
Lot 24: La Tour, inconnue

C

Cadet de Limay, v. Desfriches

Philippe CAFFIERI (1714-1774), sculpteur.
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Vente p.m., Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 10-17.X.1775:
Lot 63 [part]: Jésus-Christ élevé en croix, grande composition à la plume & à l'encre de la Chine, mêlés de bistre & de pastel, par Mettay [6 livres 1 sol for whole lot; Alliette]

Le comte Louis CAHEN D'ANVERS (1837-1922), banquier, married Louise de Morpurgo (1845-1926), mistress of Charles Ephrussi (q.v.); one of their daughters, Irène (1872-1963), married comte Moïse de Camondo in 1891; another, Alice (1876-1965), married General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend (1861-1924), presumably the source of Cahen d'Anvers's Gardner lent to the Cent pastels exhibition, Paris 1908a. Albert Cahen d'Anvers (1846-1903), the composer, married Lulia Warchawska; her sister Marie married a Kann. Lulia sold a magnificent collection of tapestries and pictures in Paris, 14.V.1920. Two pastels by Perronneau, baron P. de L*** and a petite fille, 1758, are thought to have belonged to the family.

Paul de Cayeux (1884-1964) founded Galerie CAILLEUX, Paris in 1912. From the beginning the focus was on the French XVIIIe. An exhibition, Choix de pastels français du xviiie siècle, was held from the tiny premises in the rue Laffitte in 1923. That year the firm moved to 136 faubourg Saint-Honoré where it remained for more than 75 years. Paul's son Jean and granddaughter Marianne Roland Michel (1936-2004) continued the business and also published widely on the French eighteenth century. Jean and his sister Denise Mégret donated a Ducreux pastel to the Louvre in 1949. The Fondation Marianne & Roland Michel opened a centre de documentation in 2005 and presents an annual prize for the publication of manuscripts.
Lit.: Cailleux 1912-1962, album jubilaire, préface de Jean Cailleux; Donateurs 1989

Giovanni Battista CALANDRUCCI (c.1669–1749), painter and draughtsman in Rome, nephew and pupil of Giacinto (q.v.). A pastel after Michelangelo was in his estate inventory (Rome, 22.X.1737).
Lit.: Getty provenance index

Andrew CALDWELL (1732–1808), of Dublin, Irish MP, lawyer, agent for the Earl of Bessborough in Ireland, art collector and supporter of the pastellist John Warren, whose correspondence from Bath to his montor has been published (McEvansoneya 1999).

Hans M. CALMANN (1899-1982), London dealer in drawings. A Troost pastel in now in the British Museum.
Lit.: The Times obituary, 8.V.1982

Charles-Alexandre de CALONNE (1734-1802), contrôleur général des finances 1783-87. The collection which the Revolution forced him to sell during his exile in London had been assembled during his travels in Europe at a cost of over 60,000 guineas according to the auction catalogue.
London, Spring Gardens, Skinner & Dyke, 23.III.1795 & seq.
Drawings in crayons
Lot 60: Two ovals, Portraits of Ladies [£2/12/-]
Lot 61: Ditto [Two ovals], the Queen of France and Le Compte D'Artois [6 gns]
Lot 62: Two Portraits, ovals, of Children, by Madam Le Brun [6 gns]
Lot 63: Ditto, 1 by Rosalba, elegant [£3/17/-]
Lot 64: Ditto, 2 Venusses, small whole lengths, damaged [b/i]
Lot 92h[?added in hand]: The Queen, in crayons, 3 quarters [£6/16/-]
Lot 92h[?added in hand]: Duke d'Artois do 3 quarters [£4/10/-]

Charles-François, marquis de CALVIÈRE (1693-1777), lieutenant général des armées du roi, honoraire-associé libre 1747, honoraire amateur 1754 de l'Académie royale de peinture. His collection of French and Italian drawings commenced in 1741, when he acquired several sheets at the Crozat sale. A major sale, including 495 drawings, took place two years after his death to settle his enormous debts. A pastel portrait by Coypel is known only from a miniature copy.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Journal du marquis de Calvière, MS 2370; Procès-verbaux; Les Collectionneurs de dessins au 18ème siècle, symposium, Christie's, Paris, on 15.XII.2003; Odile Cavalier, "The Marquis de Calvière and the abortive publicaton of Antiquités de la France méridionale", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007
Paris, Joullain, Chariot, 5-20.V.1779 (this sale included a number of sheets described as pastel which were probably chalk, while there were other sheets "aux trois crayons, mêlé d'un peu de pastel"):
Lot 148: Cinq, dont Hercule victorieux d'Antée ; Prométhée déchiré par le Vautour ; une Etude d'homme couché, & une autre de Cheval, par Josepin ; & le Portrait de l'Auteur par lui-même. Quatre de ces Dessins sont à la pierre noire & à la sanguine, & l'autre au pastel [36 livres; Desmarest]
Lot 383: Un Peintre dans son Atelier ; il est assis & broye des couleurs ; son Eleve est auprès de lui, & tient ouverte la boëte à couleurs : Dessin au pastel, par L. Aubert. 1744 [13 livres 19; Lescuriot]
Lot 400: Trois Etudes de tête & de demi figures, dont une au pastel pour le Tableau d'Erigone, par [Boucher] [12 livres; Le Cr Destouches]
Lot 434: Buste de femme au pastel, par M. Hallé [4 livres 1]
Lot 495: Six Paysages, ornés de figures & d'architecture, au pastel, par Patel [15 livres 1; Dulac]
Lot 531: Le Portrait de Simon Vouet, par N. Mignard. Deux Sujets d'Histoire Sacrée & Prophane, par lui-même, & un Portrait au pastel & d'après lui, par le Roi Louis XIII [24 livres 1; cte d'Orsay]
Lot 535: Etude de jeune Fille assise : autre Etude de deux Têtes d'Homme & Femme, au pastel, par Ant. Watteau [24 livres 1; Chariot]
Paris, Christie's, 17.XII.2003, Lot 54: Caffieri, Causeur

Francisco de Assis CAMBÓ y Batlle (1876-1947) trained as a lawyer in Barcelona before pursuing a career as a financier. By the 1920s he had built an immense fortune in cork and hydroelectric power. His political writings were influential during the rise of fascism in Spain. He was also a supporter of a degree of Catalan autonomy. He made important donations to the Prado and to the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, including his La Tour pastel.
Pastels: La Tour, Laideguive

Gaston-Alexandre CAMENTRON (1862-1919), art dealer, of 43 rue Laffitte, Paris. Initially an employee of Hector Brame, he was mainly associated with the Impressionists. His wife was the singer Julia Rivera. He lent a Vigée Le Brun pastel (Alexander Ier) to the Paris 1908b exhibition.

Comte Isaac de CAMONDO (1851-1911), banker and collector, whose collection, particularly rich in late 19th century painting, was donated to the Louvre. His cousin, comte Moïse (1860-1935) was head of the family bank, and also a collector; he built the museum named in memory of his son Nissim, killed in action in 1917.
Lit.: Arsène Alexandre, "La collection de M. le comte de Camondo", in Les Arts, .XI.1908, no. 83, p. 11; Grove 1996; Donateurs 1989; Rosenberg 2007

Luigi Riggio Saladino Branciforti-Colonna, príncipe de CAMPOFLORIDO ( -1758), grande de España, chev. Saint-Esprit 1746, embajador de Felipe V en París 1741-46: according to an announcement in Les Affiches de Paris, 28.ix.1746, a sale of his goods took place at the Hotel de Conti, and included as well as furniture, pictures etc., "pastels de prix."

Docteur François-Marie-Gustave-Émile CAMUS (1829-1892), a physician of repute from Dijon, gave up his profession completely to devote himself to his passion for making ornamental bronzes in the 18th century style. He knew Manet and Burty, but was dismissed by Goncourt (1874) as a "petit homme très vulgaire, ayant une passion de maniaque pour la porcelaine de Saxe, les statuettes et les figurines paiement rosées." He was also an early enthusiast for japonerie. He and his wife, née Jeanne-Marie-Blanche Dumoustier de Frédilly (1839– ), were portrayed by Degas, whom he treated. He owned pastels by Hall (Robert) and La Tour (homme) which he lent to exhibitions in 1883.
Lit.: Chabeuf, Mémoires de l'Académie…de Dijon, vi, 1898, pp. xxii-xxiv

Lady CAPEL CURE, née Muriel Dixwell-Oxenden (1869-1927), of 28 Lancaster Gate, London; translator. In 1889 she married Edward Henry Capel Cure (1866-1923), a diplomat in Rome who was awarded the order of SS Maurizio & Lazzaro. Both the Oxenden and Capel Cure families owned picture collections, and she inherited the collection of her brother Basil Oxenden (q.v.).
London, Christie's, 20.XI.1931:
Lot 1: Ashfield, Sir James & Lady Arabella Oxenden; Lot 108: Russell, Lady Isabel Erskine

Abate Leonardo CAPUANO (fl. Naples a.1742), art collector: "il P. Abate D. Lionardo Capuano", "conoscitore delle pitture antiche"; "vedendosi molte belle pitture ad olio, ed in pastelli, con rari disegni nel suo bellissimo appartamento". None is known today.
Lit.: Bernardo de' Dominiti, Vite dei pittori, scultori, ed architetti napolitani, 1742, p. 126

Il conte Francesco Montecuccoli CAPRARA ( –c.1780), senator di Bologna, cavalier del Toson d'Or, adopted the name of his wife, Vittoria Capara. His estate inventory (20.III.1781) included several pastels by Pavona.

Yves CARLIER DE FONTOBBIA (1911-1984) donated a large collection of pastels, including a Coypel autoportrait, to the musée Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin (v. Collections for list) in 1983; his grandmother came from that town. An amateur devoted to the XVIIIe, he founded a cultural review (L'Insurgé), a political Parti humaniste, which was crushed in the 1958 elections, and a charity for illegitimate children. La Tour himself had provided for the unmarried mothers of Saint-Quentin and was familiar with lost causes.
Lit.: Christine Debrie, Catalogue de la Donation Carlier de Fontobbia, Saint-Quentin, 1985

Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, Baron CARLINGFORD, later Baron Clermont (1823-1898), 4th husband of Frances, Countess Waldegrave. A large collection of Gardner pastels descended to his granddaughter Anne Eliza Dixon; they were then sold to Lord Carlingford and in turn to Lady Strachey, q.v.

CAROLINE LUISE Markgräfin von Baden (1723-1783), amateur pastellist and collector. Her posthumous inventory documented the division in her collection between her three sons, Karl Ludwig, Friedrich and Ludwig (see Lauts 1984). The lack of detail makes it very difficult to interpret the inventory, which, among numerous art objects, lists some 100 pastels (set out below), including unfinished sheets etc., some of which may be from Caroline Luise's own hand. Almost all are unattributed. Others may include the celebrated Galerie des Beautés, nine pastel portraits commissioned from Boucher c.1760, among them Mmes Skjoldebrand, van Höpken, de Pompadour. The original orthography and abbreviations are preserved (e.g. Dchl: appears for Durchlaucht).
Dictionary, artists
Caroline Luise von Baden inv. p.m., 29-30.VI.1784
II. Pastelle
17 (F) Ein Gemälde, das Hündgen Bellamina, in Pastell [Melling].
36 (L) Dchl: Erb-Prinz en pastel
37 (L) 1 do Portrait, Prinz Friedrich
38 (L) 1 dito vom Prinz Louis
42 (F) Der H. Erbprinz en Pastel, von Boufleur [Boufflers]
43 (F) Der Prinz Friedrich en Pastel von Boufleur [Boufflers]
44 (L) Ein oval Gemähld eines Geistlichen
129 (F) Ein pastell Gemälde: ein lachendendes (sie!) Frauenzimmer
130 (L) Ein Seestück: ein scheiterndes Schiff, en pastell
131 (L) Ein dergl.: ein sinkendes Schiff
402 (F) Eine kleine Landschaft in pastell, 4eckigt
403 (F) 1 angefangener Kind Kopf, Pastell
404 (L) 1 Klein Portrait, Pastell, von der höchstseel Fr. Markgräfinn
408 (F) 1 Blumen Stück, auf Pergament, Pastell
409 (F) Eine Rose auf Pergament en pastell
410 (F) 1 Mater Dolorosa, ebauchirt [?Caroline Luise a/r Liotard]
412 (F) 1 gros Vieh Stück, Pastell, ebauchirt; auf Pergament
423 (F) 3 Manns u: 3 Frauenzimmer Köpfe, in Pastell Farbe
426 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer, mit säugendem Kind, en pastell [?Caroline Luise a/r Slingelandt, Stillenden Mutter]
427 (F) Das nehmliche Stück wiederum [?Caroline Luise a/r Slingelandt, Stillenden Mutter]
446 (F) 1 Frauenzimmer Brust-stück, en pastell, von Perrono [Perronneau]
496 (L) Ein alter in Pastell gemahlter Kopf
498 (L) Ein Gemald von Pastell: 3 Badische Prinzen
499 (F) Mr Langallerie, en Pastell
500 (F) Der regierende Herr Markgraf, en pastell
510 (F) 2 Rose von Pastell
511 (F) H: Erb Prinz und Prinz Friedrich, en pastell
512 (F) Ein gros Blumen Stück von Pastell
513 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer von Pastell, an der Klippellade [?a/r Dou, Spitzenklöpplerin]
514 (F) Ein Bettelmädgen, en pastell
515 (F) Ein gros Frauenzimmer en past.
516 (F) Allerley Gemüser von pastell
517 (F) Ein gros heiliges Gemählde mit Pfaffen, von Pastell
518 (F) 1 dito, der pendans zum vorhergehenden
519 (F) 1 Frauenzimmer von Pastell mit einer Traube
520 (F) Ein gros Obst Stück von Pastell
521 (F) Eine Landschaft von Pastell
522 (F) Eine dito von Pastell
523 (F) Eine weitere dito
524 (F) 1 dito
535 (F) Ein Gemählde, Patriarchen en pastell
536 (F) 1 seufzendes Frauenzimmer von Pastell
539 (F) Maria Theresia, Kaiserinn, en pastell
540 (F) Ein schön Frauenzimmer mit einer Kaz, en pastell [Perronneau]
541 (F) 1 do. mit aufgebundenem Haar
542 (F) Ein Schwarz Künstler mit 1 Liebhaber, Pastell
543 (F) Ein Obst Stück, en pastell
548 (F) ein Manns Kopf friesiert, en pastell
549 (F) Eine Landschaft mit Vieh en pastell
551 (F) Studie von Draperie en past.
552 (F) 1 dito.
553 (F) 1 Spanier Kopf en past.
554 (F) 1 alter Verliebter en past.
555 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer im Winter Kleid, en past.
557 (F) eine Betschwester, en past. [?repl. "La devote", 1754]
558 (F) Eine Mutter mit Kinder, do
559 (F) Ein Perruquen Stock mit einer Perruque, en past.
560 (F) Diana im Bad, en past
561 (F) 1 Hahn do
562 (f) 1 Blumenstück mit einem Hammel en past.
570 (L) 9 Stck: Malereyen, en pastell, geckigt auf Pergament, in einem Pappendeckel Kistgen
571 (F) Ein Pastell Gemald auf Pergament, die heil. Maria
572 (L) 1 Pastell Gemälde: Kayser Franz der erste
574 (F) Ein pastell Gemälde, ein Frauenzimmer in Pelz Kleidung
577 (F) Ein Klein pastell Gemälde auf Pergament Serenißima
584 (L) 1 Pastell Gemälde mit 3 jungen Leuten
589 (F) Ein schmachtendes Frauenzimmer, en pastell
590 (F) Ein angefangenes Frauenzimmer portrait, en pastell
591 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer, ein Kind säugend en pastell [?Caroline Luise a/r Slingelandt, Stillenden Mutter]
592 (L) 1 klein Pastell Gemälde: ein Frauenzimmer
593 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer, portrait en pastell, ohn-ausgemacht
594 (F) 2 Vues en pastell auf blau Papier
595 (L) Zwei angefangene Pastell Malereyen: Landschaften auf Pergament
596 (F) Ein angefangenes Pastell Gemäld, Kaiserin Theresia
597 (L) Ein Pastell Gemälde von einem Frauenzimmer
598 (L) Ein do H. Landgrafen von Heßen Darmstadt
602 (L) Ein Frauenzimmer Kopf vn Pastell
603 (L) Ein junger Herr in Uniform, en pastell
605 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer Portrait auf Pergament, en pastell
606 (F) Eine en pastell gemalte Magd
607 (F) Ein Frauenzimmer en pastell
608 (L) Ein angefangenes Manns Portrait en pastell
609 (L) Ein angefangenes Frauenzimmer Portrait, en pastell
615 (L) 1 Frauenzimmer

Jules CARON (fl. a.1881), painter, from Carrière-sous-Poissy; he exhibited at the Salons in the third quarter of the 19th century.
Vente p.m., Paris, Rain, George, 6.IV.1881:
Pastels: Coypel (2)

Pierre-Augustin CARON DE BEAUMARCHAIS (1732-1799), auteur dramatique. The posthumous inventory of his extensive collections took over a year to compile, and was issued 23.X.1800. It included "huit estampes et tableaux en pastel représentant hommes et femmes", "un tableau peint au pastel", and "un tableau peint au pastel représentant une femme espagnole dans son cadre de bois doré".
Lit.: Spinelli 1997, pp. 37, 59, 67

Carpentier, v. Le Carpentier

Francis Culling CARR-GOMM, né Carr (1834-1919), of the Madras civil service and Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire, married (as his second wife) Emily, the niece of Field-Marshal Sir William Maynard Gomm (1784–1875), and assumed the additional name by royal licence in 1878. He edited Gomm's letters and wrote a book about Rotherhithe Manor, which his wife inherited from her uncle. He is best known in his role as chairman of the London Hospital, when he launched an appeal for funds for Joseph Merrick, the "Elephant Man". Two Russell pastels left by Martha Goldsworthy to her companion, Sir William Gomm's aunt, passed to his son Hubert (1877-1939), the Liberal politician and publisher, but most of the collection, acquired from Sir William's widow, Dame Elizabeth Ann Kerr ( –1877), granddaughter of the 5th Marquess of Lothian, were presented for sale at Christie's in 1914 as the "Gomm collection" following the passing of the Gomm Heirlooms Act 1913. It included old master paintings and early English drawings as well as two pastels.
Lit.: "Parishes: Rotherhithe", A history of the county of Surrey, IV, 1912, pp. 83-92
The Gomm collection, London, Christie's, 6.III.1914:
Lot 1: English sch., Sophia Gomm
Lot 4: Rosalba, Head of a girl
Pastels: Hoare, 2 ladies; Russell, Philip & Martha Goldsworthy

Joseph-Auguste CARRIER (1800-1875), miniaturist and portrait painter, and a prolific collector.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, Bonnefons, 9-10.III.1846:
Lots 188, 191-199: La Tour, inconnus
Paris, 6-7.IV.1868:
Lot 98: La Tour, La Pouplinière; Lot 99: La Tour, auto; Lots 100-109: La Tour, inconnus; others
Paris, 5.V.1875:
Lot 9: La Tour, inconnue

Carrière, v. Aufrery

David Graham CARRITT (1927-1982), expert and dealer in old master pictures; director of Artemis. The firm handled two pastels by Perronneau (Chassaing, now in the Pierpont Morgan Library, and d'Aubais).
Lit.: dictionaryofarthistorians.org

William CARTWRIGHT (1606-1686), actor and collector, who owned six paintings by Greenhill as well as an album of drawings and pastels.
Lit.: Beresford 1998; London 1987d

William Cornwallis CARTWRIGHT (1825–1915), MP, of Aynhoe Park, author and art collector; his wife, née Clementine Gaul, was presumably the Mme Carwright who lent a Downman pastel to the Paris 1911 exhibition. Cartwright bought two Cotes pastels of members of the Colyear family at the Dawkins sale in 1913, and also owned a Russell (Mrs Allingham).

Paul CASIMIR-PÉRIER (1812-1897), armateur, sénateur de la Seine-Inférieure, son of Casimir Perier (1777-1832), the French statesman and regent of the Banque de France. He owned a version of Ducreux's femme âgée.
Vente p.m., Paris, Chevallier, 26.IV.1898

Jean-Germain-Léon, baron CASSEL VAN DOORN (1882-1953), of Brussels, Paris, Cannes and Englewood, New Jersey, a Belgian banker with a large collection of pictures from the 12th to the 19th centuries, housed in his villa in Cannes. He owned a number of pastels which were seized by Hitler or the ERR. His collection was dispersed in a number of sales after his death, including that in New York, Parke-Bernet, 9-10.XII.1955:
Lot 283: Downman, Miss Hunter; Lot 294: Russell, Wignell
Other pastels: Downman, Jackson

Walter Richard CASSELS (1826-1907), author of an anti-religious tract entitled Supernatural religion which attracted much attention when it appeared anonymously in 1874; he was also a poet and art collector.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 25.VII.1907:
Lot 46: La Tour, inconnue

Paul CASSIRER (1871-1926), Berlin art dealer, writer and publisher, specialising in Van Gogh, Cézanne and the artists of the Berlin Secession. The firm of Paul Cassirer & Hugo Helbing continued: two months after Cassirer's suicide it conducted an important sale of pictures from the Graf von Brühl and the Saxon royal collections.

Jean-Bruno CASTEL, dit Bruno de Castel ( -1782), trésorier de France, one of the founders of the Académie de peinture de Toulouse. He inherited some pictures from his cousin Joseph Colomès. He lent pastels by Despax to the Salon de Toulouse in 1752. These reappeared in his posthumous sale in 1783.
Toulouse, 7.I.1783:
Lots 20-21: Un portrait au Pastel, d'après Santerre, par M. Despax.

CASTELLANE. The Castellane collection is not published, but a photograph of the Salon bleu in the hôtel de Castries in the catalogue of Diane de Castellane's sale of furniture (Monaco, Christie's, 2.VII.1995) shows a Perronneau pastel (not in the sale).

H. E. ten CATE (1868-1955), descendant of the Hendrik ten Cate (1743- ) who founded a textile factory at Almelo, of which H. E. ten Cate was director. His art collection, assembled in the period 1920-40, encompassed some 300 works, mainly of the Golden Age and late 19th century.
Lit.: Dirk Hannema, Catalogue of the H. E. ten Cate collection, Rotterdam, 1955
London, Sotheby's, 25.II.1959
Pastels: Boucher, Mme de Pompadour; La Tour, ?Mlle Fel

Tsaritsa CATHERINE II (1729-1796). Her extensive collections and Diderot's role in enlarging it are discussed in numerous sources.
Dictionary, genealogy, Russia
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Grove 1996

Claude-Philippe CAYEUX (1688-1769), sculpteur. He was the subject of an intriguing double portrait with his wife, previously in the Groult collection, attributed to Perronneau.
Vente p.m., Paris, 11-23.XII.1769:
Lot 199: Boucher, Femme, presque couchée, au pastel, avec un dessin à la sanguine [11 livres, Le Brun]
Tableaux en Pastel, sur papier bleu:
Lot 365: Trémolières, Un sujet allégorique, richement composé; dessein aux trois crayons & un peu de pastel, 15 pouces sur 25 pouces [15 livres]
Lot 389: Natoire, La sainte Vierge avec l'Enfant Jesus, 18 pouces sur 11 pouces 6 [7 livres 19 sols]
Lot 390: Trémolières, Deux bustes de femmes en regard, 12 pouces sur 10 pouces [36 livres]
Lot 391: Pierre, Tête de vieillard; tête d'un turc, au pastel [17 livres; Cayeux]

Anne-Claude-Philippe, comte de CAYLUS (1692-1765), honoraire amateur de l'Académie royale de peinture 1731, celebrated connoisseur, amateur engraver, antiquarian and author. In 1759 he inherited the estates of his uncle Claude-Abraham, but he seems not to have used the title of duc de Caylus, which passed in turn to a cousin, Achille-Joseph de Robert, marquis de Lignerac (p.1732-1783). The pastels in the 1773 sale presumably came from the comte de Caylus.
Dictionary, genealogy, Tubières
Lit.: Guiffrey 1884, p. 372; Chatelus 1991, pp. 307ff; Grove 1996; Catalogue du cabinet du duc de Caylus, Paris, 1772; Hattori 2007
Paris, Remy, 19.IV.1773 & seq.:
Lots 47, 48 attr. La Tour; Lot 49: Une femme couchée dans un bosquet, peint par Merelle, pastel, hauteur 16 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 13 pouces 6 lignes, 61 livres 1 sol; Lot 49a: Vénus & l'Amour, d'après Boucher hauteur 9 pouces, largeur 11: par Merelle, 24 livres 1 sol; Lot 50: [Anon.]: Deux bustes de femmes agréables, de forme ovale. hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12, 30 livres
Inv. p.m. 10.X.1765:
Dans la chambre à coucher. Item (no. 23): Huit bustes et têtes de femmes, pastel ou crayon, par Carle Van Loo, Trémolières, Pierre et autres.
Vente p.m. du 2e duc de Caylus; Paris, Commandeur, Joullain, 11.XII.1783 & seq.:
Lot 44: La Promenade des Tuileries au clair de la lune ; on voit sur le devant un jeune Officier avec deux femmes. Ce Tableau est peint au pastel. [14 livres 5]
Lot 45: Jeune fille se sauvant des poursuites d'un Jeune Homme, au pastel, d'après H. Fragonard [30 livres 2]
Lot 46: Trois portraits de jolies Femmes, au pastel, ils sont de forme ovale. [6 livres 12]
Lot 47: Une Tête de Femme, au pastel, par N. Aubry ; elle est d'une touche large & facile. Hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12 pouces 6 lignes. [8 livres]

François-Wilbrod CHABROL (1835-1919), architect, pupil of Hippolyte Le Bas; appointed diocesan architect to Tulle in 1875; architect to the Gobelins and Palais-Royal; author of the Histoire et description du Palais Royal, 1883.
Lit.: Saur; DBF
Pastels: Vigée Le Brun, Beaujon

Charles CHAISE (fl. 1760–90), peintre-doreur.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m., Paris, Boileau, Le Brun, 3.II.1791 & seq.:
Lot 120: Huit pastels ovales; toiles de dix, avec leurs verres & bordures.
Lot 121: Quatorze pastels ovales; toiles de six, avec leurs verres & bordures.
Lot 122: Quatre autres de même grandeur, avec verres & bordures.
Lot 123: Vingt-deux pastels de différentes grandeurs, sans bordures.

Jean-Théophile-Gustave CHAIX D'EST-ANGE (1863-1923), author of a major but unfinished genealogical reference work. A year before his death he adopted his first cousin once removed, Emmanuel, marquis, dit comte du Bourg de Bozas (1893-1990), to whom the Valade pastel belonged when B&W 1928 was compiled. His collection included a number of important portraits as well as books and furniture, of which only part was sold in 1934. Emmanuel's brother, vicomte Robert, died on a scientific mission to Abyssinia.
Paris, Galerie Charpentier, 11.XII.1934:
Lot 26: La Tour, comte de Nogent [Valade, Lamoignon]

Chaloner, probably William CHALONER (1745-1793) of Guisborough, is mentioned in Liotard's letter to Bessborough, 28.VI.1763 as owning three pastels which were fixed by Jurine.

Arthur Melville CHAMPERNOWNE (1871-1946) sold a collection of drawings to the British Museum 1910-11, including a sheet formerly attributed to Rosalba [Italian sch.].
Lit.: Lugt 153

Antoine-Louis-Léon, comte de CHAMPFEU (1848-1926), a naval captain, married (in 1893) Brigitte Poissalolle de Nanteuil de la Norville, a relation of Albin Chalandon (1809-1885), famous collector from Lyon and father of the great benefactor of the Louvre. The comtesse de Champfeu lived at 42 rue de Bourgogne, Paris when she lent two pastels to the Paris 1927a exhibtion, both inherited by her husband from Charles Jourdier (q.v.).
Pastels: Mme Roslin, Lemonnier; Éc. fr., Homme jouant de la viole

James Wells CHAMPNEY (1843-1903), in addition to being a copyist, collected 18th century pastels, among them a Russell study for John Jefferys which he bought from Sir Edwin Landseer.
Dictionary, index of suppliers

[Pierre-Gilles] CHANLAIRE (p.1788–1870), administrateur des Eaux et Forêts, son of a geographer with the same name. His sale including 583 drawings.
Paris, Boussaton, 2-4.IV.1860:
Lot 167: La Tour, inconnus

Chanler, v. Laughlin

La marquise de CHAPONAY, née Cécile-Sophie-Albertine Reynaud de Bologne (1827–1909), granddaughter of Marc-René, marquis d'Argenson (1771-1842); married Antonin-François-Louis de Chaponay (1816-1879) in 1850; her son married one of the daughters of Henri Schneider (her sisters included the comtesse de Ganay and the marquise de Juigné). The marquise owned a La Tour pastel (Mlle Gaussin) in 1885.

CHARLES-ALEXANDRE de Lorraine (1712-1780), "le prince Charles", archiduc d'Autriche, gouverneur des Pays-Bas, Staatholder of the Austrian Netherlands, was also an avid art collector and patron. The bulk of his estate was left to his brother, Joseph II., and is now in Vienna. Six major sales took place after his death, notably that of 14–15.I.1782 where among the 750 works some pastels are mentioned without details.
Lit.: Bruxelles 1987, p. 52

Jacques CHARLIER (1706-1790), miniaturist and pastellist, was also a collector; a large number of anonymous pastels appeared in his sales.
Dictionary, artists

Dr Rice CHARLTON (1710–1788), FRS, physician in Bath, drawings collector, friend of Gainsborough whose portrait of him is in the Holburne Museum; a 1755 chalk drawing of him by Hoare is in the Courtauld. His posthumous sale, Christie's, 5–6.iii.1790, included no pastels; but he owned a set of the Four Seasons by Hoare after Carriera.

Colonel Francis CHARTERIS (c.1640–1732), of Amisfoeld and Haddington, notorious gambler, duellist and member of the Hellfire Club. His posthumous sale of "Curios and Valuable Pictures, being the Collection of the Honourable Colonel Francis Charteris deceased" took place in Edinburgh, .VI.1734:
Lot 8: A fine Head in Crayons by Lutterel [13/-; Hugh Dalrymple]
Lot 12: A Head in Crayons, on a Copper-plate, by Lutterel [1 gn; Mr Colquhoun]
Lot 85: [Anon] Our Saviour in the Garden done in Crayons [£1; Mr David Morison]

Antoine-Pierre de CHAUMONT, marquis de La Galaizière (1727-1812), intendant, 56 rue de Varenne, Paris; his collection was seized during the Revolution (saisie d'émigré, 23 nivôse an II) and included a La Tour (Orry).
Dictionary, genealogy Chaumont

Dr Charles CHAUNCY (1709-1777), physician and antiquary, FRS; collector of paintings, prints, coins and books.
Pastels: Carriera, Callisto

Giovanni Giorgio CHECHEL DI CHECHELSPERG, cavaliere del Sacro Romano Impero, recte Johann Georg Kechel (fl. Venice 1695–1718), drawings collector, Venice, from whom Crozat (q.v.) bought a number of pastel heads by Barocci; he is referred to by Crozat as the friend of Zanetti, in a letter to Rosalba Carriera (28.X.1718). Considerable confusion surrounds this improbably spelt name (variants are Chelchelsberg, Chechelberg). He was the German resident in Venice (recorded as consul from 1695), and a member of a family that had held this position for over 100 years. Gasparo Chechel, presumably his father, was also an art collector, owning mainly Flemish paintings according to his 1657 inventory. Giorgio Chechel seems to have acquired some of his collection from Feldmarschall Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg. Giorgio's son Gaspar also seems to have played an important role in the Fondaco de Tedeschi in Venice, and also collected drawings. Giorgio's grandson, by his daughter Caterina Pezzana, married Elisabeth Le Blond, daughter of the French consul and probably sister of the subject of Rosalba's pastel.
Lit.: Giuseppe Tassini, Curiosità veneziane - ovvero Origini delle denominazioni stradali di Venezia, Venice, 1887; Linda Borean, "Desegni e stampa de rame. La collezione grafica di Gaspar Chechel, mercante tedesco nella Venezia del Seicento", Aprosiana, X, 2002, pp. 155-78; Eva Katharina Bartsch, "Kontrollierte Kreativität. Eine Analyse der Zeichnungen Federico Baroccis", Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, 2009

Georges CHENARD-HUCHÉ (1864-1937), peintre, inherited a Perronneau (femme).

Charles-Philippe, marquis de CHENNEVIÈRES-POINTEL (1820-1899), art historian. Trained as a lawyer, he worked as a museum administrator from 1846. He was appointed assistant curator at the Louvre in 1857, and was directeur des Beaux-Arts, Paris 1873-78. He founded the Archives de l'art français. His memoirs are of interest.
Lit.: Chennevières 1979; Grove
Amsterdam, 20-21.XI.1882.
Paris, Drouot, 5-6.V.1898:
Lot ?: Carriera, jeune fille à la colombe; Lot 55: Frédou, Portail; Lot ?: Natoire, La Musique
Paris, Drouot, 4-7.IV.1900:
Lot 24: Biard, jeune femme; Lot 512: Vivien, Churbayer

Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of CHESTERFIELD (1694-1773), ambassador to The Hague. In a letter to Mme de Tencin, 5.IX.1748, he writes "par dessus la cheminée...au milieu le portrait d'une très belle femme, peint par la Rosalba". He was himself the subject of pastels by Hoare and Knapton.

Sir George CHETWYND, Bt (1849-1917), of Grendon Hall, Atherstone, sheriff of Warwickshire, justice of the peace.
London, Christie's, 24.II.1912:
Lot 3: Gardner, Abelard & Eloisa; Hoare: Lot 51, Earl & Countess of Chesterfield; Lot 52: Lady; English sch., Lot 49: Lady; Lot 50: Lord Raymond

Jean-Michel CHEVOTET (1698-1772), architecte. A modest art collection was sold after his death, realising 5000 livres; the Perronneau portraits of Chevotet and his wife were not recorded.
Vente p.m., Paris, rue Bethisy, Basan, 18.III.1773 & seq.

Cardinale Flavio CHIGI (1711-1771), iuniore, president of the Apostolic Chamber 1740, cardinal 1753. He supported the poor and was a literary patron. He owned Giulio Romano's pastel self-portrait (now in the Uffizi). His inventory (Rome, 1.V.1692) included "pastels" by Mola.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Getty provenance index

Claude CHIQUET DE CHAMPRENARD (1703–1766), secrétaire du roi, from a family of négociants in Lyon.
Vente p.m.: Paris, 14.III.1768 & seq.:
Lot 115: Léda, étude au Pastel. Vue du Pont d'Auxerre, dessiné à la plume, par J. B. M. Pierre. [Retiré par la famille];
Lot 120: [Ecole d'Italie]: Deux Têtes au Pastel, l'une l'Enfant Jesus, l'autre Saint Jean-Baptiste, d'après la Sainte Famille de Raphaël; Tableau du Palais Royal, gravé par Poilly [1 livres 16 sols; Joullain]
Lot 136: Portraits de deux Cardinaux, pastel, par Quenel [2 livres 10; Joullain]
Lot 147: [Anon.]: La Comtesse de Feuquieres coëffée en jeune Grecque, dessinée au pastel [1 livres 11 sols]

Étienne-François, duc de CHOISEUL (1719-1785), soldier, ambassador and statesman, was also a major art collector. His acquisitions started before his marriage in 1750 to the heiress of the Crozat fortune, but it was during the period 1758-70 after his return to Paris that most of his purchases were made, at public sales (e.g. Jullienne, 1767) and privately. A number of pastel portraits were made of Choiseul and his family - Roslin's pastel of his sister Béatrice de Gramont is visible in the famous Choiseul box, but none is listed in the 1772 sale. The collection was dispersed after his disgrace. His cousin, the comte de Choiseul-Gouffier (1752-1817), author of the Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce, was an honoraire-associé libre de l'Académie royale 1782. Part of his collection descended to the princesse de Faucigny-Lucinge (q.v.).
Lit.: Grove 1996
Choiseul: Paris, Hôtel de Choiseul, 6-10.IV.1772

César-Gabriel de Choiseul, duc de CHOISEUL-PRASLIN (1712-1785), a brilliant soldier, was appointed ambassador to Vienna by his cousin, and in 1761 became ministre des Affairs étrangères. His collection passed to his son Renaud-César-Louis de Choiseul, 2e duc de Praslin (1735-1791), menin du Dauphin, also a diplomat, and was sold during the Revolution.
Paris, Boileau, Paillet, 18-25.II.1793:
Rosalba Carriera
Lot 21: Le Portrait de cette célèbre Artiste peint par elle-même. Elle est représentée de trois quarts, coëffée de cheveux blonds, tenant une colombe sur son sein. Nous regardons ce morceau comme une des Etudes de la première manière la Rosa Alba, qui a fini par s'en tenir au genre du Pastel, dans lequel elle a excellé. sur toile, Haut. 26 p. Larg. 20 [73 livres 1 sol; Christiaan Everhard Vaillant]
Lot 22: Le Buste d'une belle femme, représentée de face, la poitrine découverte, tenant dans sa main droite un papier de musique; elle est coëffée de cheveux bruns naturellement bouclés, dans lesquels sont ajustées quelques fleurs. Ce beau morceau, peint au pastel, offre une des productions distinguées de cette grande Artiste & de son meilleur tems. Haut. 17 p. Larg. 13. Sous glace [100 livres; Étienne Delessert]
Lot 23: Deux autres Bustes offrant encore de belles Etudes, au pastel, par cette Artiste. L'un représente une jolie femme dans un costume galant pour la bal; l'autre un jeune homme coëffé de cheveux blonds naturellement bouclés. Haut. 13 p. 6 lig. Larg. 10 p. 6 lig. [Lot divided: 1000 [?100] livres, Paillet/1000 [?100] livres]

Isidore-Fernand Chevreau, baron de CHRISTIANI (1857-1928): bequeathed some 21 pictures to the Louvre, including a pastel by Voiriot (homme).
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Hugues CITROËN (1873-1953), brother of the André Citroën who founded the automobile business. Together with the son of the composer Bizet he founded the Banque automobile, one of the earliest institutions to provide credit for car purchase.
Pastels: Drouais [Loir], l'enfant au bourdon

The CLARENDON GALLERY (fl. London 1986), of 8 Vigo Street, London: held an important exhibition of pastels in 1986 (v. London 1986). Some of the firm's stock was included in a sale at Sotheby's, 15.XI.1990.

Anthony Morris CLARK (1823-1976), art historian specialising in Roman baroque painting; curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. His bequest to the Philadelphia Museum of Art included a pastel by Trevisani (Albani).
Lit.: Philadelphia 1980; dictionaryofarthistorians.com

Charles Bridger Orme CLARKE (1863-1935), of Wiston Park, Steyning, Sussex, coal factor and ship owner, director of the family shipping firm, Stephenson Clarke, and associated with Powell Duffryn and Banque Worms. A keen gardner and racehorse owner, he also collected a wide range of pictures, textiles, furniture, porcelain etc. Some of his collection, including the National Gallery's La Tour pastel of Henry Dawkins, was bequeathed to museums (among them the British Museum, V&A and Fitzwilliam) subject to a life interest of his sister, Miss Grace Frances Clarke (1866-1939). Others were sold at auction, Christie's, 7.V.1936 & seq.

CLEMENS AUGUST von Bayern Kurfürst u. Erzbischof von Köln (1700-1761).
Dictionary, genealogy, Bayern
Bonn, 14.V.1764 et seq.:
[Rosalba Carriera]. Lots 128-131: Die Vier jahrs Zeiten halbe figuren von Rosalba Carera. [252 Rthl; Neveu]
Paris, Hôtel d'Aligre, Boileau & Joullain, 10.XII.1764:
Rosa Alba [Carriera]. Lot 4: Le Printemps, l'Eté, l'Automne & l'Hyver, représentés sous les figures de jeunes Filles, ornées de fleurs & de fruits pour les trois premières Saisons, & la quatriéme vêtue d'un manteau rouge, doublé d'hermine. Ces quatre précieux Tableaux ont été peints au pastel par la célebre Rosa Alba, pour Feu S. A. E. de Cologne, pastel, vingt-deux pouces de haut sur dix sept de large. Lot 5: Son portrait peint au pastel, par elle-même, vûe de trois quarts avec deux mains. Elle est représentée peignant sur son chevalet un portrait d'homme, & tenant son appui-main, sa palette & ses pinceaux. elle est coëffée en cheveux, vêtue de bleu, & décorée d'une chaîne d'or. S. A. E. a voulu joindre le portrait ce cette célebre Artiste aux Ouvrages qu'il possédoit, pastel, vingt-sept pouces de haut sur vingt-un pouces & demi de large. Lot 6: Un autre portrait de femme, vûe de face, coëffée en cheveux: elle tient de la main droite un porte-crayon, & de la gauche une feuille de papier gris, sur laquelle est peint au pastel le portrait d'une jeune fille; elle est appuyée sur une table où sont répandus quelques pastels. Même grandeur que le précédent.

Aimé-François-Philibert, duc de CLERMONT-TONNERRE (1871-1940), château de Glisolles, Eure.
Lit.: Gimpel 1923
[M. de X***] Paris, Drouot, Petit, 9.III.1923:
Lot 11: Rosalba, jeune femme à la colombe; Lot 12: Éc. fr. du xviie, ?Mme de Sévigné; Lot 13: Éc. fr. du xviie, ?Malebranche; Lots 14, 15: Éc. fr. du xviiie, 2 bustes de jeunes femmes; Lot 16: La Tour, Mme de Rieux; Lots 17-19: atelier de Nattier, Mme de Chateauroux; Mme de Flavacourt; Mme de Vintmille; Lot 20: Jean Restout, ?Roslin; Lot 21: Restout, attr., jeune femme en buste

[Charles-François-René Mesnard], chevalier de CLESLE ( -1803) (sometimes Claye, Clesne etc.); the son of a maître des comptes, he was admitted to the gardes des corps and rose to the rank of maréchal de camp in 1780. He was a chevalier de Saint-Louis and of Notre-Dame de Mont-Carmel. He was a collector of French and Dutch pictures, including Boucher, Chardin and Fragonard.
Paris, Boileau, Paillet, 4.XII.1786 & seq.:
Lot 118 [Hall, pastel]

Eugène CLICQUOT (1812-1885), négociant en vins, membre de la Société des bibliophiles de Reims.
Vente p.m., Reims, 10-15.VII.1893:
Lot 52: genre de La Tour, femme

Major Sir Edward Feetham COATES, 1st Bt (1853-1921) of Helperby Hall, Yorkshire; a stockbroker, MP and soldier; formed a large collection of English pastels, some from Lady Strachey's collection (acquired from dealers), many sold in 1922. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Clive Milnes-Coates, 2nd Bt (1879-1971), who married a daughter of the Marquess of Crewe in 1906 and added her name in 1946. The pastels in his collection were presumably acquired by Sir Edward. Three were on loan to the Bowes Museum in 1972.
Sale p.m., London, Sotheby, 22.VI.1922:
Lot 1: Liotard, Miss Ibbetson
Lot 2: Vanderbanck, man
Lot 3: Russell, man
Lot 4: Pope, Mr & Mrs Boydell
Lots 5–17: Gardner, various pstls
Lot 18: Grisoni, Morice
Lots 19–23: Hamilton, various pstls
Lots 24–34: J. R. Smith, various pstls
Lots 35–43: anon. pstls
Lots 44–56: Downman, framed drawings

Johann Karl Philipp Graf von COBENZL (1712-1770), ministre plénipotentiaire d'Autriche à Bruxelles 1753-70, member of the Belgian academy of sciences. A number of pastels are now in the Hermitage, some or all acquired through prince Galitzin. Other Cobenzl portraits descended to the Coronini family and are now in the Palazzo Coronini Cronberg, Gorizia.
Dictionary, genealogy
Pastels: Mellan, Mme Habert de Montmort; jeune femme; Therbusch, femme; Vouet, Strozzi

Sir Cyril Stephen COBB (1861-1938), lawyer and politician.
Pastels: Russell, Mrs Barber

Ernest COGNACQ (1839-1928) and his wife, née Marie-Louise Jay (1838-1925) founded the museum in Paris. Ernest was head of the Samaritaine retailing business, in which he was succeded by his nephew Gabriel Cognacq (1880-1951), collector; membre de l'Académie des beaux-arts.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Vente p.m.: Paris, Drouot, Bellier, Ader & Thullier, 11-13.VI.1952:
Lot 59: La Tour, ?d'Alembert [B&W 600]; Lot 60: La Tour, jeune femme [B&W 599]; Lot 61: Éc. de La Tour, femme; Lot 62: La Tour, Pommyer

Louis-Joseph-Madeleine COLLETTE DE BAUDICOUR (1741-1816), avocat au parlement de Paris, maire de Paris XIIe; and his son, André-Prosper Collette de Baudicour (1788-1872), wealthy amateur and author of Le Peintre-graveur français continué, continuing Robert-Dumesnil; pupil of Boucher's pupil Lelu, who, in 1861, identified Boucher's daughters as the subjects of two pastels. Some records confuse the two.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Pastels: Boucher, Mmes Baudouin, Deshays; Bréhan, acteur & actrice; Éc. fr., Saint-Florentin

Charles Henry COLLINS BAKER (1880-1959), Keeper of the National Gallery, 1914-32; Surveyor of the King's Pictures 1928-34.
Pastels: Tilson, Lady 1683

P & D COLNAGHI (fl. London 1767– ), fine art dealers. The origin of the firm goes back to 1757 when the pyrotechnist Giovanni Battista Torre founded a cabinet de physique expérimentale in Paris in 1757, with a branch in Pall Mall, London, from 1767. Paul Colnaghi was employed from around 1783; his sons Martin and Dominic joined around 1810. In 1894 it took over the firm of Gutekunst and Deprez, and Colnaghi was subsequently run by Otto Gutekunst after the retirement of Edmund Deprez (1851-1915).
v.q. Lenoir

Filippo II COLONNA, 9. duca di Paliano (1663-1714), gran connestabile del regno di Napoli.
Dictionary, genealogy
Inv. Rome, 15.XII.1714 - 26.II.1716
Pastels: Barocci; Duquesnoy; Reni; Rubens

Dr Robert Cony or CONNY (1655–1723), physician, of Rochester. The entire collection of the doctor, "lately deceased", was sold at auction on 31.X.1723 at the Two Blue Balls, Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London, and included some drawings in crayons (details unknown), according to the Daily courant for 28.X.1723.

Henry SEYMOUR-CONWAY (1719-1795), colonel of Royal Horse Guards Blue, field marshal, younger brother of the 1st Marquess of Hertford, was the subject of an extensive iconography including a pastel by Hoare. Mme du Deffand gave him a pastel version of Van Loo's marquise de Prie. He was no doubt the General Conway cited as a satisfied client in an advertisement for Jurine's method of fixing crayons in the Gazeteer & new daily advertiser, 28.I.1765.

Ernest Edward COOK (1865-1955): grandson of the travel agent Thomas Cook, he used his wealth to found the Ernest Cook Trust, dedicated to the preservation of English country houses. He owned several pastels by Russell (Godbold; Love songs and matches; Age of bliss).

Louis-François de Bourbon, prince de CONTI (1717-1776).
Dictionary, genealogy, France
Lit.: L'Isle-Adam 2000
Paris, Remy, 8.IV.-6.VI.1777:
CARRIERA
Lot 130: Le buste d'une jolie femme vénitienne ayant sur la tête un petit chapeau orné de fleurs, & tenant de la main droite un masque noir. Ce beau morceau peint en pastel, porte 13 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces de large: il vient du cabinet de M. Mariette, no.5 du catalogue
Lot 131: Le buste d'un jeune homme, la tête nue & des plus agréable, le col de sa chemise déboutonné. Ce morceau est aussi précieux & de même grandeur que le précédent; c'est le No. 6 du catalogue de M. Mariette, pastel, 13 pouces haut, sur 11 pouces de large
Lot 132: Deux têtes de femmes, l'une de profil, l'autre un peu de trois-quarts, aussi peintes en pastel, chacune de 1 pied de haut, sur 9 pouces de large: elles viennent aussi du cabinet de M. Mariette. Pastel, 1 pied de haut, sur 9 pouces de large
Lot 133: Deux autres têtes de femmes, dont une penchée & regardant en bas. Ces pastels sont aussi sçavamment faits que les précédents: ils sont de forme ovale; leurs mérites est supérieur
Lot 134: Deux têtes de jeunes femmes, aussi en pastel, 11 pouces de haut, sur 9 pouces de large
Lot 135: Le portrait de la Rosalba peint en pastel, de même grandeur que celles ci-dessus

Conway, v. Wertheimer

Marie-Joséphine COPPIETERS (1740-1828sa), daughter of a trésorier and échevin of Bruges. Her brother married a van Zuylen.
Bruges, Pachtere, 7.X.1828:
Lot 230: Portrait de Mgr. Caïmo, évêque de Bruges, peint au pastel par C. Hoet [Noël], d'après le tableau original du même [1.6 frs; Holtwass v...]

Benoît-Constant COQUELIN, dite Coquelin aîné (1841-1909), de la Comédie-Française, celebrated actor, owned a Perronneau, Van Robais.

Cardinale Domenico Maria CORSI (c.1633-1697), from the Florentine family; cardinal 1686, bishop of Rimini 1687.
Inv., Rome 11.XII.1697
Pastels: Barocci

Cardinale Neri Maria CORSINI (1685-1770).
Dictionary, genealogy
Inv., Rome, 1750:
Pastels: Sig.ra Luigi, two heads; Luti, Gesù; S. Giovannino; 6 testi

[M. de COSSÉ (fl. a.1776) & al.:]
Paris, Chariot, Paillet, 22.IV.1776 & seq.:
Lot 153: Deux très-belles têtes en pastels, par Haal, l'une blonde, l'autre brune; elles sont d'une touche libre, vraies de couleur, & ajustées avec le goût connu à ce Peintre, qui réussit également dans les différens genre qu'il entreprend. Hauteur, 20 pouces; largeur, 16 pouc. [861 livres]

Mme de COSSÉ, née Marie-Louise-Antoinette-Charlotte-Françoise-Constance de Wignacourt (c.1750-1778), 1er femme du futur 9e duc de Brissac.
Vente p.m., Paris, Dufresne, Le Brun, 11.XI.1778 & seq.:
Fragonard, Le Baiser dangereux

Hyacinthe-Hugues-Timoléon, duc de Cossé 1784, 9e duc de Brissac, dit duc de COSSÉ-BRISSAC, comte de l'Empire (1746-1813), sénateur
Paris, Metzinger, Regnault, 9.XII.1813:
Lot 24: [Anon.]: Cinq Tableaux: Tête de Vierge et Portraits, attribués à Theaulon et autres (un est en pastel et sous verre). Cet article sera divisé. [17 frs; Payant]

La comtesse Alain COSTA DE BEAUREGARD, née Petronila Iznaga y Noonan (1905-1989), widow of victomte Jean de L'Hermite and comte Alain Costa de Beauregard: her sale of old master pictures and drawings included a pastel by Perronneau and an oil Ducreux auto, both of which had belonged to Emilie Yznaga, her first cousin once removed, and of whom she was an heir (her first hsuband died in 1946 in the apartment in the rue de Grenelle that had belonged to Emilie).
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Libert, Castor, 26.VI.1989:
Pastels: Perronneau, Journu

Adolfo COSTA DU RELS (1891-1980), Bolivian diplomat and author, ambassador to Paris 1948-52.
Pastels: La Tour, auto

Cardinale Giovanni Battista COSTAGUTI (1636–1704), from the Genoese family, cardinal 1690.
Inv., Rome, 31.I.1715, included a "pastel" by Mola.

Francis COTES (1726-1770), pastellist.
Dictionary, artists
Sale p.m., London, Cavendish Square, Langford, 21-25.II.1771:
Lot I/9. Three heads in crayons, and a drawing framed and glazed
Lot VII/14. Three portraits in crayons of Erasmus, Locke and Newton
Lot VII/15. Two fruit pieces in ditto
Lot VII/16. One ditto by F. Cotes
Lot XI/16. Three various in crayons
Lot XI/17. Five unfinished heads in crayons
Lot XI/18. Five ditto
Lot XI/19. Four ditto of ladies
Lot XI/20. Two ditto finished
Lot XI/21. Two ditto
Lot XI/22. Three ladies, in ditto
Lot XI/23. Two ditto, the Queen of Denmark and Miss Lassels
Lot XI/24. A man's head fram'd and glaz'd
Lot XI/25. One ditto of Miss Jones, fram'd and glaz'd
Lot XI/26. One ditto of a lady, fram'd and glaz'd
Lot XI/27. Two ditto of the Dutchess of Hamilton and lady Coventry
Lot XI/28. Two heads, fram'd and glaz'd
Lot XI/29. Two ditto
Lot XI/30. A small whole length of Emma
Lot XI/31. A fryar's head, and 1 other
Lot XI/32. A dog's head, fram'd and glaz'd, by Cotes
Lot XI/67. Cupid in crayons by Cotes
Lot XI/68. A Venus and Cupid by ditto

Jean COTTIN (1709-1781), banquier, place Louis-le-Grand, directeur de la Cie des Indes, a cousin of Beaumarchais. His fortune was estimated at his death at c.1 million livres. His collection, of nearly 1000 lots, included paintings, drawings, prints, enamels and miniatures, and some 142 portraits, classified separately.
Lit.: Lüthy 1961
Paris, Grignard, Helle & Glomy, 27.XI.- 22.XII.1752:
Lot 267: Une belle Tête de Vieillard dessinée au pastel, par M. Pierre [22 livres 1 sol; Le Brun]
Lot 310: Trois têtes au pastel, dont une de Noel Coypel & une Cêne dessinée par Gunsi [14 livres 19 sols]
Lot 330: Boucher: Une Tête de jeune Dessinateur, peinte au pastel, par Boucher, dans cette maniere gracieuse, qui fait si fort rechercher les Desseins de cet habile Maître. 10 pouces de large, sur 11 de haut [17 livres 11 sols; Babaut]
Lot 337: Une belle Tête de Femme au pastel vigoureusement coloré par M. Pierre, 18 pouces de haut, sur 14 pouces 6 lignes de large [22 livres; Glomy]
Lot 383: [Anon:] Une Madeleine peinte au pastel. 20 pouces de haut sur 16 de large [12 livres 6 sols]
Lot 385: [Anon:] Un Pot de Fleur, peint au pastel, morceau agréable. 26 pouces de haut sur 19 de large [48 livres 19 sols; Rognier/?Ragnier]
Paris, Grignard, Helle & Glomy, 26.IX.1758 & seq.:
Lot 86: Onze Têtes en pastel encadrées de verre, peintes par le Sieur Lambert le Romain ; il y a parmi ces portraits des Sujets célébres [18 livres; Gaillard]

Joseph-Marie-François Spoturno, dit François COTY (1874-1934), leading parfumier, whose success is attributed to his use of bottles designed by Lalique. He was also a newspaper proprietor (Le Figaro) and founder of the right-wing Solidarité française league. He owned the château de Louveciennes.
Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, 30.XI.-1.XII.1936
Lot 21: Greuze, La mère bien aimée; Lot 27: Perronneau, Lorimier

COUCICAULT (fl. a.1758) & al.
Paris, Remy, 27.II.1758:
Lot 11: Charles Coypel, d'après Titien: Deux Portraits, dont celui de l'Arétin, d'aprés le Titien, peint au pastel par Charles Coypel [3 livres; Pierre Remy]
Lot 20: [Anon.] Trois belles Têtes, dont deux au pastel [3 livres 1 sol; [Pierre] Remy]
Lot 39: Vingt-sept Desseins, dont plusiers belles Têtes au pastel, d'après M. Pierre [5 livres; [Jean-François-Marie] Bellier]

Rev. James Hector de COURCELLES (1838–1930) lent a pastel by Opie (Wolcot) to the Paris 1911 exhibition. He was the son of an organ bulder, plain John Courcelle, and initially taught music before taking a degree at Worcester College, Oxford as a mature student. He was rector of Ardrossan 1874–77 but held no office after 1891, living on independent means at 24 Arundel Gardens, Notting Hill.

Auguste COURTIN (1825–1875), illegitimate son of the grammarian Charles-Pierre Chapsal. He inherited the château de Poulangis, became maire de Joinville-le-Port in 1856 and was a member of various scientific and charitable societies.
Paris, Escribe, 29.III.1886:
Lot 77: La Tour, auto

Phoebe COWLES (fl. 2004), San Francisco, the daughter of Cheney Cowles of Spokane, whose family made its fortune in publishing. She is a collector of old master paintings, and donated a painting by Oudry to The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.
New York, Christie's, 23.I.2004:
Lot 63, 61: La Tour, M. & Mme Belle-Isle

The Earls COWPER (fl. 1953). Panshanger House, built by the 5th Earl, was demolished in 1953, and the Sotheby's sale followed. The Mengs pastels were presumably acquired by George Nassau Clavering, 3rd Earl Cowper (1738-1789), whose portrait Mengs also painted. A Rembrandt portrait had been sold in 1911 to the NGA, Washington.
Dictionary, genealogy
London, Sotheby's, 16.X.1953:
Lot 9: Mengs, 2 allegories

Charles-Antoine COYPEL (1694-1752), pastellist.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m., Paris, Mariette, 27.III.-.IV.1753:
Antoine COYPEL
Lot 270: Deux Têtes de Femme au pastel: Etudes pour les Tableaux de la Galerie du Palais Royal, dont une sous glace. [divided: 21 livres 12 sols & 15 livres 16 sols]
Lot 276: Quatre Etudes de Têtes au pastel ou aux trois crayons. [12 livres]
Lot 277: Cinq autres Etudes de Têtes aussi au pastel ou aux trois crayons [divided: 7 & 12 livres 4 sols]
Charles COYPEL
Lot 279: Le Portrait du Roi en Apollon, peint au pastel, sous glace [23 livres 19 sols; abbé Démée]
Lot 280: Le Portrait du même prince dans son enfance, aussi peint au pastel, & pareillement sous glace [20 livres; Silvestre]
Lot 281: Le Portrait de feue Madame la Dauphine Infante d'Espagne, & celui d'un homme; l'un & l'autre peint au pastel [12 livres 14 sols]
Lot 282: Portrait de Mgr le Duc d'Orléans étant Duc de Chartres, peint au pastel; il est sous glace [17 livres; St. Philippe]
Lot 283: Le Portrait de Mademoiselle de Charolois, & celui de Madame la Marquise de Sévigné, peints au pastel [72 livres; Gouvernet]
Lot 284: Le Portrait de l'Ambassadeur Turc qui vint en France peu après l'avénement du Roi à la Couronne, & celui de son Fils, qui dans la suite a été lui-même Ambassadeur à la Cour de France; peints au pastel [20 livres; Silvestre]
Lot 285: Portrait de M. de Mondonville, Musicien célebre, peint au pastel [24 livres; St. Philippe]
Lot 287: Deux Têtes dessines au pastel, & un sujet de Vierge, dessiné aux trois crayons [11 livres 1 sol; Babaut]
Lot 288: Deux Etudes faites au pastel sur le naturel, l'une pour la Tête de Joseph, & l'autre pour celle de la femme de Putiphar, dans un tableau qui a été peint par M. Charles Coypel, & qui représente Joseph accusé par cette femme impudique [b/i]
Lot 289: Trois Têtes, peintes au pastel d'après nature, une de Vieillard & deux de jeunes gens [13 livres 4 sols; Helle]
Lot 290: Deux autres Etudes de Têtes au pastel, une de jeune homme, & l'autre de femme, dont M. Charles Coypel s'est servi dans le tableau où il a représenté la Peinture chassant de chez elle le Génie de la Poésie [27 livres; Helle]
Lot 291: Deux Têtes peintes d'après nature au pastel, l'une de femme qui dans un Tableau de M. Coypel reprsente Athalie, & l'autre d'un jeune homme [18 livres 10 sols; Démée]
Lot 292: Qutre autres Etudes de Têtes au pastel ou aux trois crayons [20 livres 2 sols]
Lot 293: Deux Têtes peintes au pastel, & copiées d'après un Maître Italien; elles sont sous glace [31 livres 10 sols]
Lot 294: Une Tête d'homme pareillement peinte au pastel, & copiée par M. Charles Coypel pour son étude, d'après un tableau du Titien qui est au Palais Royal [24 livres 4 sols]
Lot 295: Le Portrait du Ministre Swalmius, copié par le même au pastel, d'après le tableau de Rembrandt, au Palais Royal [36 livres 1 sol; Joullain]
Lot 296: Cinq Etudes de Têtes, dessinées aux trois crayons ou au pastel, dont celle d'un enfant [7 livres 19 sols]
Lot 297: Deux Paysages peints au pastel, & enrichis chacun de figures: ils sont sous des glaces [97 livres; Valade]
Lot 298: L'Amour se faisant un arc, copie au pastel faite par M. Charles Coypel, du tableau du Correge qui est au Palais Royal: elle est sous une glace [72 livres; St. Philippe]
Antoine COYPEL
Lot 345 [part]: plusieurs Têtes au pastel [36 livres 6 sols for whole lot; Glomy]
Meubles de peintre
Lot 502. Sept Tiroirs remplis de Pastels de meilleurs Fabriques; telles que celles de Moule, Charmeton & autres. Plus, un petit corps d'Armoire, contenant quatre Tiroirs, pareillement remplis de Pastels, lesquels se détailleront lors de la Vente.
Bijoux
Lot 550: Une Boîte ronde d'écaille, tournée par Mlle Maubois, montée en or, & renfemant un petit tableau en pastel dont le sujet est l'Amour endormi.

Philippe COYPEL (1703-1777), frère de Charles Coypel.
Vente p.m., Paris, 11.VI.1777:
Lot 42: Adrienne Lecouvreur, par Charles-Antoine Coypel [La France rendant grâces...]
Lot 43: Le portrait de Louis XV, de grandeur naturelle, au pastel, par le même, sous glace
Lot 43 bis: Les Quatre Saisons, 4 pastels par le même
Lot 44: Une jeune fille vue à mi-corps & de face; elle tient un masque, par le même. 23 pouces x 18 pouces [96 livres] [?Mme de Mouchy]
Lot 45: Jeune fille tenant une colombe, par le même, d'après le pastel de Rosalba
Lot 46: Le portrait en buste d'une jeune Dame, peinte au pastel par le même, sur peau. Haut. 15 pouc. larg. 12 pouc. sous glace

Quentin CRAUFURD (1743–1819) made his fortune with the East India Company, retiring to Paris in 1780 with his companion Anna Eleonora Franchi, known as la belle Sullivan. His first posthumous sale took place at his hôtel de Créquy, Alexandre & Peytouraud, 20.XI.1820 & seq.; Lots 374–77 were pastels by La Tour of Voltaire, Crébillon, Nivelle de La Chaussée and Duclos.
Lit.: Gonzague Mézin, Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de l'art français, 2009, pp. 335–61; Oxford DNB

Crespi, v. Leonardi

Anselme-Alphonse CRIGNON DE MONTIGNY (1812-1877), conseiller d'État, politician from Orléans, whose vast medal collection was dispersed on his death (Paris, 1-6.III.1880). His son, Anselme-Guy-Gaston (1847-1898), officier du génie, had no interest at the time, but soon afterwards became fatally ill, and decided to devote his remaining years to reassembling his father's collection. The 1899 sale that took place shortly after the Gaston's death included a group of miniatures as well as large numbers of coins, medals, cameos and intaglios, but only one pastel.
Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, 24-27.V.1899:
Lot 314: La Tour [Ducreux], Mme Poisson

La comtesse [Gigault de] CRISENOY de Lyonne, née Jenny-Louise Hufflen (fl. 1934), wife of Charles, comte Crisenoy de Lyonne (whose mother was a Montesquiou-Fezensac), owned a pastel by Capet (homme) in 1934. Sales of Chinese and French ceramics and objets d'art took place in 1971 (Paris, Drouot, Ader, Picard, 19.V.1971). Henri-Pierre-Charles, baron de Crisenoy (1882-1930), son of the painter Pierre-Émile de Crisenoy (1827-1902), owned a Perronneau (homme) in 1923; this may have descended from the Tourolle family (his grandfather and greatgrandfather were both married to members of this family).
Lit.: Révérend

Edward CROFT-MURRAY (1907-1980), keeper of prints and drawings, British Museum, from 1954 to 1972; specialist in British art.
Lit.: James Byam Shaw, Burlington magazine, cxxiii/935, .II.1981, pp. 99-100
Pastels: Cotes, Bridget Gunning; Luttrell, Lutma; Rembrandt's mother

Marc-Antoine-Nicolas, marquis de CROISMARE (1694-1772), friend of Rousseau, Grimm and Mme d'Épinay. The Mengs pastels were reported by Diderot in 1763.
Pastels: Mengs, courtisane; philiosophe

François-Ernest CRONIER (1840-1905) [Crosnier in many sources]. Of humble origins, Cronier was trained as an engineer at the École polytechnique; his talents were spotted early by the French sugar magnate, Henri Say. Cronier rose to be managing director of the firm and after Say's death trustee of his estate. He also founded the Sucreries d'Égypte. The vast Say fortune was estimated at up to Fr100 million; Say's widow lived in a mansion on the Champs-Élysées, while Cronier and his family bought an important house on the rue de Lisbonne. He acquired French and English 18th century portraits, as well as paintings by Watteau and Fragonard, from Gimpel and others during the period 1898 until his suicide in .VIII.1905 following the failure of his speculations on the sugar market. Acting in concert with Jaluzot, founder of the Printemps department store, they used the Say estate to take an enormous long position which proved disastrous when the price of sugar halved. Criminal proceedings against Jaluzot commenced, while Cronier took cyanide and simultaneously shot himself. The posthumous sale in 1905 does not include all his collection, as he occasionally made exchanges. The sale, which yielded Fr5,198,031, contained important pictures by Fragonard and Chardin, and attracted much attention at the time: "Exposition Cronier où tout Paris se rue", according to Marguerite de Saint-Marceau in her Journal, although Gide noted in his "Toute cette collection sent un peu le miglionnaire."
Lit.: Alexandre 1905; Bouyer 1905; Daurel 1905; Gimpel 1963; New York Times, 24.IX.1905
Vente p.m., Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil, 4-5.XII.1905:
Lot 38: La Tour, Coventry; Lot 39: Perronneau, Mme Le Boucher de Richemont, sd 1770; Lots 40, 41: Perronneau, inconnu; inconnue; La Tour, Earl & Countess of Coventry; Schmidt; Russell, child; La Tour, Schmidt

Antoine CROZAT de Préserville (1630-1690), banker from Toulouse. His two sons, Antoine II Crozat du Châtel (1655-1738) and Pierre Crozat "le pauvre" (1665-1740), moved to Paris in 1703. While Antoine continued to increase his vast fortune through international trade, Pierre's attention was concentrated on legendary art collection, including some 400 paintings and 18,000 drawings at his hôtel in the rue de Richelieu. Part of the collection was sold after his death for the benefit of the poor; some of these sheets were acquired by the duc d'Orléans. The paintings were inherited by his nephew Louis-François Crozat, marquis du Châtel (1691-1750); after his death, the sculptures were sold at auction in 1751, while the paintings were divided between his children. Those of the sons were subsquently acquired by Louis-Antoine Crozat de Thiers, place Vendôme (himself an amateur draughtsman). After his death in 1770, the collection was sold to Diderot as agent for Catherine II, and is now in the Hermitage. The act of sale (AN MC/MI/RS/517, 4.i.1772) includes a catalogue of "tableaux, pastels et dessins" running to 39 pages; the total price was 460,000 livres. Catherine II also acquired a number of pictures from the estate of the marquis du Châtel's daughter, the duchesse de Choiseul. A group of pastels by Wallerant Vaillant were said to have been acquired from Crozat by prince Galitzin (q.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996; NGA website; Baron Desazars, "La famille Crozat", Revue des Pyranées, XX, 1908, pp. 88–105; 237–65; Cordélia Hattori, "Contemporary drawings in the collection of Pierre Crozat", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007; Livre-journal de Lazare Duvaux, marchand-bijoutier, 1748-1758, ed. J. Courajod, Paris, 1873, I, p. cccxi; Ziskin 2012
Pierre Crozat, vente p.m.: Paris, Mariette, 10.IV.-13.V.1741:
Lot 111: Quatre, idem, [Desseins de Raphaël Sancio d'Urbin] dont le Carton en grand d'une tête de femme, pour un tableau représentant les Amours d'Acis & de Galathée, qui a été gravé par Silvestre de Ravenne, & qui peut être de Jules Romain étant encore sous Raphaël : une Etude de quelques figures nües pour le tableau de la Transfiguration, & la tête d'une des Graces de la Loge de Chigi, dessiné en pastel par M. le Brun. [50 livres; Gouvernet]
Frederic Baroche d'Urbin
Cette collection de Desseins du Baroche, est extrêmement précieuse. M. Crozat en a apporté d'Urbin les principaux Desseins; quant aux Têtes en pastel qui sont d'une beauté singuliere, & telles qu'on les devoit attendre d'un Peintre qui marchoit de fort près sur les traces du Correge, il les trouva à Venise chez M. Chechelberg [Chelchelsberg]. Cet amateur qui en connoissoit le prix, les avoit toujours conservé sous des glaces. Au reste, ces Desseins confirment ce qu'on dit les Auteurs, des précautions singulieres que prenoit le Baroche pour conduire ses ouvrages au point de la perfection; car les Etudes pour un même tableau y sont multipliées de telle sorte, qu'on n'imagine pas qu'un homme ait pû avoir la constance de pousser aussi loin le travail
Lot 223: Trois Desseins, dont la premiere pensée très-arrétée du tableau de l'Annonciation qui est à Lorette, & dont on a une si belle Estampe du Baroche [24 livres 3 sols; Hecquet]
Lot 227: Cinq, idem, dont le Mariage de sainte Catherine [72 livres; Agard]
Lot 228: Huit, idem, dont la Vierge à l'oiseau, qu'à gravé Corneille Corn [20 livres 15 sols; Hecquet]
Lot 230: Douze, idem, dont la sainte Vierge dans le Ciel, partie du tableau de l'Eglise de saint François à Urbin [26 livres 10 sols; Agar]
Lot 231: Quinze, idem, dont la Visitation de sainte Elisabeth, grande & belle Composition qui a appartenu à Pierre Lely [32 livres 14 sols; Fremin]
Lot 235: Trois Têtes en pastel [22 livres; Tessin]
Lot 236: Trois autres belles Têtes en pastel [30 livres 1 sol]
Lot 237: Trois, idem, dont la Tête d'un Religieux qui regarde en bas [60 livres 12 sols; Hecquet]
Lot 238: Trois, idem, dont l'Etude pour la belle Tête de sainte Micheline [90 livres 10 sols; Tessin]
Lot 239: Trois, idem, dont la Tête d'une des Saintes femmes du tableau de la Descente de Croix [100 livres 1 sol; Agar]
Lot 240: Quatre, idem, dont une Tête de Vieillard [100 livres; Tessin]
Lot 241: Douze autres Têtes & Etudes diverses [12 livres 10 sols; Hecquet p. Mariette]
Lot 242: Douze, idem, [9 livres; Filleul]
Lot 245: Quinze, idem, [8 livres 1 sol; Agar]
Lot 246: Un grand Dessein du Baroche, représentant Jesus-Christ porté au tombeau: c'est sur ce beau Dessein qui est d'un fini & d'une conservation parfaite, qu'a été gravée l'Estampe de Gilles Sadeler [100 livres 1 sol; Hecquet p. Mariette]
Lot 247: Deux grands & beaux Desseins du même Maître; l'un représentant Jesus-Christ descendu de dessus la Croix, & l'autre S. François recevant les Stigmates: le premier est une très-belle Esquisse pour le tableau; & l'autre a servi à Villamene pour graver sa planche [30 livres; Tessin]
Lot 249: Sept grands Desseins du Baroche, dont quatre de Païsages [10 livres 1 sol; Agar]
Jacques & François Bassan
Si le Bassan s'étoit contenté de faire des Desseins, il ne jouiroit pas de la réputation qu'il s'est acquise; ses Desseins tous indécis qu'ils sont, acusent cependant, il faut l'avouer, de la couleur, & c'est ce qui les fait rechercher.
Lot 704: Vingt Desseins, dont l'Etude d'une femme portant son enfant, en pastel [42 livres; Noury]
Almanach des Beaux-Arts, 1762, collection de Pierre Crozat:
Petit salon: cinq têtes en pastel de Mlle Rosa Alba; Petite galerie: une tête de femme de profil, pastel de Mlle Rosa Alba; les Quatre Saisons avec leurs attributs, en pastel, & un portrait de profil, en pastel, de la même main…; plusieurs petits portraits au milieu desquels est placé celui de la comtesse d'Evreux, pastel de Mlle Rosa Alba; une Vierge en pastel, de la même.
Catalogue des tableaux du cabinet de M. Crozat, baron de Thiers, Paris, 1755:
Troisième Pièce. Le Carton original du l'Étude au pastel de la tête de la Sainte Vierge, que le Correge avoit peinte dans la tribune de l'Église de S. Jean à Parme: de 22 pouces de haut, sur 18 pouces de large.
Petit salon: Sur une Armoire en treillage de fil de laiton, cinq têtes en pastel de Mlle Rosa Alba.
Petite galerie: Une tête de femme de profil, pastel, de La Rosalba: de 11 pouces & demi de haut, sur 9 pouces de large.
Et, les quatre Saisons représentées par autant de demi-figures de Femmes qui en portent les attributs; aussi en pastel, & par la même Rosalba: tous les quatre de 9 pouces de haut, sur 7 pouces de large.
De l'autre côté, vis-à-vis, un Portrait de profil au pastel, par La Rosalba, de 17 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces de large.
Et d'autres petits Portraits, au milieu desquels est placé celui de Madame la Comtesse d'Evreux, pastel sous glace; par La Rosalba: de 23 pouces de haut, sur 18 pouces de large.
Près de la fenêtre, à la droite, une Vierge en pastel; de la Rosalba: de 16 pouces de haut, sur 13 pouces de large.

Henri CRUSE (1861-1944), wine grower in Bordeaux, and his wife, née Georgina de Luze, donated a pastel by Perronneau (Majence de Camiran) to the musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux in 1924. In 1920 Cruse and his brother Frédéric (1854-1933) donated an oil portrait of Tourny by Allais to the same museum. Henri also owned a group of portraits from Wertmuller's Bordeaux period.

Mrs Malvina Virginia CUNLIFFE (1889-1962), of South Street, Mayfair: her bequest to the V&A in 1963 included three pastels as well as a group of miniatures and a collection of English silver. Sales of Chinese porcelain and other items took place in London, Sotheby's, 7.V.1963.
Pastels: Carriera, tyrollienne; Lawrence, Baker; Read, Mrs Garrick

Marie-Albert, vicomte de CUREL (1827-1908), art collector. His posthumous sale was scheduled for 3.V.1918 but eventually took place in Paris, Georges Petit, Dubourg, Lair-Dubreuil, 25.XI.1918, and included Perronneau pendants of M. & Mme Pommeret.

Casimir Perrin, marquis de CYPIERRE (1784-1844), amateur painter and collector of eighteenth century paintings (Chardin, Watteau), some acquired under the guidance of Théophile Thoré. None of the nine pastels in his sale is known even from reproductions today.
Lit.: Bulletin de l'alliance des arts, 25.XII.1844, pp. 179f; 10.II.1845, pp. 242f; Gabriel Girod de l'Ain, Les Thellusson, historie d'une famille, Paris, 1977; Chardin 1979; NGA website
Vente p.m., Paris, Thoré, 10.III.1845 & seq.:
Lot 155: Tocqué [éc. fr.], ?Mme Goeffrin; Lots 164, 169, 170. 171, 173, 175, 176, 187: Boucher, inconnues

CZARTORYSKI. A number of members of this family were active patrons and collectors, notably Adam Kazimierz, prince Czartoryski (1734-1823) and his wife, née comtesse Izabella von Flemming (1746-1835), who employed the pastellists Marteau and Kucharski.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996

Mme C...
Vente p.m., Paris, 22.II.1860:
Lot 15: La Tour, inconnue

M. C., possibly a descendant of Joseph Ducreux.
Paris, Mauger, Féral, 16-17.XI.1917:
Ducreux, Lot 12, auto; Lot 13, sa femme; Lot 14, fillette; Lot 15, enfant endormi

D

Joseph-Honoré-Désiré DAIGREMONT (1790–1866), inspecteur général des fortifications. His broad ranging collections were dispersed in a series of sales from 1861. Not to be confused with the miniaturist Louis-Narcisse Jacops, marquis d'Aigremont (Lille 1768–1829).
Vente p.m., Paris, 3-7.IV.1866:
Lot 265: La Tour, 11 croquis

Richard DALTON (c.1713-1791), antiquarian, surveyor of the King's pictures. His collection, "removed from his late Apartments at St James's and his House at Twickenham", was sold in three parts, with Christie's taking charge of the pictures; sales of medals and drawings took place over the following weeks.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997
Vente p.m., London, Christie's, 9-11.IV.1791 [postponed from 8–9.IV.1791]:
9.IV. 1792, Lot 71: Nine [7] miniatures in crayons by Luttrel, large and small portraits various, framed and glazed [£1/10/-; Hillington]
11.iv.1791, Rosalba CARRIERA:
Lot 17: A portrait of a lady in crayons, in the character of Ceres [£5/15/-; Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of St Albans]
Lot 29: The portrait of Seb. Ricci, ditto of Marco Ricci, in crayons [£9/19/-; Grosier]
Lot 30: General Morillio, ditto [the portrait] of Antonio Zanetti [£3/10/-; Mrs Russel]
Lot 51: Two heads in crayons, fine, of a boy and girl [£6/8/-; Grosier]
Lot 52: Three [heads in crayons] [£2/2/-; Duke of St Albans]
Lot 69: Three heads in crayon, by Rosalba, 1 a small English portrait by S. White [£1/11/-; Walpole]
uncertain, part lot: [Jackson], Samuel Cooper

[Louis-Antointe Le Vaillant], chevalier de DAMERY (1723-1803), officier aux gardes, collector of pictures, dispersed in Paris sales in 12.VII.1774 & seq. (prints) and 18-19.XI.1803 (drawings and paintings).
Lit.: Lugt 2862; W. McAllister Johnson & Véronique Meyer, "Le Chevalier de Damery (1723-1803) et la gravure de collections privées en France au XVIIIe siècle", Nouvelles de l'estampe, 223, 2009, pp. 8-49
Pastels: Boucher, jeune femme; Carriera, Poésie; Coypel, Medée

Edward DANIELL (1807-1892), art dealer and auctioneer, London. The British Museum acquired approximately 1000 drawings or prints from him, including a pastel by Drummond.

Auguste DANLOS (1839–a.1928), son of Alexandre Danlos (1811– ), from Montmartin, both experts and dealers in prints and drawings, 15 quai Malaquais. Auguste's posthumous sale included an important collection of early prints.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, 6.VI.1928:
Lot 48: Boucher, Mme Deshays; Lot 49: Boucher, Mme Baudouin

Joseph DARAM, sgr de Castilhon et de la Bastide-Constance (1704-1789), and his son Guillaume-Louis Daram (1732-p.1793) were both important collectors, lending several pastels by Mlle Barbet and Pillement to the Salons de Toulouse between 1781 and 1786.
Dictionary, artists

David DAVID-WEILL (1871-1952), président du Conseil des musées, major collector and donor to the Louvre, the musée Carnavalet, the musée Antoine Lécuyer and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. He was born in San Francisco and spent 13 years in the USA before his family returned to France. After the Lycée Condorcet, he joined the banking firm Lazard Frères owned by his uncles in the 1890s, and married Flora Raphael in 1897. His interests ranged from paintings and miniatures to oriental art and antiquities - some of which appear in a Vuillard portrait of him. During the war some of the collection was seized by the ERR; pastels included a Greuze jeune fille and a Nanteuil, Hardouin. After his death, his collection of miniatures was split into two groups, one given to the Louvre and the other bought by Wildenstein and sold complete to Sir Charles Clore. David-Weill's philanthropic tradition is continued by his grandson Michel David-Weill.
Lit.: Ch. Morice, "La collection David-Weill...", L'Art et les artistes, .VIII.1907, pp. 227-235; Henriot 1926-28; Paris 1956a; Jeannerat & Clouzot 1957; Gimpel 1963; Chardin 1979; Donateurs 1989; Grove 1996; Rosenberg 2007; Stourton 2007; NGA website
New York, Parke-Bernet, 22-23.V.1959
London, Sotheby's, 10.VI.1959:
Lot 71: Boucher [Lemoyne], Louis XV; Lot 95: Hoin, auto; Lot 100: La Tour, Mme Savalette; Lot 101: La Tour, Deschamps; Lot 102: Vigée Le Brun, Le Moyne; Lot 107: Perronneau, mse d'Anglure; Lot 114: Nattier [Carriera]; duc de Bourgogne [Friedrich Christian]
Other pastels: La Tour, Pigalle

Henry DAWKINS (1698–1744) of Clarendon, Jamaica, made his fortune from sugar plantations in Jamaica. His eldest son, James Dawkins (1722-1757), started his Grand Tour in 1744 when he inherited his father's estates; he developed an interest in archaeology, and collected pictures; apart from his own portrait, he commissioned a set of the Seasons from Rosalba. His brother Henry, the subject of a pastel by La Tour, was admitted to the Society of Dilettanti on the strength of James's celebrity. Their pictures descended to Henry's grandson, the Rev. Edward Henry (1794-1859), of Morhanger House, near Sandy, Bedfordshire; Fellow of All Souls, vicar of West Markham, Nottinghamshire, 1828; ∞ 1835 Elizabeth Cooper. The collection passed to their son Edward Henry Frederick Dawkins (1837-1912) before the 1913 sale.
London, Christie's, 28.II.1913:
Drawings: Lot 2: J. STUART, James Dawkins of Laverstoke [10/6; James]
Pastels: Lot 3: Queen Caroline, in red dress, seated [2 1/2 gns; Murray]
Lot 4: James Colyear Dawkins as a boy [11 gns; Clay]
COTES. Lot 5: Charles, Earl of Portmore [210 gns; Cartwright]; Lot 6: Charles, Duke of Marlborough [4 gns; Madeline]; Lot 7: Caroline, Lady Scarsdale [74 gns; Cartwright]
Lot 8: GARDNER, Mary, Countess of Portmore [60 gns; Agnew]
HAMILTON. Lot 9: James Dawkins [80 gns; Toogood]; Lot 10: the same, ov. [40 gns; Edward Gallery]
Lot 11: Hoare, Countess of Dorchester [45 gns; Agnew]
LELY sch. Lot 12: Charles II [35 gns; Sabin]; Lot 13: Catherine of Braganza [40 gns; Agnew]; Lot 14: Mme de la Revière [45 gns; Agnew]; Lot 15: Duchess of Cleveland [40 gns; Agnew]
Lot 16: Caroline [Katherine] READ, James Colyear Dawkins, in white frock and cap, blue sash, oval
Lot 17: CARRIERA, James Dawkins [120 gns; Agnew]
Lot 18: Q. de LA TOUR, Henry Dawkins [2120 gns; Agnew]

Jean-Élie-Octave-Louis-Sévère-Amanieu, duc DECAZES et Glücksbierg (1864-1912), grandson of Louis XVIII's statesman, and son of the diplomat; he married Isabelle-Blanche Singer (1869-1896), heiress to the Singer sewing machine fortune; she committed suicide. Marguerite de Saint-Marceaux 2007 called him "un imbécile". He lent pastels by Perronneau to the Cent pastels exhibition in 1908.
Pastels: Ducreux, Louis XVII; Perronneau, Dumas; Luckner
v.q. Fellowes; Singer

Mme Éléonor DÈCLE, née Alexandrine Leclanché (1808–c.1896), from a distinguished family of scientists, she married a négociant from Paris in 1825. Her brother Léopold worked with Philippe Auguste Jeanron on a translation of Vasari, and founded "La Société Libre de peinture et de sculpture". She bequeathed a group of four mythological pastels by Vigée (as well as paintings by Trinquesse and Margurite Gérard) to the Dijon mBA in 1896.

Pierre DECOURCELLE (1856-1926), the son of the dramatist Adrien Decourcelle (a collector of faïence) and great nephew of the playwright Adolphe d'Ennery (who collected far eastern art), Decourcelle was also a man of letters and collector. He started his career as a journalist on Le Gaulois; his first play was L'As de Trèfle, while his greatest success was Les Deux Gosses, a melodrama concerning a stolen child. He later turned to the cinema. He built up a collection of French 18th century engravings from the age of 40 before switching to old master drawings and then paintings. He sold these in 1911; a collection which cost Fr400,000 sold for Fr1.5 million (Matilda Gay noted "the exorbitant prices fetched at this sensational sale - the high water-mark of frenzied snobbishness"). But he restarted collecting immediately, repurchasing some of his own collection at the sale and later. His widow, née Louise Edmée About ( -p.1950), inherited the collection, and a number of drawings were sold in 2002.
Lit.: Jean-Louis Vaudoyer, "La collection de M. Pierre Decourcelle", Les Arts, 111, 1911, p. 6; Pierre Breton, introduction to Christie's 2002 catalogue; Rieder 2000
Paris, Georges Petit, 29-30.V.1911:
Lot 66: Boucher, jeune femme; Lot 74: Boze, Mlle Boze; Lot 102: Labille-Guiard, Robert; Lot 103: Labille Guiard [Ducreux], [??]Mme Poisson; Lot 118: La Tour, auto; Lot 119: La Tour, Pommyer; Lot 120: La Tour, attr., Destouches; Lot 122: Le Noir, femme 1764; Lot 137: Perronneau, Cochin; Lot 154: Carriera, jeune fille à la colombe; Lot 155: Russell, man
Paris, Christie's, 21.III.2002:
Lot 318: Labille-Guiard [Ducreux], ??Mme Poisson

Edgar DEGAS (1834-1917) inherited a number of pastels from his father, the banker Auguste de Gas (1807-1874). The group consisted of five pastels thought to be by La Tour, four of which seem to have been acquired by Auguste de Gas in an anonymous Paris sale, 20-21.V.1873, including versions of Marie-Josèphe and Mme de Pompadour, the inconnu now in the musée Jacquemart-André (of which Degas made a copy in oils which is now in Lausanne), and an unknown officier, then thought to be by La Tour, but in fact by Ducreux. All four, with a further La Tour magistrat, were lent to the Paris 1874a exhibition. Degas also owned a Rosalba autoritratto. A Perronneau oil portrait, Mme Miron, was also part of the collection; it appears in Degas's pastel portrait of his sister Thérèse of around 1869. Degas frequently visited Saint-Quentin. Shortly after the death of his father, the affairs of the family bank obliged Degas to seek to sell much of the collection, and some of the pastels were acquired by Hector Brame.
Lit.: Dumas & al. 1997; Reff 1971; Reff, forthcoming edition of Degas letters
Paris, Georges Petit, 26-27.III.1918; 15-16.XI.1918

C. Barry DELANY (1815-1888), MD 1853, resident physician at the Kilkenny district lunatic asylum and collector of drawings.
Lit.: Lugt 350
Pastels: Tilson, Turner

Mrs Patrick DELANY, née Mary Granville, Mrs Alexander Pendarves (1700-1788), amateur pastellist and collector. Her will included pastels by Liotard and Pond.
Dictionary, artists

Paul DELAROCHE (1797-1856), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, 15-17.VI.1857:
Lot 33: La Tour, Louis XVI

Robert Edward DELL (1865-1940), journalist, first editor of the Burlington magazine, 1903-06; he resigned to become Paris correspondent of the Manchester Guardian, and also owned Shirleys Ltd, a gallery at 9 boulevard Malesherbes. In a review of the Doucet sale for the Burlington, Dell expressed infuriation that a pastel by La Tour should fetch more than a canvas by Fragonard. He was expelled from France after the war, having criticised the the French Government's peace negotiations in 1917. He later lived in New York. He lent several pastels to the Paris 1911 exhibition, which he organised with his associates Max Rothschild and R. R. M. Sée (qq.v.). Dell's attribution of two pastels to Engleheart (q.v.) seems improbable.
Lit.: dictionaryofarthistorians.org
Pastels: W. Hamilton, Adelaide Payne; Phelps, Handel

M. & Mme DELLEZENNE (fl. a.1818).
Vente p.m., Paris, Jean-Claude-Marie Narjot, Martin, 19.V.1818 & seq.:
Lot 40: copie d'après Boucher: Tableau peinte en pastel, représentant Jupiter et Léda, accompagnée d'une nymphe. D'une très-bonne couleur et grande franchise d'exécution [Fr 34; Aubé]

Peter DELMÉ (1710-1770), of Huguenot origins. He was the son of Sir Peter Delmé ( -1728), a successful merchant who became Lord Mayor of London and a governor of the Bank of England. His son became an MP in 1741, and he was well known as a patron and connoisseur. Although his wealth earned him the nickname of Peter the Tsar, his prodigious spending led to financial difficulties and he shot himself at his London home, 15 Grosvenor Square. Delmé commissioned Arthur Pond to make numerous copies after Rosalba Carriera. The attribution of the pastels in the 1790 sale (presumably that of his son, Peter III, 1739-1780) should be treated with caution. Peter II's younger brother John ( -1776) travelled to Italy with Robert Dingley, and joined the Society of Dilettanti in 1736.
Vente p.m., London, Christie's, 13.II.1790:
Lot 21: Rosalba, Two fancy heads in crayons, elegantly framed and plate glass [6 gns; Munroe]

Jean-Baptiste-Gustave DÉLOYE (1838-1899), sculptor and collector of drawings; he made a large bequest to the musée de Picardie, Amiens.
Lit.: Lugt 756; Boyer 1997
Paris, Chevallier, 12-15.VI.1899:
Belle, femme

Marie-Joseph-Hector DELZONS (1821-1895), greffier de justice de paix in Paris, then juge de paix at Arthenay. A descendent of the Chevotet and Rémond families, he bequeathed an important group of pastels to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Orléans.
Dictionary, genealogy, Rémond
Lit.: Klinka-Ballesteros 2005
Pastels: Perronneau, M. & Mme Chevotet; Valade, 5 pstls

Abbé DEMÉE [du Mée] (fl. a.1772)
Vente p.m., Paris, Joullain, 11-12.VI.1772:
Lot 22: [Anon.:] Quelques Portraits, peints au pastel, qui seront détaillés [38 livres 16 sols]

Anatole Nikolaievich DEMIDOV, prince de San Donato (1812-1870), a member of the wealthy Russian family, educated in Paris. After his father's death in 1836, he took charge of the family villa at San Donato near Florence, part of which he turned over to a workshop for the manufacture of silks, while also enlarging the extensive art collection. An expedition to the Crimea which he organised in 1837 resulted in the numerous scientific publications. In 1840 he married Napoleon's niece, princesse Mathilde (q.v.), but they were separated in 1848. Demidov's collections and titles passed to his nephew Paul Demidov (1839-1885).
Lit.: Anatole Demidioff, prince of San Donato (1812-70), exh. London, The Wallace Collection, 1994. Cat. Francis Haskell, Robert Wenley & David Edge
Paris, 26 boulevard des Italiens, Charles Pillet, 26.II.1860: II: Tableaux anciens, école française.
Paris, 8-10.III.1860: III: Aquarelles…pastels…:
Lot 396: Greuze, La petite tricoteuse
Lot 397: Greuze, Franklin
Lot 398: Freij [Frey], marquise du Châtelet, 1758
Lot 399: Nanteuil, Molière
Lot 400: Scheffer, Maria Theresia

Albert DEMONS (1842-1920), professeur, specialist in bone surgery. Legacy to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux in 1927, with a further item in 1937 from Mme Demons.
Pastels: I. Bernard, dame; La Tour, Marie-Josèphe; Marie Leszczynska; Vigée, dame; Éc. fr., 6 inconnues

Georges Joseph DEMOTTE (1877-1923), Belgian antiques dealer and restorer. Based in Paris, rue de Berry c.1920, he had opened a business in New York by 1923. He was in competition with Duveen, and accusations of forgery of goods supplied by Demotte led to a defamation action that ended when Demotte was found dead near Versailles. His business passed to his son Lucien, who committed suicide in 1934. Demotte Inc. held exhitions of Persian miniatures and mediaeval French sculpture and stained glass in New York between 1929 and 1934.
Pastels: Perronneau, Agard; abbé Journu; J-B. Journu; Mme Legrix; Mme Molles

Pauline-Léontine-Elisabeth Mesnage, dite Mme DENAIN (1823-1892), de la Comédie-Française, mother of the wife of the composer Léo Delibes.
Paris, Chevallier, 6-7.IV.1893:
Lot 33: Ducreux, Femme
La Tour:
Lot 34/35: M. & Mme Grimod de la Reynière
Lot 36: Mlle Sallé

Dominique Vivant, baron DENON (1747-1825), artist and arts administrator.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Vente p.m., Paris, Masson, Pérignon, 1-19.V.1826:
BAROCCI
Lot 267: Belle tête de religiuex, au crayon et au pastel [21.95 avec 535]
Taddeo ZUCCARO (1509-1566)
Lot 311. Portrait d'un pape, présumé celui de Paul III, au crayon et au pastel [8s]
ROSALBA CARRIERA
Lot 343: Un pastel fort intéressant, représentant le portrait de l'auteur; elle est vue en buste, presque de face et de grandeur de nature. Celui-ci, outre son intérêt historique, a l'avantage d'une conservation parfaite; il avait été acheté à Venise et rapporté par M. Denon. [93 livres; ?Brusset]
HALLÉ
Lot758: Le portrait de M. Denon dans sa jeunesse; il est en buste de trois quarts; ce portrait est exécuté aux pastels fixés.
HUET
Lot 760: Dessin au pastel, représentant une jeune fille dans un paysage et jouant avec un mouton; un autre, dans la même manière, représantant un jeune paysan passant un ruisseau avec deux moutons. [16 livres]
Lot 761: Un dessin au crayon et au pastel, représentant la basse-cour d'une ferme, avec figures et animaux; un dessin au pastel, représentant un coq et des poules. [?3 livres]
LA TOUR
Lot 817: Un pastel, portrait de Crébillon, vu en buste et de trois quarts; ce pastel joint au mérite de l'exécution un caractère de vérité remarquable. [30 livres]
LOTS DE DESSINS ES ARTISTES VIVANTS
Lot 882: ...deux portraits peints au pastel par un artiste allemand; l'un est celui de la reine de Prusse.

Aignan-Thomas DESFRICHES (1715-1800), draughtsman, patron and collector from Orléans. Dutch paintings figured strongly in his collection, but the pastels seem mainly to have been Perronneau's portraits of members of his family. In an inventory of 3.IX.1760, Perronneau's painting of the artists Gillequin (a present from the artist) was valued at 30 livres, while the pastel of Defriches's nephew Robbé de Beauveset was estimated at 72 livres, the same value as given to a Chardin still-life, Faisan et gibecière (now in Berlin). His daughter Perpétué-Félicité (1745-1834) married Jean Cadet de Limay; at her p.m. sale (Paris, Bonnefons, Paillet, 6-7.V.1834), two Perronneaus (Robbé de Beauveset and L'Aurore) were bought by Alphonse Gatineau (q.v.).
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Chatelus 1991, pp. 297ff; Ratouis de Limay 1907; Grove; Klinka-Ballesteros 2005
Pastels: Perronneau, Mme Cadet de Limay; Cochin; M. & Mme Desfriches; Robbé

DESMARETS: several members of this family of engravers, experts and collector/dealers may be referred to in the late-18th century sale records, which include pastels by Boucher and Carriera. The premises of "Desmarest, graveur depuis 1761" are still preserved in the Palais-Royal.A large collection of drawings and prints were in the 1778 sale; possibly the same vendor as the dealer in the 1797 sale of "J. Desmarets, cessation de commerce". A Desmarets was a commissaire priseur from rue du Bouloi, c.1800.
Lit.: Lugt 792
Paris, Hayot, Basan, 24.IV.1778 & seq.:
Lot 520: L'étude d'une jolie femme, au pastel; elle tient des pêches dans un mouchoir. 24 sur 18 de lar. par la Rosalba [699 livres 19 sols]
Paris, Le Brun, 17.III.1797 & seq.:
Lot 104: Deux têtes, l'une de femme, l'autre d'homme, de forme ovale, pastel, Haut.r 12 po. larg.r 9 po. ½ [62 livres; Alexandre-Louis Roëttiers de Montaleau]

E.-Auguste DESPERET (1804-1865), draughtsman, engraver and collector; his collection of some 650 drawings was sold over six days.
Lit.: Bénézit; Lugt 721
Vente p.m., Paris, Delbergne, 7-13.VI.1865:
La Tour, Lot 510: Louis le dauphin; Lot 511: inconnu

G. DES SÉZURS (fl. a.1876) [untraced].
Paris, Rouseau, Geoffroy, 4.XII.1876:
Lot 3: La Tour, inconnue

Gabriel-Hippolyte DESTAILLEUR (1822-1893), architect and collector, noted for his neo-rennaissance designs and restorations of châteaux in France and England (Waddesdon Manor). His albums of architectural drawings are in a number of public collections, including Berlin and St Petersburg. The Bibliothèque nationale de France received 1328 drawings and engravings as a donation in 1890, and later purchased another 3500 sheets. Three pastels were acquired at the 1896 sale by the musée Carnavalet.
Lit.: Lugt 740
Paris, Delestre, Morgand, 19-23.V.1896:
Barocci, femme; La Hyre, La Hire; Troost, ?auto

Arnoldus Andries DES TOMBE (1818-1902), The Hague: his collection (which included a Liotard, Mme Saint-Pol, as well as Vermmer's Girl with a pearl earring) was open to the public, before passing to his nephew, J. W. des Tombe (1861-1926), Plompetorengracht, Utrecht.
Lit.: Quentin Buvelot, "Collecting history: on Des Tombe, donor of Vermeer's Girl with a pearl earring", Mauritshuis bulletin, XVII/1, .III.2004

Henri DEUTSCH DE LA MEURTHE (1846-1919), a member of the family which made its fortune from petrol refining and the development of aviation fuel; the firm was later taken over by Shell. They were also supporters of the arts. His daughter, Mme Henri Goldet, inherited the La Tour pastel which was given to Versailles.
Pastels: La Tour, ??La Pouplinière

Eugène DEVÉRIA (1805-1865), peintre.
Paris, 29.IV.-3.V.1839:
Lot 77: La Tour, dames

Antoine-Joseph DEZALLIER D'ARGENVILLE (1680-1765), secrétaire du roi, celebrated naturalist, connoisseur and collector. His influential Abrégé de la vie des plus fameux peintres appeared in four volumes, 1745-52; its technical analysis, particularly of drawings, drew on his own extensive collection. This was dispersed in two sales (1766 and 1779, following his widow's death). His son Antoine-Nicolas (1723-1796), also a magistrate, was the author of the Voyage pittoresque de Paris (1749) and des environs de Paris (1755), of several gardening treatises, and of an extension of his father's work, the Vies des dameux architectes et sculpteurs… (1787). Nicolas's sister married Jacques-Claude de Bèze de Lys (q.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Jacqueline Labbe & Lise Bicart-Sée, La Collection de dessins d'Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville, Paris, 1966; Chatelus 1991, pp. 286f; Grove 1996; Lise Bicart-Sée, "Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville: supplement of newly identified drawings from his collection", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007
Inv. p.m., AN MC xlix 749 10.XII.1765
Dezallier d'Argenville, vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 3.III.1766 & seq.:
69. Une jolie Tête de Femme un peu panchée, vue de trois quarts peinte en pastel sur papier bleu, par Rosalba Carriera: sous verre & bordure noire.
70. Une autre Tête de Femme vue de face, peinte en pastel, par le même Rosalba Carriera, sous verre & bordure dorée.
71. La Tête d'un Zéphyr, de grosseur naturelle, dans une bordure noire.
72. Le Buste d'un jeune Homme, tenant une carotte, peint en pastel, par François Boucher, sous verre & bordure dorée. [14 livres]
73. Une Jolie Tête de Femme, coëffé en cheveux, avec perles & rubans, vue de profil, peinte en pastel par le même François Boucher, sous verre & bordure noire. [9 livres]
74. Autre Tête de Femme, par Noel Coypel, sous verre & bordure noire.
Dezallier d'Argenville: Paris, 18-28.I.1779:
Lot 550: Lafosse, femme

Denis DIDEROT (1713-1784), philosophe, editor of the Encyclopédie, art critic, acted for Catherine II in acquiring numerous pictures.
Lit.: Grove 1996

Henri-Paul-Marie DIDIER (1823-1868), député for Ariège. According to one source, "Il s'est un peu occupé d'art, un peu de littérature, beaucoup de lui-même et fort peu de politique." He owed his position to his brother Edouard, préfet de l'Ariège, and the influence of docteur Véron (q.v.) whose collection he bought and resold a few months later at auction under Véron's name (17-18.III.1858). Didier died in a lunatic asylum shortly after delivering his only speech to the Assemblée nationale in 16 years.
Paris, Drouot, 15-17.VI.1868:
Lot 158: La Tour, Mme de la Réynière; Lot 159: La Tour, Dupouch; Natoire, jeune fille
Other pastels: La Tour, Jeaurat; Mlle Sallé

François DIDOT (1689-1757) established the printing business in Paris which was continued by an extended dynasty. The celebrated type founder was Firmin Didot (1764-1836). (He may have been the Didot whose sale took place in 1825.) His son, Ambroise-Firmin Didot, later known as Ambroise Firmin-Didot (1790-1876), diplomat and traveller, took over the business in 1827. He was interested in classical literature, typography, paper making and engraving, and his reference books on the Drevets and Les Graveurs de portraits en France, 1875-77 are of great use. He presumably assembled the collection of 18 pastels and drawings by Wallerant Vaillant which were lent to the Paris 1888 exhibition by his son Alfred Firmin-Didot (1828-1913), also a printer. The group was then broken up, but five pastels them presumably passed to his son Maurice Firmin-Didot (1859-1925); in 1927 they were with Maurice's two daughters, the comtesse Jean de Montbron, née Germaine Firmin-Didot (1891-1968), of La Jarne, Charente-Maritime, and Mme Jacques Cochin, née Marthe Firmin-Didot (1889-1973).
Didot: Paris, Henry Lacoste, 6-9.IV.1825:
Pastels: Greuze, La Crainte; Lot 156: Vigée Le Brun, Vénus liant les ailes de l'Amour; Lot 198: Prud'hon, jeune femme
AFD: vente p.m., Paris, Delestre, 16.IV.-12.V.1877: no pastels

Marie-Antoine DIDOT DE SAINT-MARC, or Saint Marc Didot ( -1835), cousin of Pierre Didot from the printing family; collector and art historian, active from c.1795. After his death his widow married Abel Vautier, a parlementaire from Caen.
Paris, 20-21.V.1835, Lot 12: Carriera, inconnue
Paris, Bonnefons, 16-17.XII.1835, Lot 50: La Tour, Mme du Châtelet

Andrea DIEDO, patrizio veneziano, probably the senator (1691-p.1761) who, as state inquisitor 1754-55, convicted Casanova. A group of 5 pastels by Rosalba was apparently acquired from him by August III. in 1753, through his agent Minelli. They cannot now be identified specifically.
Lit.: Henning 2009, p. 283

Basil Lewis DIGHTON (1870-1930), antique dealer of 3 Savile Row, London from around 1900, expert in prints as well as furniture. Lawrence & Dighton's French line engravings of the late eighteenth century was published in 1910. The case of Shrager v Basil Dighton Ltd (1924), in which he was sued by a dissatisfied client, is frequently cited as a legal precedent.
Pastels: Carriera, La Filosofia (2); Doré, jeune femme; Gardner, Williams-Wynn

Robert DINGLEY (1710-1781), merchant, director of the Bank of England 1757-67, connoisseur, Dilettanti 1736, FRS 1748. He travelled in Italy in 1733-34, and wrote to Rosalba Carriera on 18.VI.1735 to acknowledge safe receipt of his own portrait and to commission a version of a pastel he had seen at Consul Smith's. He also owned a version of Felicità Sartori, engraved by Houston, which may have been the second pastel the artist told the English merchant Peter Philip Jamineau would shortly be sent to Dingley.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997

Geoffrey DODGE (1887–1941), interior designer, explorer and dealer. A Yale graduate, he moved to Paris during the First World War, and opened an antiques shop in the rue Bayard, moving later to the place Vendôme. He was Walter Gay's agent. His elder brother was Murray W. Dodge, a partner in the firm of Bertron, Griscom & Co. founded by S. Reading Bertron (q.v.), the previous owner of Dodge's La Tour.
Lit.: Rieder 2000
Pastels: La Tour, Jullienne

Campbell DODGSON (1867-1949), keeper of prints and drawings, British Museum, 1912-32; collector.
Pastels: Greenhill, lady

Dodington, v. Melcombe

Henry DOETSCH (1839-1895), German industrialist, of 7 New Burlington Street, London, collector of old master pictures.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 22-25.VI.1895:
Lot 452: La Tour, Mme de Pompadour

Georges-Camille DŒUILLET (1865– ), of Boulevard Haussmann, fashion designer, awarded Légion d'honneur in 1911. Initially manager of Callot sœurs, his business merged with that of Jacques Doucet after Doucet's death in 1929 but closed in 1932.
Paris, Georges Petit, 27.IV.1932:
Lot 34: La Tour, Montalembert; Lot 36: Perronneau, homme; Lot 37: Russell, jeune femme

Joseph-Auguste-Fernand DOL (1847-1928), of 126 Boulevard Malesherbes, Paris, from an aixoise family; his legacy to the musée Granet in 1942 contained a version of La Tour's Rousseau formerly attributed to Perronneau.
Lit.: Ph. Henry Ely, "La collection Fernand Dol, au musée d'Aix-en-Provence", Les Arts, 28.XII.1945

Félix DOISTAU (1846-1936), French industrialist, amateur painter and collector, with interests ranging from XVIIIe enamels and boxes to ceramics and Gobelins tapestries. His main collection of some 169 miniatures was exhibited in the Bibliothèque nationale in 1906. It was then initially lent and finally given to the Louvre in 1919. He also gave generously to the musée Guimet and Musée des arts décoratifs.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, Georges Petit, 9-11.VI.1909:
Lot 59: La Tour, attr., homme; Lot 88: Duplessis, Gluck; Lot 89: Duplessis [Lenoir], jeune fille; Lot 91: Mme Fragonard, jeune fille; Lot 92: Hoin, père; Lot 93: Perronneau, Le Normant du Coudray

Vincent DONJEUX ( –1793), reçu à l'Académie de Saint-Luc 1755, négociant de tableaux et curiosités. He collaborated with Remy on providing expertises for estate inventories.
Lit.: Michel 2008
Vente p.m., Paris, Jeluseau, Le Brun & Paillet, 29.IV.1793:
Lot 13: Mengs: Deux pastels: l'un représente un jeune homme, l'autre une jeune fille, avec les attributs de l'innocence; ils sons de proportion demi-nature et vus á mi-corps. Ces deux morceaux dont on rencontreroit difficilement les pareils, réunissent l'agrément et la grace á la beauté. Haut. 23 pouces, larg. 18 pouces 6 lignes, de forme ovale et sous glace. Ils viennent de la vente du Baron d'Olback. N.2 de notre catalogue, vendus 1,200 livres. [601 livres; Matou?]
Lot 39: Rosalba Carriera: Deux charmans pastels; le premier offre une jeune fille vue á mi-corps, coëffée en cheveux, la gorge en partie couverte d'une draperie, et tenant dans ses mains une colombe. Le pendant représente une jeune fille aussi vue á mi-corps, vêtue d'une draperie bleue, et tenant un paquet de fleurs. Haut. 20 p. larg. 15 p. 8 lig. Ils viennent de la vente de notre cabinet, No. 262, vendus 200 liv. [210 livres; Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun]
Lot 460: Charles Coypel: Le portrait d'une jeune demoiselle assise, vue jusqu'aux genoux et ajustée d'une palatine, parure de fleurs, etc. Ce morceau est peint au pastel et sous verre. Haut. 28 p. larg. 24, [81 livres 1 sol; Boën]

Comte Arnauld DORIA (1890-1977), art historian, of 23 avenue d'Iéna, Paris 16e in 1922. Author of monographs on Capet, Tocqué etc.
Pastels: Frédou, bailli de Foresta

Georges DORMEUIL (1856-1939), Paris, head of the textile firm founded by Jules Dormeuil in 1842. He created an important collection of mediaeval works (his first piece was bought at the age of 16), many acquired with advice from Marius Paulme, who prepared an illustrated manuscript catalogue of the whole collection. In addition to a donation to the Louvre, Dormeuil gave an important series of Saint-Aubin drawings to the musée Carnavalet. He lent pastels by La Tour and Perronneau to both the Cent pastels (Paris 1908a) and Paris 1927a exhibitions. His collection was preserved and continued by his children and grandchildren.
Lit.: P. Verlet, "La donation Dormeuil au département des objets d'art", Bulletin des musées de France, .XI.1946; Donateurs 1989
Paris, Sotheby's, 19.XI.2007: ivoires et émaux du Moyen Age
Lonodn, Sotheby's, 3.vii.2013
Pastels: La Tour, Dupouch; Lemoyne; Perrinet de Jars; homme; Perronneau, Dutillleu; Mme Lemoyne; Van Robais; enfant 1744; femmes (2)

Jacques DOUCET (1853-1929) made his fortune as owner of one of the leading houses of haute-couture in Paris from 1895. He also assembled one of the most important collections of XVIIIe drawings, pictures and objets d'art in his hôtel on the rue Spontini. A watercolour by Adrien Karbowsky shows the main drawing room around 1905 with a wall on which four La Tour pastels are hung among Chardin, Ducreux, Lawrence and Reynolds canvases. The sale of this collection by Lair-Dubreuil in 1912 achieved an astonishing 15,272,796 francs – not to universal approval: "Les prix atteints par les bibelots de la vente Doucet révoltent les braves gens. Acheter 600 000 francs une tête de Latour, l'accrocher à son mur, immobiliser de tels capitaux est une manière de rendre les infortunés criminels", wrote Mme de Saint-Marceaux in her Journal. After the sale, Doucet moved to Neuilly, where he started a new collection, of the avant garde of his day. To both of these he brought his legendary perfectionism. He supported a number of writers (Suarès, Max Jacob, Reverdy, Breton, Aragon) and left to the université de Paris two libraries, the Bibliothèque d'art et d'archéologie and the Bibliothèque littéraire. Part of his collections descended in the family to his great-nephew Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud and are now part of the Fondation Angladon in Avignon.
Lit.: Maurice Tourneux, "Collection de M. Jacques Doucet", Les Arts, 36, 1904, p. 4, 5, 16; Seymour de Ricci, Gil blas, 6.VI.1912; A. Joubin, "Jacques Doucet", Gazette des beaux-arts, .II.1930, p. 75ff; Gimpel 1963; Élisabeth de Gramont, La Femme et la robe, Paris, 1952; Chardin 1979; F. Chapon, Mystère et splendeurs de Jacques Doucet, 1853-1929, Paris, 1984; Donateurs 1989; Grove 1996; Gazette Drouot, 31.III.2000, p. 79; Jean-Louis Gaillemin, Antiquaires, Paris, 2001, p 41; Gérard Allouche, "La razzia des milliardaires", Gazette Drouot, 20.II.2004, p. 126; Saint-Marceau 2007, p. 706
Paris, Drouot, Paul Chevallier, 6.III.1899
Paris, Drouot, Paul Chevallier, 16-17.V.1906:
Lot 77: Perronneau, homme
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil, Baudouin, 5-8.VI.1912:
Lot 70: Carriera, auto [est. Fr4000, Fr9500; vicomte d'Arjuzon]; Lot 71: Carriera [Coypel], tête d'étude [est. Fr4000; Fr13,000; vicomte d'Arjuzon]; Lot 72: Ducreux, la fille de Sophie Arnould [est. Fr10,000; Fr19,000; vicomte d'Arjuzon]; Lot 73: Greuze, La mère bien-aimée [est. Fr40,000, Fr 35,000; Danlos, pour Edmond de Rothschild]; Lot 74: La Tour, Jars [est. Fr120,000, Fr110,000; Wildenstein]; Lot 75: La Tour, Duval de l'Épinoy [est. Fr300,000, Fr600,000, Henri de Rothcshild, contre Mme Watel-Dehaynin]; Lot 76: La Tour, Belle-Isle [est. Fr50,000, Fr46,000; Jules Strauss]; Lot 77: La Tour, marquise de Belle-Isle [est. Fr50,000, Fr40,000; Jules Strauss]; Lot 78: La Tour, Mme Grimod de La Reynière [est. Fr200,000, Fr95,000; Duchesne]; Lot 79: La Tour, Marguerite Le Comte [Fr120m,000, Fr105,000; Emile Deutsch de la Meurthe]; Lot 80: La Tour, inconnu [est. Fr25,000; Fr 25,000; Stettiner] [Cognacq-Jay]; Lot 81: La Tour, marquise de Rumilly [est. Fr30,000; Fr43,100; Founès]; Lot 82: La Tour, jeune fille brune [est. Fr40,000; Fr25,800; Pierre Decourcelle]; Lot 83: La Tour, jeune fille [est. Fr12,000; Fr11,500; Stettiner] [Cognacq-Jay]; Lot 84: La Tour, D'Alembert [est. Fr5000; Fr8100; Stettiner]; Lot 85: Perronneau, enfant, 1744 [est. Fr60,000; Fr77,000; Georges Hoentschel]; Lot 86: Perronneau, Bastard [est. Fr50,000; Fr 116,000; Guiraud, pour David-Weill, contre Emile Deutsch]; Lot 87: Perronneau, jeune femme, 1749 [est. Fr80,000; Fr75,000; Mme Vernaut-Vernon, pour E. Veil-Picard?]; Lot 88: Perronneau, Dutillieu [est. Fr40,000; Fr28,100; Lasquin]; Lot 89: Perronneau, Van Robais [est. Fr50,000; Fr87,000; Leprieur, pour le musée du Louvre]; Lot 90: Perronneau [Glain], femme [est. Fr20,000, Fr10,500; Trotti; Lot 91: Éc. fr. [Bernard], femme [est. Fr15,000; Fr14,000; Graat

Chevalier Roger DRAGON DE GOMIECOURT, bibliophile and collector of pastels and drawings.
Lit.: Renart 1908, no. 7661

Dr Anton C. R. DREESMANN (1923-2000) was the third in a line of collectors that stretches back over a century. His grandfather Anton Dreesmann (1854-1934), co-founder of the Vroom & Dreesmann department stores (still the largest department store chain in The Netherlands), was a distinguished collector, while the Rijksmuseum acquired some pieces at the sale of his son Willem's collection in 1960. Although Anton was particularly interested in Dutch art, his collection was much broader, and was noted for its eclectic character. Among a significant holding of French drawings are several sheets by Lemoine and a pastel by La Tour. In addition to the sale of old master pictures and drawings; portrait miniatures, gold boxes and objects of vertu on 11.IV.2002, sales of impressionist and modern art and of European furniture, works of art and Chinese export porcelain took place on the preceding two days.
London, Christie's, 11.IV.2002:
Lot 634: La Tour, ?Fel

Hippolyte DREUX (1800-1884), Paris collector with many interests. At the Lemoyne sale in 1828 he bought a Vivien pastel which reappeared in two of his sales, Paris, Ridel, 7-8.II.1851, Lot 73; vente p.m., Paris, Delestre, 27.V.1902, Lot 56.
Lit.: Lugt 694–95; 1302–03

Carle DREYFUS (1875-1952), of 101 boulevard Malesherbes, Paris 8e, in 1922, youngest child of Gustave Dreyfus (1837-1914), the collector of Italian renaissance objects (his collection was bought by Joseph Duveen). He joined the Louvre in 1901 and rose to become conservateur en chef. He made extensive donations to various museums. A Louis Dreyfus donated a pastel by Perronneau (Mme Miron) to a charity auction in 15.VI.1917, and owned Perronneau's Mme Dutillieu; he may have been Louis Louis-Dreyfus (1867-1940), grandson of the founder of the banking branch of the family, or his brother, Charles-Louis Dreyfus (1870-1929), who owned a La Tour pastel (Silvestre).
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Collection Carle Dreyfus légué aux musées nationaux…, Paris, Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, 1953

Le vicomte Jean-Baptiste-Adolphe DU BARRY (1749–1778), officier aux Gardes du roi. Comte Jean du Barry was protector of the young Jeanne Bécu, who married his brother, comte Guillaume du Barry, while she was Louis XV's mistress. Jean's son Adolphe was the vendor in the 1774 sale. Mme du Barry's own collections were dispersed in a number of sales, notably by Paillet, 17.II.1777 & seq.
Paris, Remy, Le Brun, 21.XI.1774 & seq.:
Lot 134: [Anon.]: Deux petits tableaux, l'un peint à l'huile, l'autre au pastel, de forme ovale, ils représentent des fleurs dans des vases [21 livres]

Jean DUBOIS (fl. 1901–27), collector of dessins et objets de curiosité du XVIIIe siècle. His 1901 sale included one pastel. A later sale took place at Drouot on 21–22.iii.1927.
Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Paulme, 7.III.1901:
Lot 20: La Tour, attr., femme

M. DUBOIS (fl. Paris 1782), marchand de tableaux. He acted on behalf of the duc de Choiseul in sales in the 1760s.
Lit.: Michel 2008
Paris, 12.III.1782:
Lot 163: Hall, tête de jeune fille

William DUBOSC ( –1704): an advertisement appeared in the Post man for 25.XI.1704 advertising "Several Pictures in miniature, being History, Fruits, Flowers, Landskips, &c. Some others in Pastelle. Several Prints in Frames and without Frames, with Designs, Figures, Copper-plates, Books, &c. belonging to Mr Wm Dubosc deceas'd. Are to be sold at reasonable rates at Mr Peter Lecompte's, Linnen-Draper, in Panton-street, near Leicester Fields". (source: artworld.york.ac.uk/Friedman.jsp)

DUCLERC (fl. a.1847), ancien gouverneur de l'Inde, commissaire général de la Marine, Dunkerque.
Vente p.m., Paris, Hôtel des commissaires-priseurs, place de la Bourse, Jacquin, Durand, 22-23.II.1847:
Lot 52: La Tour, inconnue

M. DUCLOS le jeune (fl. a.1792).
Vente p.m., Paris, Le Jeune, Le Brun, 2.IV.1792 & seq.:
Lot 167: Boucher, Trois Pastelles, dont deux sujets d'aprés F. Boucher, et un portrait. Le tout sous verre

Ducreux, v. Gendron

Ernest-Ange DUEZ (1843-1896), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, 11-12.VI.1896:
Lots 220, 221, 222: La Tour, inconnus

Leonard G. DUKE (1890-1971), CBE, major collector of British drawings and watercolours, many sold at Sotheby's in seven sales in 1970 and 1971. A number are now in the British Museum and the Yale Center for British Art (q.v.).
Lit.: Judy Egerton, "L. G. Duke", Old Watercolour Society's Club 49th annual vol., 1974, pp. 11-30.
Pastels: Gardner, Lady Minto; Mrs Mounsey; Greenhill, Charles II; Hamilton, clergyman; man; Hickey, J. Hickey; Hoppner, Issom; Luttrell, Butler; Richardson, J. Richardson, Jr; Russell, woman

Alexandre DUMAS (1824-1895), fils, de l'Académie française 1874; dramatist, author of La Dame aux camélias 1848, illegitimate son of the novelist of Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, dit Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870), in whose memoirs is the story of a pastel by La Tour belonging to M. Villenave (q.v.). Dumas fils owned pastels by Fragonard, La Tour (Silvestre) and Perronneau (Le Normant). A sale took place in Paris, Oudart, Barre, 28.III.1865, and included a pastel of Mme de Polignac, by Vigée [Le Brun], Fr101.

Louis DUMOULIN [?(1896-1943)], Paris art dealer.
Pastels: Capet, homme 1781; Davesne, Député; La Tour, Mlle Ferrand; Lenoir, Charton

Charles E. DUNLAP (1889-1966) of Philadelphia, nephew of the coal magnate Edward Berwind, under whose guidance (and that of Forsyth Wickes, q.v., a family friend) Dunlap developed an interest in French XVIIIe art. He was a generous donor to Harvard and the Fogg Art Museum; his gifts of some 50 French pictures included a Boucher portrait of Mme de Pompadour as well as some pastels by La Tour (auto; dame).
Lit.: Cambridge 2005

La marquise DU PLESSIS-BELLIÈRE, née Marie de Pastoret (1817-1897), of Paris and the château de Moreuil, Somme, daughter of Amédée-David, marquis de Pastoret (1791-1857), sénateur, a descendant of Rouillé de l'Étang.
Paris, Drouot, 10-11.V.1897:
Lot 155: Anon., femme; Lot 157: Greuze, attr., femme; Lot 162: La Tour, Mme Rouillé; Lot 163: M. Rouillé; Lot 164: Jars, attr.; Léomenil, Pastoret

DUQUESNOY, collectionneur.
Vente p.m., Paris, rue de la Loi, 20.II.1803:
Pastels – Charles Coypel
75. La Magdeleine en Prière. Hauteur 25 pouces; largeur 20 pouces 6 lignes. [15 livres]
76. Dix-sept sujets et têtes, d'après P. P. Rubens, Ant. Coypel, François Boucher, J.-Bapt. Greuze & autres. [65.60 livres]

Jean-Pierre DURAND (fl. 1951), Geneva, art collector, son-in-law of the dealer Matthiesen and member of the Galerie Durand-Matthiesen in Geneva, owned a Perronneau inconnue in 1951.

DURAND frères (fl. 1817) [ou Galant]
Paris, Bonnefons, Henry, 8-9.XII.1817:
Lot 119: [Anon.] Portrait de femme représentée avec un chapelet à la main. [Miniatures, Gouaches, Pastels]

DURAND-RUEL & Cie (fl. Paris 1833–1922), established c.1833 in Paris. Initially a stationery shop, the firm developed into art dealing from its practice of exchanging artists' materials for pictures. Paul Durand-Ruel (1831-1922), the founder's son, was responsible for the firm's association with impressionism.

Sir Edwin DURNING-LAWRENCE, Bt, né Lawrence (1837-1914), MP, barrister and writer, with a particular interest in the proposition that Bacon was Shakespeare. His library was donated to University College, London, and he was also a donor to the British Museum. He formed a large collection of pastel sketches by Russell (many of which he had restored); several were donated to the NPG, London, and some to the V&A. One was inherited from his brother, Sir James Lawrence, Lord Mayor of London in 1868-69.
Lit.: Champney 1891

Francis Isaac DUROVERAY or du Roveray (1772–1849), Brunswick Place, engraver and illustrated book publisher, granted the freedom of London as a patternmaker in 1799. His sale included a large collection of books, engravings, sculpture and picutres of mixed quality. Of the drawings a number of sheets are now in the Louvre or at Chantilly.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 22-28.II.1850:
Lot 720: Lemoyne, Tête d'Hébé

Paul-Arnaud DUTASTA (1873-1925), ambassadeur de France à Berne 1918-20, secrétaire général de la conférence de la paix à Paris 1919.
Lit.: Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse
Paris, 3-4.VI.1926:
Lot 53: Boucher, jeune femme; Lot 65: La Tour, Mme Rouillé

DUVEEN Brothers, Inc. (fl. 1868–1964), established in 1868 by Joel Duveen (1843-1908), and later run by his son, Joseph Duveen, Lord Duveen of Milbank (1869-1939). He presented a Perronneau girl with a cat to the National Gallery in 1921. Lady Duveen had a pastel jeune femme attributed to Vigée Le Brun, and seven pastels by John Russell were included in her estate sale at Christies, 20.III.1984 (lots 63-69). Duveen's sister Florence (1886-1978) married René Gimpel (q.v.).
Pastels: Perronneau [Valade], Mrs Walpole

Rev. Alexander DYCE (1798-1869) bequeathed more than 14,000 books, nearly 150 pictures and miniatures, and a large number of prints and drawings to the V&A in 1869.
Lit.: Handbook of the Dyce and Forster collections in the South Kensington Museum, London, 1880
Pastels: Greenhill, Bristol; Jackson, Cooper; Kneller, man; Lely, man

L.-G. D... (fl. 1872)
Lyon, Gachod, 15.IV.1872 & seq.:
Lots 203-206: La Tour, inconnus

M. D... (fl. 1855), d'Orléans
Paris, 13.IX.1855:
Lot 16: La Tour, inconnu

E

Nelson EDDY (1901–1967), singer, actor and amateur painter and sculptor. He initially collected pewter but later turned to English 17th century and modern French painting. A pastel by Roslin, M. de Fries, was among the pictures sold by his descendents in 2009.

Mrs Thomas Stearns ELIOT, née Valerie Fletcher (1926-2012), widow of the poet, assembled a fine collection of drawings and miniatures to be sold in London, Christie's, 20.XI.2013, including a Gainsborough pastel, Duchess of Buccleuch.

ELISABETH CHRISTINE Königin von Preußen, née von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1715-1797)
v. Dictionary, artists

Mrs Augustus Van Horne ELLIS, née Anne Middleton (1859-1949): her donation to the New York Historical Society in 1940 included a pastel by Cotes (Rivington), while Dunlap's pastel of Washington, which had passed down in the Van Horne family, was given to the US Senate.

Theodore T. ( -1934) and Mary G. ELLIS of Worcester, Massachusetts: bequest to Worcester Art Museum, 1940. Ellis made his money in blanket manufacture, newspapers and printing; he was publisher of the Worcester Telegram and became co-owner of the Chicago Daily News in 1931. His art collection ranged from Winslow Homer to a painting once thought to be by Leonardo.
Pastels: Coypel, marquise de Lamure

Paul ENDEL (fl. 1958), author of works on curiosités, fakes etc.:
Paris, Charpentier, 21.III.1958:
Lot 145: Boucher, jeune dormeuse; Lot 157: Greuze, homme

The EPHRUSSI family of Greek financiers from Odessa made their fortune in grain in the first half of the 19th century. Ignaz von Ephrussi (1829-1899), founder of the Banque Ephrussi in Vienna, married Emilie Porgès (1836-1900, q.v.). His half-brother Maurice Ephrussi (1849-1916) ran the Paris branch of the bank, together with Théophile Porgès. Ignaz's nephew Charles Ephrussi (1849-1905), amateur art historian and collector, came to Paris c.1871 and lived at 11 avenue d'Iéna. He founded the Gazette des beaux-arts. His main interests were in Japanese prints and in contemporary French painting, but an essay on Dürer's drawings was also well received. Moving in the circles of Mme Émile Straus, Madeleine Lemaire and princesse Mathilde, he was considered to be a model for Proust's Swann. He never married, but had a liaison with Mme Cahen d'Anvers, née Louise de Morpurgo (1845-1926). His sister Betty married Maximilien Kann (1842-1901), and their daughter Fanny (1870-1917) married Theéodore Reinach (1860-1928); she inherited a Van Loo pastel from Charles's brother, Jules Ephrussi (1846-1915). Charles's uncles Michel (1845-1914) and Maurice (1849-1916) also lived in Paris. Mme Michel Ephrussi, who lived at 48, rue La Pérouse, Paris 8e, in 1922, owned two pastels by Mme Gault in 1920. Maurice married Béatrice de Rothschild (1864-1934); she built the Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild at Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat (v. Collections), which she bequeathed to the Institut de France.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Émile, baron d'ERLANGER (1832-1911), a banker from Frankfurt, settled in Paris in 1858. He donated the Goya murals from la Quinta del Sordo to the Prado in 1881, and financed the first performance of Tannhäuser at the Paris Opéra. His four sons and their descendants included bankers, collectors, composers and painters. Emile Beaumont (1866-1939), banker and patron of the arts, adopted British nationality; he lived at 139 Piccadilly, Lord Byron's house, and Falconwood. Rodolphe (1872-1932), painter and composer, built a palace in Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia, now a museum for Arab musical instruments, inherited by his son Leo (1898-1978) and his wife Edwina Prue (1907-1994). Frédéric d'Erlanger joined his brothers Emile Beaumont and Rodolphe in presenting the Drouais portrait of the comte de Vaudreuil to the National Gallery in 1927; the sitter had owned the Vigée Le Brun pastel which belonged to Baron Leo, in 1909; it passed to his sons, Leo and Gerald before its sale in 1946.
London, Knight, Frank & Rutley, 25.III.1946:
Lot 29: Vigée Le Brun, duchesse de Guiche

Ernest-May, v. May

ERR, v. Rosenberg

William ESDAILE (1758-1837), banker and collector, London. His enormous library and collections of 651 old master drawings, 553 prints, as well as paintings, sculptures and objets d'art were sold after his death by Christie's, 15-24.III.1838 and 25.VI.1840. Pastels by Luttrell and Hamilton may have been included.
Lit.: Lugt 2617
London, Christie's, 25.VI.1840:
Lot 1264: Lely, woman

Frédéric-Guillaume de Sahuguet-Damarzit, baron, dit comte d'ESPAGNAC (1750-1817), soldier and collector, emigrated to italy in 1791 with his son, the subject of a Vigée Le Brun painting now in the Wallace Collection.
Paris, Le Brun, 22.V.1793 & seq.:
Charles COYPEL
Lot 106: La France représentée par une femme assise et couronnée, tenant entre ses bras un enfant, tableau au pastel, sous glace. Haut. 18 pouc. larg. 13 pouc. [20 livres]
Lot 143: Un Christ mort, sur marbre noir, et un petit portrait de femme attribué à Rosalbe, [66 livres; Haslaver]
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 155: Une femme [?Felicità Sartori] de grandeur naturelle et vue à mi-corps dans un costume turc, tenant de la main gauche un masque noir. Ce morceau, du plus beau faire et du meilleur tems de Rosalba, est un de ses ouvrages les plus capitaux [250 livres; Le Brun]
Lot 156: Une jeune et jolie femme, blonde, vue en buste, la gorge en partie découverte, ayant dans les cheveux un bouquet de fleurs. Ce beau pastel est de la plus riche couleur et, de belle conservation. Haut. 16 pouces, larg. 14 p. Sous verre. [160 livres; Le Brun]

Hyacinthe-François-Joseph, comte d'ESPINOY (1764-1848), lieutenant-général, collector.
Vente p.m., Paris, 14.I.-9.II.1850:
Lot 924: La Tour, Voltaire

Paul EUDEL (1837-1912), rue Rougemont, and (1908) 4 rue Gustave-Flaubert, Paris; château de Gord, par Cellettes, writer and collector of furniture, portraits, drawings and pastels.
Lit.: Renart 1908
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Chevallier, Paris, 9-11.V.1898; 2e partie, en l'hôtel de M. Paul Eudel, 9 rue Victor-Massé, 12.V.1898:
Lot 9, Boucher, Jeune fille sommeillant, 40x31, de la vente Marmontel [??; FFr1105]
Lot 18: Labille-Guiard, L'Heureuse Surprise [FFr13,200; Laniel]
Lot 25: Nattier, princesse de Beauvau [FFr520]
Lot 31: Rosalba Carriera, dame [?Labia; FFr310]
Éc. fr.:
Lot 35: fillette [FFr1650]
Lot 36: marquise de Courteille [FFr72]
Lot 37: La jeune artiste, cr. clr [FFr450]

Edward EVANS, later A. E. Evans & Son, book and print sellers, 1 Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, later 403 Strand, active from before 1820 to about 1865. The firm had a very extensive stock of portrait engravings, and suplied a number of pastels (including the Lemoyne Tête d'Hébé) to the British Museum during the 19th century.

Dame Joan EVANS (1893-1977), mediaeval art historian, half-sister of the archaeologist Arthur Evans; in 1945 she gave a Russell pastel (The chalk writer) to the Courtauld Institute, of which she had been librarian. Her extensive collection of jewellery was bequeathed to the V&A.

F

James Oswald FAIRFAX (1933- ), collector, of Bowral, New South Wales. The eldest son of Sir Warwick Fairfax, he was a director of John Fairfax and Sons Pty Ltd and of Associated Newspapers Ltd until 1987. He has donated old master paintings to the National Gallery of Australia and to the Art Gallery of New South Wales.
Lit.: The James Fairfax collection of old master paintings, drawings and prints, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 17.IV.-20.VII.2003. Cat. Richard Beresford & Peter Raissis
Pastels: Liotard, Countess of Northampton

Famas, v. Le Hardy

Henry FATIO (1862–1930), banker, 22 Corraterie, Geneva, formed an important collection of manuscripts and incunabula, which was sold p.m. in Paris, Zurich and Milan in 1932; his widow owned a Petitot pastel (femme). Edmond Fatio (1871-1959), of Geneva, architect, historian and collector, particularly of baroque drawings. Principal sale, Geneva, Nicolas Rauch, 3-4.VI.1959; the sheets bear a collector's mark not in Lugt. He owned a pastel by Petitot (Lierre).

La princesse Charles-Marie de FAUCIGNY-LUCINGE, née Alix de Choiseul-Gouffier (1835-1915); great-granddaughter of the comte de Choiseul-Gouffier (q.v.), her first husband was the collector vicomte Frédéric de Janzé; they lived at the former Hôtel de la Vénerie impériale in the rue de Marignan with an important art collection. Two years after his death, she married Charles-Marie de Faucigny-Lucinge, prince de Lucinge, a great-grandson of Charles X by an illegitimate line, related also to the royal house of Württemberg. Her posthumous sale included several hundred paintings, mainly historical portraits.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Dubourg, Couturier, Féral, 26-30.XI.1917:
Lot 3: Éc. fr., Le prince de Grimberghem, pstl
Lot 4: Éc. fr., Jeune fille et jeune homme, en buste sur un fond de ciel, pstl
Lot 6: Marie-Antoinette, pstl a/r Kucharski
Lot 8: Maréchal de Saxe, pstl attr. Liotard
Lot 82: Éc. fr., Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, dans l'encadrement d'une fenêtre de pierre, toile.

William FAUQUIER (1708-1788), financier and collector.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997
=?Mr Fauquier, Anonymous sale, London, 12.IV.1758
Lot 52: Rosalba, Two of Diana's nymphs [22 gns; Lord Anson]

Sir Everard FAWKENER (1694-1758), British ambassador in Constantinople 1735-42, patron and collector of Liotard.
Sale p.m., London, Ford, 27.V.1759:
Liotard, in a frame and glass:
Lot 15: A gentleman's portrait from the life
Lot 16. Capt. Townshend
Lot 26: A Turkish lady small whole length
Lot 27: Liotard the painter
Lot 35: Mr Nelthrop in a Turkish habit
Lot 36: Lord Sandwich
Lot 44: A Russian general from the life
Lot 45: Its companion
Lot 46: The famous Count Bonneval
Lot 57: A Turkish lady and her slave, small whole lengths
Lot 58: A Turkish Janisary and other figures.

John FAYRAM ( –1744), oil painter who worked extensively for the Hervey family. After his death a notice in the Daily advertiser, 24.XII.1744 revealed that he had consigned a set of crayon copies of Rosalba's Four Seasons to a lady, possibly a Mrs Stukeley, for sale; she was asked to return them.

Léon-Guillaume du Tillot, marquis de FELINO (1711-1774), politician, prime minister of the Duchy of Parma, moderniser before his disgrace in 1771, founder of the academy of painting and the museum.
Vente p.m.: Paris, Guilleaumon, Paillet, 27.III.1775:
Lot 133: [Anon.]: Douze différens Portraits qui seront divisés, partie sont sous glace, les autres verre blanc, avec bordures dorées. [Pastel]

Mrs Daisy FELLOWES, née Marguérite-Séverine-Philippine Decazes (1890-1962), daughter of the duc Decazes (q.v.). After the suicide of her mother, Isabelle-Blanche Singer, she was brought up by her aunt, Winnaretta Singer, princesse Edmond de Polignac (q.v.). In 1910 she married Jean, prince de Broglie (1886-1918); there were three daughters (the comtesse de Castéja, the marquise de La Moussaye and Mrs Alfred Kraus). Soon after his death, she married (1919) the Hon. Reginald Ailwyn Fellowes (1884-1953), younger son of the 2nd Baron de Ramsay, a banker. Daisy Fellowes wrote several novels, of which Les Dimanches de la comtesse de Narbonne is best known. She became celebrated as a fashion icon (for designers such as Chanel and Schiaperelli; Cecil Beaton photographed her) and as wealthy hostess in her palace Les Zoraides in Cap Martin in the South of France. Among her celebrated purchases was the Tête de Bélier pink diamond from Cartier, originally a gift from Catherine the Great to Prince Potemkin, which she had reset. Her name was linked with the Prince of Wales before that of Mrs Simpson. Three Perronneau pastels were included in the 1937 sale.
Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Ader, 24-25.V.1935:
Perronneau, Lot 41: Luckner; Lot 42: dame; Lot 43: Dumas
Other pastels: La Tour, Philippe

Edmond Gustave Frisch, comte de FELS (1858-1951), diplomat and author, of Swedish origin, married Jeanne Lebaudy ( -1943) and inherited the Lebaudy sugar fortune. They entertained at 135, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. In 1892 they acquired the château de Voisins, which they rebuilt. De Fels also owned the Revue de Paris. Their daughter Edmée (1895-1991), who inherited the Ducreux, married the duc de La Rochefoucauld.
Pastels: Ducreux, Marie-Antoinette; La Tour, Mlle Fel

Maurice FENAILLE (1855-1937), de l'Institut, wealthy oil industrialist (reputed at an early date to have installed swimming pools in his various homes, as well as owning cars and aeroplanes). He was also an art collector and patron, and wrote monographs on Debucourt, the Gobelins and Jules Guiffrey.
Lit.: Paris, Christie's, 26.IV.2014 cat., p. 44
Pastels: Debucourt, sa femme; La Tour, princesse de Rohan; Valade, Mme Coustard; femme

Thomas Fitzroy Philipps FENWICK (1856-1938), grandson of the celebrated collector Sir Thomas Philipps, Bt.
Pastels: Luttrell, man 1694

Jules-Eugène FÉRAL-CUSSAC (1874-1944) [Jules Féral], expert and dealer, 7 rue Saint-Georges, Paris 9e, son of the painter-expert Eugène Féral-Cussac ( -1900) who had a galerie at 54 Faubourg Montmartre from the 1880s.
Sale p.m. (EFC), Paris, Chevalier, 22-24.IV.1901, Lot 32: Labille-Guiard, Cléopâtre
Sale p.m. (JF), Paris, 17.XII.1949.

Charles-Henri FÉRAULT (1877-1957), old master drawings dealer in Paris, rue La Boëtie, from 1909 to 1939, and then in Biarritz, where his main client was the Portuguese banker Espirito Santo. Férault's daughter Mme Léon Aymonier, née Geneviève Férault (1907–1969) continued the business in Paris (rue Roy, rue es Saint Pères, 18, chaussée d'Antin), specialising in 18th century drawings. She owned a Perronneau inconnue c.1969.

Augustin de FERRIOL, sgr d'Argental (1653-1737), président au parlement de Metz, brother of the French ambassador to Constantinople who had supported Vanmour and had his series of Turkish cosume drawings engraved. Ferriol had a series of six beauties made in pastel, no doubt by Coypel (q.v.), including one of the slave-girl Mlle Aïssé his brother had brought back to France. His son Charles-Augustin de Ferriol, comte d'Argental (1705-1788) was the friend of Voltaire, who gave him his portrait by de Wyl (q.v.). The Ferriols also owned the Coypel pastel of Adreienne Lecouvreur en Cornélie.

Maurice Feuillat (1873-1968), peintre amateur, critique & Pauline-Joséphine de Borsat-Haigre ( -1934) formed the collection FEUILLET DE BORSAT.
Lit.: Lugt 1864; Simone Bourlard-Collin, Donation Feuillet de Borsat, musée Borély, Marseille, Marseille, n.d.; Marseille 2001
Pastels: Garemijn, garçon; Dutch sch., Jordaens; Éc. fr., 2

Mme Hugo FINALY, née Eugénie, dite Jenny, Ellenberger (1851-1938), married her cousin, the Hungarian banker Hugo Finaly, in Budapest in 1870. A correspondent of Proust, she inherited the important library of her uncle, baron Horace de Landau (1824-1903). She owned La Tour's Lady Coventry.

Donato FINI ( –1692). His inventory (Rome, 10.VII.1692) included a pastel copy after Mola. His widow, née Livia Moretti, also had a picture collection.

Firmin-Didot, v. Didot

Eugène FISCHHOF [Fischof, Fischhoff] (1853–1926), Paris, horse breeder and art dealer. In 1885 he married Emma, daughter of the art dealer Charles Sedelmeyer (q.v.), and Fischhof became the New York representative of Sedelmeyer & Cie; his gallery was in Astor Court, New York. In 1900 he was appointed by Emperor Franz Josef chief commissioner for the fine arts in Austria. From 1890 Emma was linked with the society gynaecologist Samuel Jean Pozzi.
New York, Waldorf-Astoria, Silo, 23-24.II.1906:
Gainsborough, Queen Charlotte
New York, Waldorf-Astoria, Silo, 22-23.II.1907:
Lot 48: La Tour, comtesse de Montaigu
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil & Baudoin, 14.VI.1913:
Lot 12: Russell, Emily de Vismes; Lot 13: Russell, Phillip Serle; Lot 71: Carriera, JF [Elisabeth Farnese]

Joseph Henry FITZHENRY (1836-1913), FSA, dealer and collector, of 12 Thurloe Place, London. He advised J. P. Morgan on French porcelain and gave works of Romanesque and Gothic sculpture to V&A 1906-10. He lent pastels to the Paris 1911 exhibition.
Lit.: obituary, Museums journal, 1913, p. 322
London, Christie's, 21.XI.1913
Anon.: Lot 1: Lady; & gentleman; Lot 2: Girl & lady; Lot 3: 2 ladies; Lot 4: lovers
Lot 5: Hamilton, lady
Lot 6: Knapton [Cotes], gentleman
Lot 7 J. H. Tischbein [Schröder], princesse de Courlande
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreil, 18-21.II.1914
Other pastels: Cotes, man 1747

François FLAMENG (1856-1923), painter and engraver. A major sale took place in 1919 after the death of his wife, née Henriette Turquet.
Lit.: Charles Saunier, "La collection François Flameng", Les Arts, 165, 1918, p. 2; Chardin 1979; Donateurs 1989; Grove 1996; Saint-Marceaux 2007
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, 26-27.V.1919:
Lot 3: Boze, duc d'Enghien; Lot 27: La Tour, auto

Flamant, v. Bellanger

Jacques de FLESSELLES (1730-1789), intendant de Lyon. He supported the École royale gratuite de Lyon, established in 1756. A pastel by Liotard, l'enfant à la bougie, was bought for him by his wife, née Marie-Geneviève-Rose-Ursule Pajot (1731- ) in 1781, for the not inconsiderable sum of 50 livres.

André-Marie-Gaston Le Caron, baron de FLEURY (1863–1946), 1 rue de Pomereu, Paris 16e in 1922. In 1888 he married Marie-Hélène-Louise de Maillé de La Tour-Landry; they owned the château de Saint-Germer-de-Fly in the Oise.
?Paris, Drouot, 23-24.X.1941
Pastels: Ducreux, autoportrait

Ethel FLOERSHEIM (1876–1959), daughter of Louis Floersheim, naturalised British, financier, of London and Hove. A group of French and English pictures (including pastels by Bernard and Hamilton) were sold in a group sale, London, Christie's, 23.VI.1950. Some miniatures were sold in the following days.

Paul FLURY-HÉRARD (1836-1913), banquier, consul général of Japan in Paris in 1866.
Lit.: Lugt 1015; Claude Hamon, Shibusawa Eiichi (1840-1931), bâtisseur du capitalisme japonais, 2007, with portrait
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, 17-19.XI.1919:
Lot 45: Ducreux, Robespierre

Charles-Gabriel FORGET (1807-1873), landscape painter, pupil of Isabey.
Vente p.m., Paris, 17-19.III.1873:
Lots 381-383: La Tour, inconnus

Francis Hyde FORSHALL (1834–1907), forensic surgeon, 12 Southwood Lane, Highgate, son of the secretary of the British Museum, Dr Johsua Forshall; owned several Russell pastels in 1894.

Mme A. FOUCAULT (B&W) or FLORENT (Lugt).
Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, 10-15.V.1909:
Lot 675: La Tour, Mme Masse; Lot 677: Lion, inconnue; Lot 679, a/r Carriera, nymphe; Lot 681, éc. fr., inconnue

Baron Eugène FOULD-SPRINGER (1876-1929), who bought the Palais abbatial de Royaumont, Seine-et-Oise in 1923, acquired a Capet pastel Demetz from Paul Cailleux; it passed to his widow, née Marie-Cécile von Springer, dite Mitzi Springer (1886-1978), who became Mme Frank Wooster, 1934. Her daughter Liliane married baron Élie de Rothschild. Royaumont was sold, an the contents dispersed by Christie's, 19-21.IX.2011; the catalogue contains some biographical information. Lot 492 was a version of the celebrated Belle Potocka (Éc. fr.).

André FOULON DE VAULX (1873-1951), poet, who also wrote about Vestier and Boze. His bequest to the musée des Beaux-Arts at Tours included pastels by Hoin and La Tour.
Lit.: Boris Lossky, "Le Legs Foulon de Vaux", Revue des arts, 1954
Pastels: Chardin, garçon; fillette; Coypel, auto; Hoin, femme; La Tour, Voltaire

Sir Andrew FOUNTAINE (1676-1753), of Narford Hall, collector.
Dictionary, artists, s.v. Armstrong; Farington; Hoare

Paul FOURCHÉ (1840-1922), a merchant from Orléans, based in Bordeaux, made a major donation in 1907 to the musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans. A separate museum was built in 1908 to house his collection but was destroyed during the second world war.
Lit.: Klinka-Ballesteros 2005
Pastels: Boze, homme; Greuze, jeune fille; Lenoir, femme; Regnault-Delalande, homme; Vigée, Ballias; Vivien, homme; Éc. fr., inconnues (2)

Joseph-Marie-Colombe-Henri-Denis de Beccaria de Pavie, marquis de FOURQUEVAUX (1762–1842): a large collection of drawings and prints, mainly of the French school, was sold after his death in two sales. He was descended from Basile, marquis de Fourquevaux, associé de l'Académie de Toulouse, whose collection was preserved for more than a century in his château.
Lit.: Mesuret 1972, no. 1760
Paris, Drouot, Delestre, 18-20.IV.1876
Paris, Drouot, Delestre, 15-16.XII.1876

Mrs Byron C. FOY, née Thelma Irene Chrysler (1902-1957), New York and Locust Valley, Long Island, daughter of the automobile manufacturer; accumulated a large collection of eighteenth century and modern French works of art, including two La Tour pastels that belonged to D. David-Weill sold in her posthumous sale.
New York, Parke-Bernet, 22-23.V.1959:
Lot 633: La Tour, autoportrait; Lot 634: La Tour, ??Mme Dangeville

L. FRANC ( –1882): a large collection of miniatures, objets d'art etc., dispersed over six sales.
Paris, Chevallier, Mannheim, Féral, 22-24.XII.1881:
Lot 103: La Tour, princesse

Jacques-Anatole-François Thibault, dit Anatole FRANCE (1844-1924), the great French novelist, mentions pastels frequently in his fiction. He himself frequented dealers such as Prouté and Stettiner. His study on Prud'hon and Constance Meyer appeared in L'Illustration in 1911 (he owned a version of the portrait of Mme Jarre). Shortly before the article was written, France made a memorable visit to Saint-Quentin in the company of his friend, Marie Scheikévitch (Souvenirs d'un temps disparu, 1935); they were followed by the elderly custodian (Anatole Camus), immensely proud of his charge. France wrote his companion a note: "Saint-Quentin. La plus belle promenade que j'aie jamais faite."

Raimondo, barone FRANCHETTI (1829-1905) married Sara Luisa von Rothschild. Their son Giorgio Gioacchino (1865-1922) purchased the Ca' d'Oro from the Contarini family in 1894 but bequeathed it to the State in 1914 together with part of his collection.
Paris, 8-9.III.1894:
Lot 174: La Tour attr., dessin

René FRIBOURG (1880-1963) of 11 East 84th Street, New York, businessman. Born in Belgium, he developed the family grain business founded in 1813 from a domestic Belgian activity into a multinational conglomerate by opening an office in Chicago in 1921. The Continental Grain Company remains one of the largest private companies in the world. Fribourg adopted US citizenship, and devoted part of his wealth to his collection of European and Chinese porcelain and faience, paintings, drawings, boxes, objets d'art and furniture. He was treasurer of the American Friends of Versailles in 1955. His estate sale took place in eight sessions.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Sale p.m., London, Sotheby's, 16.X.1963:
Lot 611: La Tour, Pommyer; Lot 613: Vigée, jeune fille; Lot 132, Vigée Le Brun, jeune dame
Other pastels: Boucher, La bouquetière

Henry Clay FRICK (1849-1919), industrialist, art collector and philanthropist. His daughter Helen Clay Frick (1888-1984) was a trustee of the Frick Collection and supported the Frick Art Reference Library.
Lit.: American national biography; Galassi 2000; Rieder 2000
Pastels: v. Collections, New York, Frick
v.q. Jacobs

FRIEDRICH der Große (1712-1786), king, collector and amateur pastellist.
Dictionary, artists

FRIEDRICH AUGUST I. (II.) Kurfürst von Sachsen, König August II. von Polen 1697-1704, 1709-, "August der Starke" (1670-1733), and his son Friedrich August II. (III.) Kurfürst von Sachsen, König August III. von Polen 1733 (1696-1763). While August the Strong started the collection of Rosalba Carriera, it was his successor who displayed an unlimited appetite for her pastels; the gallery in Dresden in which some 157 of her pastels were at one stage hung (v. 1887 catalogue) is justly celebrated. He is thought to have visited her studio while on the grand tour in 1713. Such was August's enthusiasm that he pursuaded Mengs to work in pastel to produce an important series of portraits. The collection also has examples by La Tour and Liotard. Following the abdication of the last king of Saxony after the First World War, the Wettin family assets were dispersed; arrangements were concluded by 7.VII.1924 (published in the Sächsisches Gesetzblatt, 9.VIII.1924, p. 481) to return pictures to their original owners. Some of the Rosalba pastels had already been sent to Graf Pálffy (sale, Bad Pistyan, Czechoslovakia, 10.VI.-1.VII.1924); others appeared in sales organised by the dealer Rausch in Dresden and Berlin. By 1929 the number of Rosalbas had dropped to 102, while a further 27 were lost (presumably destroyed) by 1945.
v. Collections, Dresden for pastels remaining in Dresden.
Dictionary, genealogy Sachsen
Lit.: Virginie Spenlé, "Les achats de peinttures d'August III sur le marché de l'art parisien", Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de l'art français, 2003, pp. 93-133; Henning 2009; Marandet 2008; Watson 1969a

Ferdinand Hibon, comte de FROHEN (1807-1892), married the duchesse de Brancas in 1846 and adopted her titles. His son Henri-Marie-Désiré-Ferdinand, comte de Frohen (1852-1897) became duc de Brancas after the extinction of the last male heir in the Brancas-Villars family.
Paris, Delestre, 19.II.1887:
La Tour, Lot 3: Löwendal; Lot 4: duchesse de Nivernais

M. FROMAGEAT DE SAINT-ANDRÉ (fl. a.1782), probably Antoine Fromageot de Saint-André, écuyer, from a Dijon family of avocats.
Vente p.m., Paris, hôtel de Bullion, Guilleaumon, Basan, 25-26.VI.1782: tableaux, dessins, estampes, bijoux, &c.
Pastels: Lot 5: Deux Têtes de Femmes au pastel, sous verres, par Boucher, &c.
Lot 9: Une Tête de Femme, au pastel, avec des fleurs dans ses cheveux, sous verre
Lot 47: Trois petits Portraits de femmes, au pastel, sous verres.
Lot 69: Un Sujet au pastel, sous verre, représentant Venus & l'Amour, d'après Boucher.

FROST & REED (fl. 1808– ), dealers in nineteenth century and contemporary art for some 200 years, initially in Bristol, then in London and elsewhere. They have also handled pastels by Carriera, Cotes, Russell and Sharples.

Mme Georg Mathias FUCHS, née Birgitte Louise Berg (1733-1802), widow of the artist.
Copenhagen, 28.III.1798 & seq.
Lot 86: Georg Mathias Fuchs: Et Fruentimmer forestillende Poesien, malet i Pastel af Fuchs, med Glas og Ramme, 9 1/2 Tommer höi, 7 1/2 Tommer bred

G

Cavaliere Francesco Maria Niccolò GABBURRI (1676-1742), Florentine diplomat, amateur artist, art historian and collector. His Vite di pittori, a manuscript in the Palatine library compiled during the last twelve years of his life, is an invaluable source of information about artists in Florence as well as foreign connoisseurs. It has been made available online by the Fondazione Memofonte. Gabburri lent 205 drawings to the Florence exhibition of 1737, including some twenty pastel self-portraits mainly by contemporary Italian artists. Caution is required: some of these artists seem to have worked in gouache rather than pastel, and the descriptions may be unreliable.
Lit.: Turner 1993
18th century inv.:
Pastels: Antiquus; Baldacci; Betti (2); Campiglia; Carriera (3); Casini; Conca; Conti; Correggio; Ferretti; Grisoni; Liotard; Martin; F. Messini; G. Messini (2); Pavona; Pitti; Pucci; Sirani; Siries; Soderini; Wills

Carlo GABRIELI seniore (1684-1733), notary in Venice, godfather to Rosalba Carriera, owned three pastels by her (now in Treviso); his client, consul Smith (q.v.), owned some 38.

Dr Paul GACHET (1828-1909), the celebrated collector of impressionist paintings by Cézanne, Pissaro, Monet, Renoir and Van Gogh (whose portrait of his patron was executed in the last years of the artist's life), owned practically no pictures executed before 1800. But two pastels by Louis Vigée were included in the dontation to the Louvre by his children made 1949-54.

Louis-Jean GAIGNAT (1697-1768), avocat en parlement, receveur général des consignations, 2e chambre des requêtes.
Vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 14-22.II.1769, Lot 75 Éc. fr., Mazarin

Émile-Louis GALICHON (1829-1875), editor of the Gazette des beaux-arts.
Lit.: Lugt 1058; Donateurs 1989

Prince Alexander Mikhailovich GALITZIN (1723-1807), Russian ambassadeur in Paris 1749-55 and London 1755-61, maréchal, governor of Saint-Pétersbourg 1770-83, acquired many of the best sheets at the Crozat sales. A group of 18 pastels by Vaillant from his estate were acquired by Firmin-Didot. A group of family portraits were seized in 1918, and are now in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow (q.v.). Prince Paul Galitzine, premier secrétaire de la légation de Russie, had a sale in Brussels (Le Roy, 17-20.I.1870) with a La Tour (Rigaud; ?).
Dictionary, genealogy

La marquise de GANAY, née Emily Ridgway (1838-1921), organised the exhibition of Cent pastels in Paris in 1908. Her younger son, comte André, sold a Vivien on his father's death in 1903; a further anonymous sale in 1907 was on his and his mother's behalf, while her estate sale took place in 1922. The elder son Charles-Anne-Jean, marquis de Ganay (1861-1948) married Marie-Julie-Pamphile-Berthe de Béhague (1868-1940), sister of the comtesse de Béhague (q.v.), whose collection also descended to the next marquis de Ganay, Hubert (1888-1974). The collection included drawings by Leonardo and a Hubert Robert sketchbook sold by Sotheby's in 1990. A sale of antiquities and objets d'art from the comtesse de Béhague's collection was also sold in Monte Carlo (Sotheby's, 15.XII.1987).
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Dreyfus 1909; Gimpel 1963; Donateurs 1989; Rieder 2000
Paris, Drouot, 4.VI.1903:
Lot 63: Glain, femme; Lot 65: La Tour [éc. fr.], du Barry; Lot 71: Vivien, auto
Amsterdam, 4.IV.1906
Paris, Drouot 1, Chevalier, Féral, 16.IV.1907:
Lot 36: La Tour; Lot 38: Vigée Le Brun; Lot 50, Perronneau; Lot 63, Vigée
Paris, Georges Petit, 8-10.V.1922:
Lot 13: Carriera, jeune femme; Lot 14: F.-H. Drouais [anon.], jeune femme; Lot 16: [La Tour?] Anon., femme; Lot 24: La Tour, Mme de Pompadour en bergère, repr.; Lot 25: La Tour, La comtesse de X…; Lot 26: La Tour, auto, repr.
Other pastels: Ducreux, auto; Lenoir, Dame en rose

Edgar William GARBISCH (1899-1979), American footballer and engineer, and his wife (∞ 1930) Bernice Chrysler (1907-1979), daughter of the founder of the Chrysler Motor Company (and sister ot Thelma Foy, q.v.): collectors of American naïve paintings. Their extensive collection was partly dispersed at auction and partly donated to museums.
Lit.: G. C. Wertkin, Encyclopedia of American folk art, 2004; American Naive Paintings from the Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch Collection, exh., Washington, NGA, 3.VI.2001 - 10.II.2002
Pastels: Perkins, Alpheus & Mehitable Hatch

Eugène-Albert GARNIER-HELDEWIER ( –1923), ministre plénipotentiaire du roi des Belges, 9 rue d'Artois, Paris, collector.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, 10-11.VI.1925:
Lot 67: Éc. fr., femme; Lot 139: Lambert, femme; Lot 141: La Tour, Manelli; Lot 146: Liotard, Le galant buveur; le cavalier amoureux; Lot 165: éc. de Prud'hon, Mlle George

Raphaël GARRETA (1851-1930), a businessman from Rouen, adjoint au maire 1886-88 and 1900-02, directeur du musée d'Antiquités de Rouen. He was a celebrated collector of antiquities; a member of the Commission départementale des antiquités from 1887, and of the Comité de la Société de l'histoire du Protestantisme français; and vice-président de la Société rouennaise des bibliophiles.
Vente p.m., Rouen, Hôtel des ventes, 16-17.III.1931:
Lots 65-70: Éc. fr., inconnues; Lot 124: Labille-Guiard, homme 1776 [Gibert]

Gas, v. Degas

Alphonse GATINEAU (fl. 1836–77), printer, bookseller and publisher in Orléans, made a donation to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Orléans in 1877.
Pastels: Perronneau, Robbé de Beauveset; Mme Cadet en Aurore
Lit.: Klinka-Ballesteros 2005

Léon GAUCHEZ (1825-1907), Belgian art critic and dealer, based in Paris from 1874, directeur of the review L'Art. He used a number of pseudonyms, including Paul Leroi.
[Mme X***], Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Mannheim, 20-23.IV.1892:
Lot 27: Capet, M,-J. Chénier [Fr470]
Lot 28: Frey, ?Mme du Châtelet [Fr580]
Lot 29: Carriera, jeune femme [Fr10,450]
Lot 30: Vivien, artiste [Fr1500]
Lot 31: Vigée, femme [Fr280]
[Paul Leroi], Paris, Drouot, 16.XII.1907:
Lot 25: Russell, Mrs Currie

Pierre-Marie GAULT DE SAINT-GERMAIN (1754-1842), peintre, historien de l'art.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, 19-20.III.1839

[Jacques-André] GAULTIER [( –1759)], secrétaire du roi 1745, payeur des rentes. He was probably the subject of the Boucher pastel in his sale.
Lit.: Meslay 2006
Paris, 6.IV.1759 & seq.:
Lot 9: Un Portrait en Pastel, de dix-neuf pouces de haut sur seize pouces & demi de large, par Boucher.

Solomon GAUTIER ( –1725): his 1725 posthumous sale, heald at his house at the Crown and Pearl, Great Piazz, Covent Garden, included a number of "crayons" (not necessarily pastels) among numerous prints and drawings, "most part of them lately brought from abroad".
503. Heads, one in crayons, by Goltzius
541. Paris Bordone, ditto, in crayons
1052. J. Toornvliet, a Man and a Woman, in crayons
1201. Pouribus, ditto, in crayons
1571. C. Cignani, ditto, in crayons
2071. Pomerantio, a Madona, in crayons
2171. Ab. Bloemaert, a Madona, in crayons

Walter GAY (1856-1937), American artist living in Paris, specialising in interiors. He lent a La Tour inconnu to the Paris 1927a exhibition which his widow, née Matilda Travers (1855-1943), subsequently donated to the Louvre along with a large collection of drawings including French XVIIIe as well as Dutch and other schools.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Rieder 2000

Pierre GEISMAR (1885-1949), succeeded his father as an important paper manufacturer, Paris. His collection of drawings was commenced c.1924 but dispersed four years later.
Lit.: Lugt 2078b
Paris, Drouot, 15.XI.1928:
Lot 56: Coypel, attr., jeune fille tenant un masque

Gabrielle-Juliette-Eugénie GENDRON (1824-1899), Joseph Ducreux's great-granddaughter, inherited his collection which included not only works by Ducreux himself, but pictures attribued to David, Greuze and La Tour as well as relicts of Louis XVI, Marie-Antoinette and the duc d'Oléans. The descriptions are rudimentary and the attributions unconvincing.
Paris, Drouot, Pillet, Laneuville, Mannheim, 16-17.I.1865:
TABLEAUX par DUCREUX
Lot 3. Portrait de l'artiste, gravé sous le nom du Moqueur. [Fr390]
Lot 4. M. Lescalier, intendant de l'Inde en 1788.
Lot 5. Portrait de J. Ducreux, fils aîné du peintre, aide de camp de Dumouriez.
Lot 6. Tête d'étude.
Lot 7. Portrait de la reine Marie-Antoinette. [Fr245]
Lot 8. Madame Royale enfant. [Fr205]
PASTELS par DUCREUX
Lot 18. Portrait de l'artiste par lui-même, vu de trois quarts et souriant avec malice. Il est poudré et vêtu d'un habit gris. [Fr335]
Lot 19. Le duc de Feltre.
Lot 20. Louis XVII, fait chez Simon; la tête est presque de face. [Fr80]
Lot 21. Louis XVII, fait peu de temps avant sa mort. Sa figure légèrement penchée est animée d'un sourire. [Fr80]
Lot 22. Tête de jeune garçon. [Fr60]
Lot 23. Petite fille coiffée d'un bonnet, un ruban noir autour du cou.
Dessins par Ducreux
Lot 26. Louis XVI, fait au Temple. Crayon. Au-dessous se trouve le grand cordon bleu de Louis XVII [Fr575]
PASTELS par GREUZE
Lot 72. La baronne Ducreux. Cheveux poudrés surmontés d'un légèr bonnet de dentelles et de rubans, poitrine découverte sur laquelle est jetée une pelisse rouge garnie de fourrures; ses mains sont cachées dans son manchon. [Fr100]
Lot 73. Jules Ducreux, tenant une palette.
Lot 74. Rose Ducreux, coiffée de cheveux poudrés, le col entouré d'une large fraise. [Fr24]
Lot 75. Etude pour l'accordée de village [Fr210]
Lot 76. Etude de jeune garçon.
Lot 77. Portrait de femme
Lot 78. Tête d'enfant en bonnet rose. } [Fr140]
Lot 32. Tête d'enfant en bonnet bleu. }
PASTELS par LATOUR
Lot 90. Madame Duquesnoy [Fr140]
Lot 91. Sophie Arnould; ses cheveux sont retenus par un ruban bleu.
Lot 29. Petit garçon, habit gris et collerette [Fr201]

Federico GENTILI DI GIUSEPPE (1868–1940), an Italian engineer resident in Paris who had accumulated a remarkable collection of Italian and Flemish painting during the early 20th century, died leaving his collection to his two children, who left the country a few months later. Five pictures, including a Rosalba pastel, were sold at auction by order of a creditor, and acquired for Hermann Göring. Although returned to the Louvre after the war, the pictures were only restituted to Gentili di Giuseppe's heirs in 1999 after lengthy litigation.
Lit.: Charles Oulmont, "La collection M.-F. Gentile di Giuseppe", Les Arts, 162, 1917, pp. 5-19

Thomas GERMAIN(1673–1748), orfèvre et architecte: his inv. p.m., 27.viii.1748 (MC xxxvi/460) included a group of pictures and pastels.

Edmé-François GERSAINT (1694-1750): Paris art dealer, publisher and auctioneer, associated in particular with Watteau.
Lit.: Watteau 1984; Grove; Guillaume Glorieux, "Edme-Francois Gersaint", thèse, Universite Paris IV-Sorbonne, 2000; Glorieux 2002; Marandet 2003a

Claude-Joseph GEOFFROY (1685-1752), de l'Académie royale des sciences, FRS, pharmacist, botanist and chemist, whose research focused on essential oils in plants. His son was Claude-François Geoffroy (1729-1753), also a pharmacist and chemist and member of the Académie des sciences; he demonstrated that bismuth was distinct from lead. The 1754 sale was of their joint estate.
Vente p.m., Paris, 5-16.II.1754:
Lot 69: Coypel, Un Tableau représentant Apollon, comme Dieu de la Médecine, peint en Pastel par Coypel, sous une Glace & dans un Cadre doré [34 livres 10 sols]

François-Joachim-Bernard Potier, duc de GESVRES (1692-1757). A number of pastels by both Mérelles decorated the château de Saint-Ouen in 1752.
Dictionary, genealogy Potier

Jean-Baptiste Guillaume, abbé de GÉVIGNEY (1729-1802), garde des titres et généalogies de la bibliothèque du roi. He acquired a taste for old documents in his native Besançon, where he assisted his father in arranging the city archives. Large numbers of these documents were stolen and sold to fund his art collection. In 1761 he moved to Paris, where, with the support of Saint-Florentin's mistress, Mme Sabatin, he managed to secure a position at the bibliothèque du roi, of which he was made keeper in 1779. His thefts came to light by an anonymous denunciation, and he was forced to resign in 1784. Some of the documents he sold are now in the Bodleian Library.
Lit.: DBF; Jean-Philippe Gérard, "Les gardes du département des Titres…", BnF dossier, 2005
Paris, Paillet, 1-29.XII.1779:
Lot 761: Vigée, vieillard vu à mi-corps, ajusté d'une robe brune, & coeffé d'un grand bonnet dans l'ancien costume russe
Lot 762: Chantereau, remouleur, & joueuse de vielle
Lot 763: [Greuze], femme en déshabillé du matin, d'après madame Greuz, étude
Lot 764: Hall, jeune fille
Lot 786: Callet, Bacchante

Emmanuel-Jean-Nepomucene De GHENDT (1738-1815), Flemish engraver active in Paris, and probably the vendor in a sale of 15.XI.1779 which included pastels by Boucher, Greuze, Hall, Hallé, Lundberg, Oudry and Vivien.

Jean GIGOUX (1806-1894), peintre.
Lit.: Lugt 1164
Paris, 20-22.I.1873:
Lots 184, 185: La Tour, inconnus
Paris, Drouot, Féral, 20-23.III.1882
Other pastels: La Tour, Louis le dauphin

Louis GILLET (1876-1943), de l'Académie française, art historian and writer (particularly for the Revue des deux mondes), conservateur du château de Châalis; 32 boulevard Henri IV, Paris 4e in 1922.

Michael GILLINGHAM (1933-1999), CBE, of 4 Fournier Street, Spittalfields, collector with interests ranging from furniture and English church organs to oriental ceramics.
London, Sotheby's, 19.IV.2000:
Lot 219: Downman, Rev. Matthews; Lot 221: Hamilton, Lady Tyrconnel

René GIMPEL (1881-1945), the son of an Alsatian art dealer Ernest Gimpel (1858-1907), who opened a gallery in Paris in 1889 and in New York in 1902; associated with Nathan Wildenstein between 1889 and 1919; brother-in-law of Joseph Duveen (q.v.). His diary, from 1918 to 1939, provides much valuable information about the art market between the wars. His gallery was at 57, rue La Boétie, and his residence 19 rue Spontini, Paris 16e.

Marchese Marzio GINETTI ( –1701), Rome, nephew of cardinale Marzio Ginetti (1585–1671).
Inv. 14.X.1707:
Pastels: Reni, figura; testa

Eugène GIRAUD (1806-1881), peintre-graveur: his sale included over 3000 drawings.
Vente p.m., Paris, 9-13.II.1886:
Lot 208: La Tour, inconnu

GIRAULT, Versailles: probably Albert Girault, directeur des postes de la cour, who married Marie-Guy Véron; their son inherited the position.
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 20.III.1776 & seq.
Lot 54: Le Portrait de Rembrandt, d'après lui-même; il est coëffé d'une tocque & vû de face, de grandeur naturelle. Tableau peint au pastel. Hauteur 20 pouces, largeur 15 pouces 6 lignes [4 livres 10 sols]

André GIROUX (1801-1879), artiste-peintre.
Paris, 18-19.IV.1904:
Lot 264: 6 pstls a/r La Tour et Nattier

John GLEN (1849–1937), dealer in books, pictures and drawings, of 117 Praed Street (1897–1907), 21A Jermyn Street (1898), 34 Davies Street (1906), 3 Bennet Street (1925), Ryder Street (1928–36), London; lent pastels by Gainsborough Dupont and "Raeburn" [Hodges] to the Paris 1911 exhibition; acquired a Russell (Blackburn) in 1927.

Jean-Baptiste GLOMY (1711-1786): Paris art dealer and auctioneer, active from c.1750, associated with Gersaint, Remy and Helle.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

Ferdinand-Joseph GODEFROID ( -1741), peintre du prince de Carignan, picture dealer and restorer to the royal collection, partner of Charles Godefroy (q.v.), killed in a duel by Jérôme-François Chantereau over a disputed picture; his widow (∞ 1726), née Marie-Jeanne Van Merle ( -1764) took over his business with François-Louis Colins (1699-1760), a picture dealer from Brussels. Valade exhibited her portrait in the salon de 1755.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Marandet 2008

Charles GODEFROY ( -1748), his two sons Charles-Théodose (1718-1796) and Auguste-Gabriel (1728-1813), patrons of Chardin. Godefroy was a partner of the restorer Godefroid (q.v.).
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Marandet 2003; Marandet 2008

Edmé-Étienne-François GOIS (1765-1836), sculpteur.
Paris, Merlin, Roussel, 2.IV.1838:
Lot 22: La Tour, portrait

GOLDSCHMIDT: There were a number of collectors or dealers of this name. The Galerie Goldschmidt-Wallerstein in Berlin specialised in modern art c.1900; they held an exhibition on Pesne in 1926, and the New York gallery (730 Fifth Ave) owned a Liotard homme in 1934. Edmond Goldschmidt owned a version of La Tour's Perrinet de Jars before 1901. Paul Goldschmidt had a Carriera (contessa Miari) after 1908. Leopold Benedict Hayum Goldschmidt (1830-1904), brother of the philanthropist Salomon H. Goldschmidt (1814-1898), sold a version of Perronneau's Van Robais to Camille Groult.

Gomm, v. Carr-Gomm

Jules (1830-1870) and Edmond (1822-1896) Huot de GONCOURT: authors, amateur artists, collectors and art crtics. Their writings (notably L'Art du xviiie siècle, 1859-75) made a major contribution to restoring the reputation of the French eighteenth-century painters and draughtsmen. Their extensive collections were dispersed in several sessions in 1897, including old (26-28.IV.1897) and modern (30.IV.-1.V.1897) prints, as well as their drawings collection (15-17.II.1897), carefully reconstructed in Launay 1991. It is perhaps surprising that, apart from a handful of drawings with pastel and some La Tour préparations, this contained only two pastel portraits, the La Tour maréchale de Belle-Isle and a Vigée Le Brun (Beaujon) which the Goncourts attributed to Perronneau.
Lit.: Lugt 1089; Launay 1991
Paris, Drouot, Georges Duchesne, 15-17.II.1897:
Lot 128: Huet, bergère [Fr3050, Mme Benard]
La Tour
Lot 153: femme vue de face, à mi-corps [Mme de Belle-Isle; Fr4200; Thibault]
Lot 154: masque [Fr11,100, Isaac de Camondo]
Lot 155: tête de femme [??Mme de Pomadour, Fr3200; Bourdariat, pour le comte Greffulhe]
Lot 156: Mlle Dangeville [Fr8100, Isaac de Camondo]
Lot 157: tête d'homme [Dumont le romain, Fr2100; Paulme]
Lot 232: Perronneau [Vigée Le Brun], Goyon de Vaudurant [Beaujon]
Lot 330/331: Van Loo, 2 têtes de fillettes [Fr500, comtesse de Péthion]
Lot 377: Aubert, études

Gonzaga, v. Valenti

Charles GORDON: An auction of the property of Charles Gordon, quitting the kingdom, at Mr Edwards, Cornhill, 8.XI.1797 (not in Lugt); according to the advertisement in the Times (18.X.1797), it included a "brilliant assemblage of fine drawings, in crayons" etc. Subsequent advertisements for what seems to have been the same sale identified the vendor only as a gentleman and artist.

Julia Emily GORDON (1810–1896), painter, daughter of General Sir James Willoughby Gordon; in addition to numerous works by Wilkie and others, she bequeathed a Lawrence pastels of Mrs Siddons to the National Gallery; it is now in the Tate.

Jacques GOUDSTIKKER (1897-1940), one of the most important dealers in Dutch old master paintings before World War II. His collection of more than 1000 pictures was seized by the Germans. Some 200 were finally returned to the family in 2006; many of these were sold in New York, Christie's, 19.IV.2007. The firm had also handled pastels by Drouais, Carriera and Troost.

L'abbé Louis GOUGENOT ( -1767), prieur de Maintenay, associé libre de l'Académie royale de peinture 1756; salon critic.
Lit.: Gazette des beaux-arts, .VII.-.VIII.1999

François-Louis GOUNOD (1758-1823), artist and collector, father of the composer, pupil of Lépicié. Two of the Chardin pastels he owned came from the Sylvestre collection. The status of the 59 La Tour sheets in the sale cannot be determined.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Chardin 1979; RdL 1946
Vente p.m. Paris, Hôtel de Bullion, 23.II.1824:
Lot 2: Chardin, autoportrait & sa femme [R&T 194, 198]; Lot 6: La Tour, 23 pastels; Lot 29: La Tour, 36 dessins

Joseph-François de GOUNON, sgr de Loubens (1724-1802), secrétaire du roi, associé de l'Académie de Toulouse 1784, capitoul de Toulouse, lender to Salons de Toulouse in 1769 (pastel by Antoine Coypel) and 1779 (the posthumous portrait of his wife en Savoyarde by Valade); father of the pastellists Jean-Mathieu (whose own collection was dispersed after his death in 1825) and probably Jonquiérette Gounon de Loubens (qq.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy

Adolphe GOUPIL owned one of the most prestigious Paris galleries in the third quarter of the 19th century, based at 2 Place de l'Opéra. In 1878 it was taken over by Léon Boussod (q.v.) and René Valadon. The firm's archives are available at the Getty Provenance Index, and reveal that they handled very few pastels (a couple of Rosalbas, one "retouched" by Constant Joseph Brochart; one by Perronneau is in fact an oil).

Charles-Frédéric de La Tour du Pin de Bourlon, marquis de GOUVERNET (1694-1775), collector. His posthumous sale, Paris, 6-10.XI.1775, contained no pastel, but he appears as purchaser of sheets by Coypel and Le Brun from 1741.

Lord Ronald Charles Leveson-GOWER (1845-1916), youngest son of the 2nd Duke of Sutherland, aesthete, politician, sculptor and writer. In addition to his role in the collection of drawings sold to the duc d'Aumale (v. Lenoir), Lord Ronald Gower owned several pastels that were sold at Christie's, 28.I.1911, when he left Hammerfield, Penshurst, including items described as Rosalba's self-portrait, Read's Duchess of Argyll, Hamilton [Gardner], Capt. Harvey, Russell, Bessborough, Nanteuil [éc. fr.], Mme de Sévingé etc.

Richard GRAHAM (fl. 1695-1727), picture collector, recorded as a member of the Virtuosi of St Luke from 1697 to 1727, and author of A short account of the most eminent painters, 1695.
Lit.: Oxford DNB; artworld.york.ac.uk
Sale, London, Thomas Pelletier, 6.III.1712:
Crayons
Lot 47: Sir Peter Lely. His own head [£2/10/-; Foreman]
Lot 48: Sam. Cooper. His own head [£4/6/-; Boyle]
Lot 49: Mr Cook. An excellent copy after Raphael's Boys. [£2/6/-; Wharton]

Albert GRAND ( -1876), restorer, 73, rue de Grenelle, Paris, "restauration de tableaux et de pastel", dealer, painter, expert and writer. He worked for the duc d'Aumale. Among pictures he handled were a pastel autoportrait once attributed to Jacques-Antoine-Marie Lemoine, in fact by a homonym (probably Jacques-Manuel Lemoine, q.v.), but his 1866 communication sparked a debate that lead to the rediscovery of J.-A.-M. Lemoine's œuvre.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Jeffares 1999
Paris, 20-24.XI.1876:
p. 150: La Tour attr., homme

Henri GRANGIER (1841-1902) and his wife, née Sophie Villeneuve-Moret (1854-1905), made numerous philanthropic bequests, including to the musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon.
Lit.: Gaitet 1917
Pastels: Hoin, auto; Mme Berlier; Mme Hoin

Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron GRANTHAM 1761 (1695-1770), KB 1742, diplomat, in Vienna 1730-48. He was portrayed by artists from Mengs to Ramsay, and his collection also included pastels of the imperial couple. Later generations of his family owned portraits by Gardner. In his correspondence with his brother "Fritz", preserved in the Bedfordshire and Luton archives, there are numerous references to crayon paintings by artists from Gardner to Pillement, not all of which can be fully understood today: e.g. the "two bad crayon portraits" which Fritz and Tom are almost ashamed to send (12.VI.1778).
Dictionary, genealogy, Robinson
Pastels: Liotard, Franz I.; Maria Theresia; Ramsay, Sir Thomas & Lady Robinson; Anon., Sir Thomas & Lady Robinson

Henry GRAVES (1806-1892) founded the publishing house and art dealers Henry Graves and Co., which was continued aftr his death by his son Algernon Graves (1845-1922), compiler of numerous reference works on exhibitions and sales. The firm handled a pastel by Russell (Love songs and matches).

Michel-Pierre-Philippe Levesque ou L'Évesque, sgr de GRAVELLE (1699-1752), conseiller à la troisième chambre des enquêtes, collector of paintings and gem stones (Mariette published his Recueil de pierres gravées antiques in 1732). In 1729 he married the daughter of a fermier général.
Paris, 26.II.-3.III.1753:
Lot 213: [Anon:] Une belle Vierge, au Pastel, montée idem. [en bordure dorée, & verre blanc] [retiré]

Hubert-François GRAVELOT (1699-1773), dessinateur, professeur des ingénieurs du roi. He was largely responsible for introducing the French rococo style and finesse to England during his 1732-48 stay.
Vente p.m., Paris, Basan, 19.V.1773 & seq.:
Lot 7: [Anon.]: Plusieurs têtes au pastel, & autres dessins encadrés. [15 livres 14 sols]

Edward Belden GREENE (1878-1957), chairman of the Cleveland Trust Company, banker, industrialist and collector. He donated his important collection of miniatures, as well as drawings and prints, including a few pastels, to the Cleveland Museum of Art, of which he was a trustee from 1925, and Yale, from which he graduated in 1900.
Pastels: Allais, actrice; Cotes, Lady Mary Eyre; Vivien, homme; Éc. fr., homme

Henri-Jules-Charles-Emmanuel, comte de GREFFULHE (1848-1932), of the Belgian family of bankers, married Elisabeth, princesse de Caraman-Chimay (1860-1952), patron of the artists from Whistler and Rodin to Fauré and Diaghilev, cousin of Robert de Montesquiou and a model for Proust's duchesse de Guermantes. The comte acquired a version of La Tour's préparation of Mme de Pompadour at the Goncourt sale.

Eugène GRÉSY (1806-1867), historian and archaeologist, from Melun.
Paris, 2.III.1853:
Mme Cabart, 3 pastels

Simon-Achille GREVERATH (1798–a.1856), chev. Légion d'honneur, chef d'escadron; his posthumous sale included 390 lots of drawings.
Vente p.m., Paris, Delbergue, 7-10.IV.1856:
Lot 320: La Tour, inconnu

Louis-Joseph, comte d'Albert de Luynes, prince de GRIMBERGHEN (1672-1758), diplomate
Dictionary, essay

Grimthorpe, v. Marcy

Friedrich Melchior Baron von GRIMM (1723-1807), diplomat, writer, art critic and agent. He was in Paris from 1749 to around 1768, travelling widely thereafter before settling in Gotha in 1775. He was closely connected with the Encyclopédistes, and his Correspondance littéraire, philosophique et critique, a bi-monthly bulletin which included his (and Diderot's) views on contemporary art, was circulated among a number of courts in Germany, Poland and Sweden. His trip to Russia in 1773 was similarly influential in spreading French artistic ideas.

Laurent GRIMOD de la Réynière (1733-1793).
Dictionary, artists and genealogy, Grimod
Lit.: Bailey 2002
Vente p.m., Paris, Paillet, 4 fructidor an VI [21.VII.1797; resumed 7-17.IX.1797]
Tableaux au Pastel par feu M. La Reynière:
Lot 25: Un grand tableau peint au pastel & sous verre, représentant un Berger; copie d'après Ant. Van Dick
Lot 26: Un autre tableau, copie d'après Greuze, représentant un enfant connu sous le titre de la jeune Fille au chien
Lot 27: Un jeune Ecolier, copie d'après le même, morceau également au pastel & sous verre
Lot 28: Deux autres Portraits d'après Elisabeth Vigée-Le Brun
Lot 29: Deux différentes Têtes au pastel, d'après Greuze, dont la jeune Fille au bonnet rond
Lot 30: Un autre de forme ovale; sujet d'un enfant nud, d'après Rubens
Lot 31: Deux petits tableaux au pastel, sujets de Philosophes, copies d'après Rembrandt
Lot 32: Un sujet de Ste. Famille, d'après le même
Lot 33: Trois autres, différens sujets d'Intérieur, d'après G. Dow
Lot 34: Un autre, d'après Watteau, sujet de Cassandre, & autres figures de caractère
Lot 35: Deux autres petits tableaux, sujets de Paysages & Animaux, d'après Desportes
Lot 36: Cinq autres Pastels, différentes Têtes de fantaisie & portraits, dont trois d'après Fr. Boucher
Lot 37: Un Buste de femme, coëffée de feuillages, d'après Lagrenée l'aîné
Lot 38: Une jeune Fille tenant des fruits, d'après Bachelier
Lot 39: Deux Têtes de vieillards de différens caractères
Lot 40: Deux autres Pastels, sujets de Dénicheurs d'oiseaux, d'après Boucher
Lot 41: Un autre d'après le même, sujet de deux Amours
Lot 42: Cinq petits Portraits ovals, au pastel, Racine, Le Brun, Catinat, & autres
Lot 43: Un Portrait d'enfant, aussi au pastel

Pierre-Marie-Gaspard GRIMOD D'ORSAY, comte d'Orsay (1748-1809), nephew of Grimod de La Réynière (q.v.), travelled to Italy in 1775 where he formed a collection of antiquities; on his return to Paris he continued to collect old and modern pictures of all schools. His collection was seized during the Revolution and is now in the Louvre (v. Collections). It includes pastels by Boucher, Gandolfi, Greuze, Saint-Michel, Valade and Vleughels, as well as several anonymes.
Dictionary, genealogy, Grimod
Lit.: Paris 1983b; Grove 1996; Bailey 2002

Émile GROSJEAN-MAUPIN (1863-1933), author of an Esperanto dictionary. He owned pastels by Nanteuil (Gallais) and Pillement (deux paysages) in 1927.

Émile GROSS (fl. 1912-27), collector, acquired some English pastels together with Xavier Haas and a Signor Salvator. A number of these were sold in 1927.
New York, Anderson, 13-14.I.1927, English 18th century drawings and pastels.
New York, Anderson, 20-21.I.1927:
Lot 53: Cotes, Mrs Ryves; Lot 75: Hoare, Miss Simpson; Lot 115: Read, lady
Other pastels: Hamilton, Hamilton

Camille GROULT (1837-1908), heir to a flour-milling family from Vitry-sur-Seine, was renowned as the great amateur of the 19th century; a friend of Edmond de Goncourt, with whom "nous causons art, et cette causerie lui apporte une griserie, vraiment une sorte de pochardise […]" (Journal, 8.I.1890). Showing friends a picture for which he had paid the high price for which he had a reputation, he remarked "Je donnerais cinquante mille francs de plus pour l'avoir découvert pour cent francs." His initial focus on XVIIIe pastels and drawings was later broadened to the early nineteenth century, and spread to English art. He married Alice Emilie Thomas Tassin de Moncourt (1837-1918), of Olivet, Loiret, who was related to a number of Perronneau's subjects. Their son Jean Groult (1868-1951) inherited the collection, which then passed to their grandson Pierre Bordeaux-Groult.
Lit.: Seligman 1961; Gimpel 1963; Grove 1996; Donateurs 1989; Rosenberg 2007
Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreuil & Baudoin, 21-22.VI.1920 :
Lot 1: Bernard, femme; Lot 2: Drouais, éc., femme; Lot 3: Anon., femme; Lot 4: femme, sd 1780; Lot 5: homme; Lot 6: femme [Ducreux, Marie-Antoinette]; Lot 7: homme; Lot 8: enfant; Lot 9: enfant; Lot 10: enfant; Lot 11: femme; Lot 12: femme; Lot 13: femme; Lot 14: artiste; Lot 15: d'après Fragonard, jeune mère; Lot 16: femme; Lot 17: Labille-Guiard, femme; Lots 18, 19, 20: La Tour, inconnues; Lot 21: Liotard, femme; Lot 22: homme; Lot 23: Nattier éc., femme; Lot 24: femme; Lot 25: Perronneau, Miron; Lot 25: Mme Miron; Lot 27, femme; Lot 28: femme 1766; Lot 29: femme; Lot 30: femme sd 1780; Lot 31: femme, sd 1770; Lot 32: femme en Diane, sd 1760; Lot 33: femme sd 1770; Lot 34: Mme Roslin attr., femme; Lot 35: Valade, femme; Lot 36: Vigée, homme
Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Ader Laurin, 21.III.1952:
Lot 64: Chardin, autoportrait; Lot 65: Greuze, jeune femme; Lot 66: La Tour, dame en rose [B&W 612]; Lot 67: La Tour, auto [B&W 239]; Lot 68: Perronneau, homme 1748; Lot 69: Perronneau, homme en habit rose 1756; Lot 70: Russell, Penthièvre; Lot 71: Siccardi, acteur

Francis GUÉRAULT (1874-1930), politician and dealer, particularly in fine furniture, and conservateur du musée de Vitré. He left a vernis Martin table by BVRB to the Louvre. The Labille-Guiard pastels in the .III.1935 sale had belonged to his brother-in-law, Jean Arot, who also owned a drawing by Nanteuil. A second sale took place on 16.V.1935.
Paris, Hôtel Guérault, 3 rue Roquépine, Alphonse Bellier, Raoul Ancel, 21-22.III.1935:
Pastels: Lots 25-26, Labille-Guiard, M. & Mme de Montciel; Lot 27, La Tour [Valade], comtesse de Sénozan

Fernand GUEY (1877-1964), directeur du musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen: owned pastels by Bernard (homme; & femme) and Lenoir (M. & Mme Pasquier) which were lent to the Paris 1927a exhibition.

Jules-Joseph GUIFFREY (1840-1918), art historian, conservateur at the Archives nationales 1866-93, editor at the Société de l'Histoire de l'art français, and compiler of important documents on eighteenth century exhibitions and Académies. His son Jean Guiffrey (1870-1952) was conservateur in the département des peinture at the Louvre 1918-34.
Lit.: Grove 1996

Guignard, v. Saint-Priest

Lucien GUIRAUD (1886-1954), and his brother Louis (1878-1955), antiquaires, quai Voltaire. They were the sons of Emile-Sylvain Guiraud (1852-1936), a gilder, and his wife, née Caroline-Christine Hermann (1859-1924). She may have been the Mme Guiraud who owned Labille-Guiard's Mme de Gand in 1902. Lucien wrote the text for the catalogue of J. P. Heseltine's 1913 catalogue. A sale took place after his death at Drouot, 14-15.VI.1956.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Other pastels: Perronneau, Bastard

Major-General John GUISE (1683-1765), army officer and art collector; bequeathed a collection of over 200 paintings and some 2000 drawings to Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford; this included five coloured chalk sheets by Barocci.
Lit.: Oxford DNB

Sacha GUITRY (1885-1957), playwright, artist, collector and connoisseur; son of Lucien Guitry (1860-1925), de la Comédie-Française:
Lit.: Cent merveilles choisies par Sacha Guitry. Paris, 1954
Paris, Ader, Picart, Tajan, 29.XI.1976

Calouste Sarkis GULBENKIAN (1869-1955): born in Turkey to an Armenian family of carpet traders, Gulbenkian used his father's oil interests in Baku to become an immensely wealthy financier and oil tycoon. From 1916 he negotiated a number of spectacular deals involving international shareholdings in Royal Dutch/Shell and Turkish and Iraq petroleum companies; one of these affiliations resulted in Gulbenkian losing his British citizenship in 1940. He assembled a collection of antique, oriental and Western art of the highest quality in his house on the Avenue d'Iéna in Paris. After his death the collection was moved to a specially built museum in Portugal, financed with the $70 million fortune he left. In keeping with his motto "only the best is good enough for me", the only pastels he seems to have owned were La Tour's spectacular Duval de l'Épinoy and the beautiful but restrained portrait of the dancer Marie Sallé.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Chambers biographical dictionary, 1984; Jonathan Conlin, "Philanthropy without borders: Calouste Gulbenkian's founding vision for the Gulbenkian Foundation", Análise social, XLV/2, 2010

Baron Pierre de GUNZBURG (1872-1948), also Günzburg or Gunzbourg, son of the Russian banker Horace de Gunzburg, art collector, who settled in Paris. His brother baron Vladimir de Gunzburg (1873-1932) married Clara Brodsky ( -1940), of rue Alfred Dehodencq, Paris XVIe; her sale after her husband's death took place at Drouot, 20.III.1933, and included two pastels, Lot 26: Lenoir, ??Mme Geoffrin; and Lot 28, attr. Perronneau, inconnu. Their cousin, baron Jean-Maurice de Gunzburg (1884- ), son of Horace's brother Salomon, married Madeleine Hirsch (q.v.). The Gunzburg heirs were involved in restitution claims.
Other pastels: Labille-Guiard, Mme Clodion

Otto Charles Henry GUTEKUNST (c.1865-1946), art dealer. The son of Heinrich Gutekunst (1833-1914), an art dealer from Stuttgart, he joined Colnaghi in 1894. He was associated with Berenson and Isabella Stewart Gardner. He lent numerous pastels by Downman to the Paris 1911 exhibiton.

Comte de G...
Paris, 19-20.XII.1881:
Lots 108, 109: La Tour, inconnues

H

Xavier HAAS ( -1936), Alsatian art dealer, 14, rue Cassini, Paris, together with Émile Gross (q.v.). Galerie Haas et Gross acquired some English pastels. Haas's son, also Xavier (1907-1950), was a painter.

HABRIE: possibly the miniaturist known from a single example sd 1813 (Paris, Drouot, 21–22.XII.2011, Lot 10) or the J. Habrie who was making maps in 1813 and was recorded in 1841 as géomètre en chef du cadastre de La Rochelle.
Vente p.m., La Rochelle, Gatau, Gournerie, 31.I.1854 & seq.:
Lot 112-114: La Tour, inconnus

Christian Ludwig von HAGEDORN (1713-1780), amateur engraver, art critic, and collector. He was brother of the poet Friedrich von Hagedorn. In 1763 he was appointed director of the Academy of Art in Dresden and made responsible for acquisitions by the Elector. In addition to the Copenhagen sale, a joint sale of over 1000 drawings by Hagedorn and Izaak Schmidt took place in Amseterdam on 24-27.IV.1820.
Lit.: Dijon 2001, p. 149
Copenhagen, 1796, dates n/k:
Lot 163: Rosalba Carriera: La celebre Rosalbe, peintre en pastel peinte par Elle même. h. 23 1/2 p. l. 17 1/2 p.

Pierre-Adolphe HALL (1739–1793), miniaturist and pastellist. In 1778 he prepared an inventory of his collection, together with the prices paid (some 50 paintings and 4 pastels amounted to 7,951 livres 19).
Dictionary, artists; Villot 1867
Inventaire, 10.V.1778, pastels:
Rosa Alba, Étude de son portrait par elle-même, en pastel, venant du cabinet de M. de Bessy, du catlogue Mariette, no. 7, et de la vente du prince de Conty, no 185. 220
Rosa Alba, Une superbe étude de la fameuse fille de cabaret enlevée et épousée par en milord, de M. Bessy 240
Greuze, Une tête en pastel, étude dans le tableau paralytique, 391
Lundberg, Joli portrait de femme au pastel, 24

Noël HALLÉ (1711-1781), painter and pastellist. His posthumous sale included several of his own pastels.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m., Paris, Marolle, Joullain, 2.VII.1781

Henri HAMAL (1744-1820), composer, canon at the cathedral of Liège, historian of the artists and musicans of Liège, collector.
Lit.: Grove 1996
Liège, Duvivier (P. H. J.), 17.III.1824:
Lot 39: Levoz, Des gibiers morts, peint en pastelle, haut.65 aunes, larg.56 aunes

Mrs Alexander HAMILTON, née Grace Spreckels (1878–1937), San Francisco; inherited stock in the J. D. & A. B. Spreckels Company (founded by the brothers John and Adolph Spreckels) which made a $15 million fortune in railways, real estate and sugar. A number of works were presented or bequeathed to the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco by her daughter, Grace Hamilton, Mrs Bruce Kelham ( -1978).
Pastels: Allais, La Morelli; a/r La Tour, Autorportrait

Sir William Douglas HAMILTON (1730-1803), KB, FRS, diplomat, British envoy to Naples, vulcanologist and antiquarian.
Dictionary, genealogy, Douglas-Hamilton
London, Christie's, 17.IV.1801:
Lot 59: Rosalba, Princess Sacci, the Spanish ambassadress; & pendant, her sister [15/-, Seguier]

François-Michel HARENC DE PRESLE (1710-1802): banker and collector. "Some fine pictures, vases, statues, china and great quantities of Boule's works" according to Walpole on his visit (1.IX.1775). His daughter Mme Perregaux was portrayed by Vigée Le Brun
Lit.: Walpole & du Deffand 1939
Paris, Le Brun, 16-24.IV.1792:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 96: Une femme vue en buste, la poitrine découverte, la tête presque de face; ses cheveux sont ornés de fleurs. Ce beau morceau vient de la Collection de M. de Boisset, no. 23 du Catalogue, & de celle de M. Lempereur, dessin, Hauteur 17 pouces, largeur 13 pouces 6 lignes
Lot 97: Deux têtes de profil; l'une, sur papier gris, & l'autre sur papier bleu; très-bien conservées. Hauteur 11 pouces, largeur 9 pouces & demi
Paris, Le Brun, 30.IV.1795 & seq.:
Lot 123: Deux pastels, l'un de Greuze, représente une jeune fille blonde en bonnet rond, ajustée d'un fichu; l'autre, de Boucher, offre aussi une jeune fille vue de face, avec quelque fleurs dans les cheveux. Hauteur 11 pouces et demi, largeur 9 pouces [72 livres; Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun]

George HARLAND-PECK (1842-1920). Born George Peck, he was a varnish maker in Wandsworth in 1871; he subsequently took over the varnish making business of William Harland & Son, of Mitcham, Surrey. His wife Agnes (1853-1929) was portrayed by John Collier (1884) and by J. J. Shannon. They lived at 9 Belgrave Square, London; and had a considerable collection of old master and Early English pictures. Two pastels by Gardner were donated to the British Museum in 1917-18; his widow had another Gardner. Harland-Peck also owned a Vigée pastel, supposedly of Mme de Pompadour en pèlerine.
London, Christie's, 16.VI.1900
Lot 121: Russell, Collins
London, Christie's, 25.VI.1920:
Lot 39: La Tour, Mlle Fel

Sir (Robert) Leicester HARMSWORTH, Bt (1870-1917), MP, member of the newspaper family which included his brothers Viscount Northcliffe (1865-1922sp), Viscount Rothermere (1868-1940) and Cecil Bisshop, 1st Baron Harmsworth 1939 (1869-1948), succeeded by his son, also Cecil, 2nd Baron Harmsworth (1903-1990). Sir Leicester's son, Sir Geoffrey Harmsworth, 3rd Bt (1904-1980sa), FSA, became chairman of the Harmsworth Press group.
Pastels by Russell, Gustavus Hamilton and Gardner

Murray HARRISON, Baltimore merchant, acquired a group of pastels by Sharples from Levin Yardley Winder (q.v.); they are now at Independence Hall, Philadelphia.

Theodoor HARTSOEKER (1696-c.1741), Utrecht painter who owned a remarkable art collection in which were represented works by artists that were not well known in the Netherlands, particularly pastels by Rosalba Carriera.
Lit.: van Veen 1984

Paul-Gabriel-Othenin de Cléron, comte d'HAUSSONVILLE (1843-1924), de l'Académie française, orleanist politician, writer and eiditor of the Revue des Deux Mondes, descendant of Germaine de Staël, château de Coppet, via the duchesse de Broglie.
Dictionary, genealogy, Necker
Pastels: H. Drouais, Mlle Gaussin
v.q. Coppet: Liotard, Mme Necker

Lady HAVERSHAM, née Henrietta Hope (c.1843-1929), of South Hill Park, widow of Sir Arthur Hayter, Lord Haversham (1835-1917) whom she married in 1866.
London, Christie's, 22.II.1924:
Lot 20: La Tour [Lenoir], homme

Charles Edward HAVILAND (1839-1921), of American extraction, porcelain maker, based in Limoges and Paris, art collector, married (1877) Madeleine (1860–1900), daughter of Philippe Burty, q.v. He had an extensive collection of drawings, objets d'art etc. Some passed to the son of his first marriage, George Haviland (1870–1947), who also took over management of the family business.
Lit.: Goncourt Journal; Donateurs 1989
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreil, 14-15.XII.1922
Lot 3: Boucher, te de jeune fille; Lot 34: Vigée Le Brun, auto

Jules-Paul-Ernest HÉDOU (1833-1905) left his collection of 38,000 drawings and prints to musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen.
Lit.: Lugt 1253; Chaline 1982, p. 236ff; Rouen 2013
Pastels: Vigée, dame

Pierre HÉDOUIN (1789–1868), avocat from Boulogne, pupil of the composer Grétry, novelist and art collector (his drawings, miniatures, paintings and books were dispersed in two sales). His son Edmond (1820–1889) was a painter and engraver.
Paris, Couturier, 10-11.XII.1866:
Lot 32: La Tour, inconnue

Heilbron, v. La Panouse

François HEIM founded the Galerie Heim in Paris in 1954; the Heim Gallery London was established in 1966 in partnership with Andrzej S. Ciechanowiecki (1924-), who had been a co-founder of Mallett in 1962. Its emphasis was on French XVe-XVIIIe painting and sculpture, and a number of scholarly exhibitions were conducted until 1986. The Ciechanowiecki Foundation now owns some 3000 works, many displayed in Warsaw Castle, including portraits of Polish sitters by Mengs, Nattier and Vigée Le Brun.
Lit.: Tim Knox, "Art in trust for Poland", Apollo, .VI.2005

Carl Heinrich Baron von HEINEKEN (1707-1791), director of the museum in Dresden 1746-63, responsible for building the large collection of prints and drawings. Heineken acted as Reichsgraf von Bruhl's private secretary in the early 1740s, and was responsible for liaising with the Elector's agents Samuel de Brais and Théodore Toussaint Le Leu, attached to the Saxon embassy in Paris and charged with acquiring paintings on the French art market. The 1757 and 1758 sales appear to have had the same catalogue, Catalogue des tableaux et estampes du cabinet de M. Le B***, Paris, 1757.
Lit.: C. Dittrich, "Carl Heinrich von Heineken kunsttheoretische Schriften", Jahrbuch der staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden, v, 1965/66, pp. 79-85; Dijon 2001, p. 149; Marandet 2008
Paris, Remy, 12.XII.1757, 13-18.II.1758:
Lot 419: Deux portraits du Padouan, dont un au pastel: des plus beaux de ce Maître; Lot 449 [part]: Natoire: Une jolie Tête d'Enfant, en Pastel, par M. Natoire; elle est piquante, & d'un beau coloris: je ne crois pas qu'on trouve mieux de ce Maître [25 livres 5 sols; Remy]; Lot 451 [part]: Sept Desseins, dont deux Têtes dessinées en pastel par M. Natoire [8 livres]

Dr Rudolf J. HEINEMANN (1901-1975), connoisseur, dealer and adviser to the Thyssen collection. In 1935 he emigrated to the USA, where he was associated with dealers such as Arnold Seligmann, Knoedler and Agnew's. His private collection of old master drawings, formed with his wife Lore ( -1996), was exhibited at the Pierpont Morgan Library in 1973. Some old master pictures were sold in 2001 to establish the Lore and Rudolf Heinemann Fund for scholarly research; others were bequeathed to the Morgan Library, the NGA, Washington and other American museums.
London, Christie's, 4.VII.2000:
Lot 134: Rotari, femme

Prinz Friedrich HEINRICH Ludwig von Preußen (1726-1802), brother of Friedrich der Große, had "Viele Pastellstücke und andere Gemählde" in a room in Schloß Rheinsberg, according to Carl Wilhelm Hennert's description, Beschreibung des Lustschlosses und Gartens Sr. Konigl. Hoheit des Prinzen Heinrichs..., Berlin, 1778, p. 30, which unfortunately offers no further details.

Julius Samuel HELD (1905-2002), of Bennington, Vermont, art historian, expert on Rubens and Rembrandt. Educated in Heidelberg, he emigrated to the USA in 1934. His collection of over 1000 old master drawings was acquired by the NGA, Washington in 1984.
Lit.: dictionaryofarthistorians.org; New York, Christie's, 27.I.2009 cat. introduction, Walter Liedtke
Pastels: Le Brun, tête; Luti, man

Paul-César HELLEU (1859-1927), artist, acquired a Perronneau from Camille Groult in 1923 which was inherited by his daughter, Mme Orosdi (q.v.).

Karl Ernst HENRICI (1879–1944), Antiquariat, Kurfürstenstr. 148, Berlin, dealt in books, portraits and prints; the firm held auctions between 1910 and 1929. Henrici also wrote a monograph on Anton Graff.

Louis-Pierre HENRIQUEL-DUPONT (1797-1892), engraver and friend of Ingres.
Pastels: Nanteuil, Dorieu

Alexandre-Léopold HERBIN-PERRICOURT (1811-1867), négociant à Troyes, lent two pastels by La Tour to the 1864 exhibition at Troyes.

Theo HERMSEN or Hermssen ( -1944), Dutch dealer, rue de la Grange-Batelière, Paris, from the 1930s. During the war he was involved in the export of some 100 pictures to Germany.
Lit.: Löhr 2005

Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of HERTFORD (1800-1870), principal collector of the works now in the Wallace Collection. Given his taste in French XVIIIe art, it is perhaps surprising that pastels seem not to have been of more interest to him. V.q. Murray Scott; Oger.
Dictionary, genealogy, Seymour-Conway
Lit.: Oxford DNB; Duffy & Hedley 2004; P. Hughes, The founders of the Wallace collection, London, 2006; Jeremy Warren, "The 4th Marquess of Hertford's early years as a collector", Burlington magazine, cl, .VIII.2008, pp. 544-47, and numerous further references cited
Pastels: Coypel, L'Amour précepteur; La Tour, Mme Grimod

John Postle HESELTINE (1843-1929), etcher and collector. He lived at 196 Queen's Gate, London 1877-1925, and thereafter at Eaton Square; and at Walhampton House, Hampshire. As a collector he was particularly interested in Claude and Rembrandt, but his extensive collection of French eighteenth century drawings included a Boucher pastel. His widow donated a Liotard pastel to the National Gallery.
Lit.: Drawings by François Boucher, Jean-Honoré Fragonard etc. in the Collection of J.P.H., London, 1900; Dessins de l'École française du xviiie siècle, provenant de la collection H…, Paris, 1913; Paris 1913; New York 1914; Lugt 1507
London, Sotheby's, 27.V.1935:
Lot 49: Highmore, lady; Lot 63: Liotard, dame en turque
Pastels: Aubert, scène 1746; Boucher, jeune femme; Liotard, vizir

Louis HESSELIN, né Cauchon (1602-1662), conseiller du roi, maître de la chambre aux deniers. He was Louis XIII's agent in Venice and Rome, where he acquired a number of pictures, travelling with Sébastien Bourdon. Hesselin was the subject of pastels by Tiberio Tinelli and by Nanteuil, and owned two pastels by Vouet according to his posthumous inventory.
Lit.: Schnapper 1994

Erskine HEWITT (1878-1938), inherited the copper mines at Ringwood, New Jersey, which he donated to the state when production ceased. He formed a well-known collection of Americana, sold at auction.
Sale p.m., New York, Parke Bernet, 18-22.X.1938:
Patels: Sharples, ten Broeck

Dr William HIRD (1724-1782), senior physician at Leeds Infirmary, owned a Rosalba self-portrait in pastel, as well as his own.
Dictionary, artists

Leopold HIRSCH (1857–1932), a British banker of German origin, resident at 10 Kensington Palace Gardens, London from a.1896. The firm of L. Hirsch & Co made its money from mining shares. Hirsch's collection of old masters and British portraits was sold 11.V.1934. His wife, née Frances Seligman, a sister of Sir David Seligman, was painted by Sargent. Hirsch owned a Russell pastel, Mrs Raymond.

Louis HIRSCH (1862-1932), Paris banker and art collector; his collection passed to his widow, née Alice Hermann (1874-1965). Their daughter Madeline ( -1979) married baron Jean-Maurice de Gunzburg (q.v.).
Monaco, Sotheby's, 18-19.VI.1992
Lot 60: La Tour, Belle-Isle, Lot 61: Mme de Belle-Isle

HIRSCHL & ADLER Galleries, New York, founded in 1952 by Norman S. Hirschl and Abraham M. Adler and specialising in paintings after 1800.

Aimé-Charles, dit Horace HIS DE LA SALLE (1795-1878): collector of drawings, which he donated to numerous French museums. A bequest to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, included a pastel by La Tour (Saxe). He also owned a Boucher pastel (jeune fille).
Lit.: Lugt 1333; Dijon 1974; Marine de Bayser, thèse, INHA, 2008

In 1939 Adolf HITLER (1889-1945) appointed Hans Posse as special envoy of the Sonderauftrag Linz, the commission established to collect art for the so-called Führermuseum or Linzer Sammlung. Over the next few years a substantial collection was acquired through a mixture of legitimate and forced purchase and confiscation; some items were acquired through the ERR (v. s.v. Rosenberg). The items collected were given numbers (indicated by Linz-Nr). At the end of the war, many of them were sent to the Munich Central Collection Point ("CCP"), where they were assigned different numbers (indicated by Mü-Nr). Among the Linzer Sammlung were a number of pastels by Carriera, Fratellini, La Tour, Perronneau, as well as individual works by Kauffmann (jeune femme), Kreul (Vogel), Labille-Guiard (Flore Pajou) and others.

Edwin Marriott HODGKINS (1860–1932), fine art dealer and collector, son of an art dealer Henry William Hodgkins, recorded at 73 Great Portland Street (1884, the year of his marriage), 110 Wardour Street (1887–89), 5 King Street, St James's, 1889–90, 2 Pall Mall 1891–96, 43 Old Bond Street 1897–1903, 158B New Bond Street 1904–20; also Paris and New York. Henry Walters was a major client. He was awarded the Légion d'honneur in 1910, and was a member of the Worshipful Company of Musicians.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, Georges Petit, 16.V.1927:
Lot 22: Anon., scène de Coméide-Italienne; Lot 24: Boucher, ?Mme Deshays; Lot 26 Boucher, attr., tête de Flore; Lot 31: Labille-Guiard, Mme Mitoire
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 29.VI.1934:
Bréhan a/r Fragonard, Acteur; Cantatrice; Vigée Le Brun, dchsse d'Orléans; Chardin, auto; Labille-Guiard, Mme Mitoire; Russell, blind beggar
Other pastels: Downman, Mrs Arbuthnott; Russell, numerous pstls

Philip HOFER (1898-1984), a graduate of Harvard (1921), was closely associated with both the Fogg Art Museum and the Department of Printing and Graphic Arts at the Houghton Library at Harvard; his extensive collection of drawings was donated to the Fogg on the death of his wife Frances in 1978 and included a La Tour preparation.
Lit.: Lugt 2087a

Georges HOENTSCHEL (1855-1915), architect, interior decorator and ceramist, who found inspiration for his Art Nouveau creations from XVIIIe works which he collected avidly. The bulk of his collection was eventually sold to J. P. Morgan, and is now in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The Perronneau enfant had belonged to Jacques Doucet (q.v.), whose hôtel, rue Spontini, Hoentschel decorated (v. Gimpel 1963).
Vente p.m., Paris, Georges Petit, 31.III.-2.IV.1919:
Lot 5: Éc. fr., homme; Lot 18: Perronneau, enfant 1744

Miss Ima HOGG (1882-1975), collector and philanthropist. Daughter of the Governor of Texas, she trained as a pianist in Vienna before World War I. The discovery of oil on the family plantation provided her with great wealth which she used for charitable causes such as mental health. She and her brothers also collected, with interests ranging from native American art to modern masters. Her collection of Americana, including more than 5000 objects (from pictures to ceramics and textiles) remains in her former home, Bayou Bend, as part of The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.
Lit.: Virginia Bernhard, Ima Hogg: the governor's daughter, Austin, 1996
Pastels: Blyth, Diman; Copley, Mrs Brown; Mrs Henshaw; Sharples, Adams

Claude-Jean-Baptiste HOIN (1750-1817), pastellist and collector. He bequeathed his collection to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon (v. Collections).
Dictionary, artists

Paul Heinrich Dietrich, baron d'HOLBACH (1723-1789), philosopher and writer based in Paris. His role as a translator into French of German and English scientific and philosophical works made a significant contribution to the spread of Enlightenment ideas, as did his salon in the rue Royale, frequented by leading intellectual and artistic figures such as Diderot, Grimm and Marmontel.
Vente p.m., Paris, 16.III.1789:
Pastels: Mengs, Innocence; Plaisir

Sir George Lindsay HOLFORD (1860-1926) inherited the art and arboreal collections of his father Robert Stayner Holford (1808-1892), reputedly the richest commoner in England. He was also the nephew of Sir Coutts Lindsay, Bt, owner of the Grosvenor Gallery. Holford's posthumous sale in 1928, with a number of paintings by Rembrandt, raised more than £400,000. Dorchester House, site of the present hotel, was demolished. His widow, Susannah Menzies ( -1943), retained a number of the pastels, and some were inherited by her daughter-in-law, Mrs Ian Menzies, before the 1977 sale.
Lit.: Oxford DNB
London, Christie's, 15-18.V.1928:
Lot 127: Ducreux, Marie Thérèse
London, Christie's, 14.VI.1977:
Lot 202: Lawrence, Lady Templetown
Other pastels: Gardner, Lady Albemarle; Mrs Hodson; Rowley; Taylor; J. R. Smith, child

Ralph HOLLAND (1917–2012), collector of mainly Italian old master drawings, dispersed after his death at Sotheby's, 5.vii.2013. The sale included a pastel by Pierre.

Patrick HOME of Billie and Wedderburn (1728-1808) died before the collection of pictures he assembled in an 8 year grand tour was unpacked at Paxton House, the Adam mansion he constructed in the Scottish borders.
Dictionary, genealogy
Pastels: Pesne, Friedrich II.

Adrian John HOPE (1811–1863), 2nd son of the designer Thomas Hope (1769-1831) from the Dutch merchant banking family, formed a substantial collection, mainly of Dutch old master paintings, which was sold at Christie’s on 30 June 1894. The sale did not include any pastels, but he owned one pastel now attributed to Allais.

Rev. Frederick William HOPE (1797-1862), friend of Darwin, entomologist and collector of insects and engravings (including over 100,000 portrait engravings). He donated his collections to the University of Oxford.
Lit.: Oxford DNB
Pastels: Angelis, Vésuve

William Williams HOPE (1802-1855), of Rushton Hall, Northamptonshire, son of John Williams-Hope, né Williams, of Amsterdam; collector of Etruscan vases, antique bronzes and enamels, sold at Christie's in 1849, as well as of old master pictures, drawings, engravings and pastels sold in Paris. His sister married the 7th Earl of Athlone.
Paris, Pouchet, Rondel, 12.VI.1855, pastels:
Lot 70: Un portrait de Mme Lebrun [Labille-Guiard, ??autoportrait]
Lot 71: Un portrait de femme époque Louis XV
Lot 72: Deux portraits de femmes, cadres ovales

Jeffrey HORVITZ, a major collector of old master drawings. In 2008 he disposed of his collection of Italian drawings in order to focus exclusively on the French school. These are now in the Horvitz Collection, Edgewater House, Cambridge (v. Collections for list).
Lit.: Cambridge 1998
New York, Sotheby's, 23.I.2008:
Lot 19: Barocci, young woman

Arsène HOUSSAYE, né Housset (1815-1896), author. His comedy "Le Pastel de Mademoiselle Fel", in the Galerie du XVIIIe siècle collection (1858), is very slight. He started collecting soon after his arrival in Paris c.1835, and continued to buy pictures (especially portraits) until 1870 when he had no more room. With Lacaze, Houssaye was among the early figures to recognise the importance of the forgotten artists of the eighteenth century.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, 22-23.V.1896:
BOUCHER (d'après)
172. Portrait présumé de Mme de Pompadour, en buste, de ¾ à dr., les cheveux poudrés serrés par un ruban bleu, robe bleue décolletée, pstl, 40x30 [?52]
GREUZE (attr.)
176. Jeune fille assise, vue de dos, la tête tournée vers le spectateur, cheveux blonds avec fichu noué sur le front, robe grise et écharpe bleue et jaune, pstl, 48x38 ov. [?1080]
NATOIRE
185. Jeune fille en buste, les épaules nues, les cheveux blonds serrés par un ruban rose, une écharpe l'entoure légèrement. Gracieux pastel, d'une remarquable finessse d'exécution, 55x45 [?1250]
NATTIER (attr.)
186. Une des filles de Louis XV, en buste, un voile noir posé sur sa tête et retombant sur ses épaules, nœud de ruban au cou, pstl, 38x30 [?195]
ROSALBA CARRIERA
188. Portrait de Mlle Quinault, debout, tenant une colombe, les épaules et les bras nus, les cheveux poudrés, serrés par un ruban bleu et ornés de fleurs. C'est la seconde sœur de l'actrice Quinault, Marie-Anne Quinault… pstl, 65x53 [?1200]
189. Jeune femme en buste, costume travesti, un masque à la main, pstl, 40x32 [?60]
ROSALBA CARRIERA (attr.)
190. Portrait de femme, en robe blanche décolletée et manteau bleu, quelques fleurs ornent coquettement sa chevelure blonde, pstl, 55x45 [?165]
191. Jeune femme en buste, les épaules nues et tenant une draperie bleue, pstl 38x30 [?30]
VIGÉE
193. Dominique Biancolelli, du Théâtre-Italien, en Arlequin, vu jusqu'à la ceinture, de ¾ à dr., le chapeau sur l'oreille, pstl, s L. Vigée, pinxit., 54x46 [?480]
ÉCOLE FRANÇAISE
200. Jeune fille, vêtue de mousseline blanche et tenant une partition, les cheveux relevés et serrés par un ruban rose, pstl, 65x53 ov. [?500]
204. Jeune femme, vêtue d'une robe bleue et tenant à la main un éventail, pstl, 64x52 ov. [?205]
205. Jeune femme, en robe bleue décolletée garnie de mousseline blanche, coiffée d'un chapeau rond, un voile entoure son visage, pstl, 60x48 ov. [?300]
206. Portrait de Voltaire (peint vers 1775), vu a mi-corps, de ¾, tenant dans sa main g. l'Année littéraire, de Fréron, qu'il désigne avec l'index de la main dr. Vêtu d'un habit rouge à galons et boutons d'or, perruque poudrée, pstl, 63x52 ov. [?140]
207. Jeune fille, en buste, vêtue d'une robe décolletée, cheveux relevés ornés de fleurs et de rubans bleus, pstl, 55x44 ov. [?75]
208. Henriette d'Angleterre, d'après Van Dyck, joli pastel du XVIIIe siècle, 51x43 [?60]
209. Jeune femme en buste, un nœud de ruban rose noué sous le menton, une guirlande de bleurs sur la poitrine décolletée, un voile de mousseline rayée attachée à sa foiffure retombe sur ses épaules, pstl, 45x35 [?40]
210. Jeune femme en buste, robe décolletée, ruban noué autour du cou, cheveux relevés, poudrés et ornés de fleurs, pstl, 40x30 [?385]
Other pastels: La Tour, Mme de La Pouplinière; femme

Auguste HOUYET, directeur des moulins à vapeur à Molenbeék-Saint-Jean, inventor of a patented flour mill. His sale, in Brussels, 20.III.1878, of old and modern drawings, watercolours and prints included two La Tour pastels (lots 24/25, Fr120).

Bernard HOUTHAKKER (1884-1963), Amsterdam: dealer in old master drawings. A posthumous sale of his collection was conducted by Sotheby's in 1975.

HOUZÉ DE GRANDCHAMP (c.1750-1809), of rue Française, Lille, son of a lawyer at the parlement de Flandre: collector of pictures, prints (of which he owned more than 30,000), natural history and curiosities; his posthumous sale at Lille included over 4000 lots - estampes, catalogues, tableaux et dessins.
Aimé Leroy, Archives historiques et littéraires du nord de la France, Valenciennes, 1841, III
Paris, Regnault de Lalande 12-17.VI.1809:
Lille, Dioncq, 6.VII.1809 & seq.
Lot 123: [Anon.], La bohémienne. - Deux portraits au pastel.

Hugh HOWARD (1675-1737). A group of his own pastels and some by Lely passed through the Earls of Wicklow and are now in the British Museum (v. Collections).
Dictionary, artists

René d'HUBERT (1855-1927), writer, editor of the Gil Blas 1886-1892: his wife, née Anne-Marie Le Quesne (1857-1956), journalist and photographer, daughter of the sculptor, owned a Perronneau, Mme d'Arche.

Huché, v. Chenard

Ignazio HUGFORD [Ignatius Heckford] (1703-1778), son of an English Catholic émigré; painter and collector; pupil of Gabbiani. He lent pastels by Fratellini and Luti to the Florence exhibitions of 1737 (with his brother Cosimo) and 1767. Part of his collection of more than 3000 drawings was purchased by Gran'duca Pietro Leopoldo I, and is now in the Uffizi.
Lit.: Oxford DNB

Anatole-Auguste HULOT (1811-1892), French civil servant, responsible for the introduction and manufacture of postage stamps in France.
Vente p.m, Paris, Georges Petit, Chevallier, 9-10.V.1892:
Lot 152: Greuze, L'Effroi [FFr1300]; Lot 153: Greuze, Bacchante [FFr120]; Lot 159: La Tour, Mme de Pompadour en bergère [FFr6250]; Lot 165: Carriera, Hélène [FFr4100]; Lot 168: Vigée Le Brun, sa fille [FFr1000]<; Lot 169: Éc. fr., jeune fille [FFr610] /p>

William HUNTER (1718-1783), Scottish anatomist; appointed physician to Queen Charlotte in 1764 and professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy 1768. In 1770 he established a museum, later bequeathed to Glasgow University with an endowment of £8000.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Chambers biographical dictionary, 1984; Glasgow 2007; exh., Boucher and Chardin, Wallace Collection, 12.VI.-7.IX.2008

Henry Edwards HUNTINGTON (1850-1927), railway tycoon, nephew of Collis P. Huntington (1821-1900), founder of the Southern Pacific Railway. Henry married Collis's widow Arabella Yarrington (1850-1924). His rare book collection commenced in 1903. The art collection is well represented in English portraits and French XVIIIe furniture.
Pastels: v. collections, San Marino, Huntington Library
Other pastels: Russell, girl with cherries

William Henry HUNTINGTON (1820-1885), journalist, Paris correspondent of the New York Tribune 1858-78; his collections of pictures and objects related to Washington, Franklin and Lafayette were donated to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and included a version of Greuze's Franklin and a physionotrace of John Adams by Saint-Mémin.

Gabriel HUQUIER (1695-1772), engraver, publisher and print-seller, collector. He specialised in reproductive engravings after the work of contemporary artists such as Watteau and Boucher, often based on works in his own collection. His œuvre numbered more than 2000 plates, including numerous rococo ornaments. Major sales took place in 1761 (4537 drawings), 1771 and after his death in 1772. Huquier's son, the pastellist Jacques-Gabriel (1725/30-1805), emigrated to England c.1770; a sale of his effects took place in 1768.
Huquier père: Amsterdam, Yver, 14.IX.1761 & seq.
Huquier fils: Paris, Basan, 21.III.-29.IV.1768
Huquier père: Paris, 1-23.VII.1771:
Lot 41: Boucher, Trois Têtes d'hommes & de femmes au crayon & un peu de pastel, par le même, chacun dans leurs bordures dorées & verre blanc. 10 livres; Lot 42: Boucher, Cinq petites Etudes, dont quatre femmes, & une d'un jeune homme au crayon & au pastel par le même, chacun dans leurs bordures dorées, & verre blanc. 36 livres 6 sols; Lot 49: Charles Natoire, Une Tête de S. Pierre forte comme nature, dessinée très-spirituellement au pastel, 14 livres 19 sols; Lot 50: Un Portrait d'une jeune fille d'après nature au pastel, par Perroneau, 12 livres 1 sol
Huquier père: vente p.m., Paris, Joullain, 9.XI.-4.XII.1772:
Pierre, Lot 397: Une tête de jeune fille, vue de ¾, 13 pouces 4 lignes sur 10 pouces [3 livres 10 sols]; Lot 398: Tête de jeune fille, vue un peu plus que de profil, dirigée de g. à dr. m/u, grandeur un peu différente [3 livres]; Tête d'une jolie femme vue un peu plus que de profil, & coëffée en cheveux, 12 pouces 9 lignes sur 9 pouces 2 lignes [9 livres]

Simon HURTRELLE (1692-p.1755), notary, son of the sculptor Simon Hurtrelle (1648-1724). Hurtrelle le jeune was an amateur draughstman and engraver, and the subject of a pastel by Lundberg. He donated Claude-Guy Hallé's portrait of his father to the Académie in 1752 shortly before his bankruptcy.
Dicytionary, essay

I

John Jay IDE (1891-1962), architect, and his wife, née Dora Donner (1916-1998), daughter of William Henry Donner (1864-1952), president of the United Steel Company and an associate of Andrew Carnegie. They lived in London at the time of their marriage in 1940, returning to New York in 1947. In 1967 Dora Ide settled in San Francisco, and donated a substantial collection of pictures to the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (she bequeathed a total of $111 million to numerous charities). Among the works on paper were a Perronneau, marquis d'Anglure, and a Vigée, sa mère.
Lit.: San Francisco 1989

Sir Bruce Stirling INGRAM (1877-1963), antiquary and journalist, managing editor (and grandson of the founder) of the Illustrated London News. He initially collected illuminated manuscripts, but after selling these in 1936 he turned to pictures. A large collection of maritime paintings was donated to the National Maritime Museum in 1957. A group of English watercolours, left to Luke Hermann, was donated in 2002 to various British museums. Among more than 5000 pictures was an extensive collection of English pastels, some of which are now in the Huntington Library, the Fitzwilliam Museum and the Government art collection. He lived at Great Pednor Manor, Buckinghamshire.
Lit.: Oxford DNB; Olivia Horsfall-Turner, in Greenwich 2006, pp. 71-84

Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl of IVEAGH (1847-1927), Irish brewer, art collector and philanthropist. Pastels by Frye and Hamilton were included in the bequest which is now in Kenwood House (v. Collections)

J

Everhard JABACH (1618-1695), banker, from Köln. He inherited a large fortune from his father in 1636, and soon after moved to Paris, where his banking business prospered with support from Cardinal Mazarin. His art collection expanded rapidly, with major purchases at the Charles I and Arundel sales. As a result of a financial crisis in 1671 he sold his collection to Louis XIV. In addition to numerous important paintings, this included more than 5000 drawings of the highest quality, which are now in the Louvre. Shortly after he was appointed directeur of the Cie des Indes, and he started a second collection, including a further 4000 drawings. His grandson Gerard Michel Jabach (a.1700–1751), a merchant in Livorno, was also a drawings collector, and was portrayed by Rosalba. His sale took place in Amsterdam, 16.X.1753.
Lit.: Grossmann 1951; Grove 1996; Bernadette Py, "Everhard Jabach: supplement of identifiable drawings from the 1695 estate inventory", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007
Inventory 1696:
287. Teste d'un suisse, avec une calotte noire et pardessus un petit chapeau en bonnet; il est sur papier, fait en pastel, dans un bordure noire; derrière est un grand carton noir, de Holbeine;
288. Teste d'une femme, de la même main et de la même manière que le précédent; elle a une coeffe blanche sur la teste et point de cheveux, avec un mesme bordure que la précédent together valued at 2 livres
444. Adoration des Roys; en pastel, de Rubens, 150 livres.
465. L'Occasion, une femme nue, que Pallas présente à un homme armé qu'il a saisy aux cheveux, en destrampe, pastel, de Rubens, 20 livres.

Mary Frick JACOBS (1848-1936) established a collection of European pictures now in the Baltimore Museum of Art. She married first Robert Garrett, president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and, in 1902, Dr Henry Barton Jacobs (1858-1939), physician and art collector.
Lit.: Henry Barton Jacobs, The collection of Mary Frick Jacobs
Pastels: La Tour, Perrinet de Jars

Jacquemart, v. André

Pierre-André JACQUEMIN ( –1773), reçu 1751, jouaillier du roi & de la couronne 1753.
Vente p.m.: Paris, Chariot, Joullain fils, 26.IV.- 22.V.1773:
Lot 831: Le Portrait d'une Dame de la Cour; il est peint dans la maniere de M. Nattier, pastel, 27 livres
Lot 832: Chardin, Un buste de vieillard, de grandeur naturelle, pastel. 99 livres 19 sols [?Vieillard, R&T 195]
Lot 838: Boucher, Venus & l'Amour, Pastel [201 livres]
Lot 839: Autre [Venus & l'Amour], différemment composé, idem [pastel] [150 livres]
Lot 841: Boucher, Venus & l'Amour, avec une Colombe, Pastel [140 livres]
Lot 854: Boucher, Deux Têtes de femmes, au pastel [50 livres]

Charles JAFFARD [Jaffart] (1819-1882), peintre-ornemaniste from Bordeaux, based in Le Mans from 1841.
Vente p.m., Le Mans, 24.VII.1882:
Lot 93: La Tour, inconnu

Frédéric-François-Pierre Levisse de Montigny, marquis de JAUCOURT (1876-1969), industrialist based in Manchester, collector. He was grandson of Louis XVIII's minster. He owned two pastels in 1946, no doubt both family portraits.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Pastels: Glain, femme; Lenoir, Jaucourt

Solomon Barnato JOEL (1865-1931), South African financier with interests in mining, brewing and railways as well as the De Beers diamond company, of which he was a director and large shareholder. His interests were horse racing, gambling and the theatre, but his London house at 2 Great Stanhope Street was furnished with magnificent collections of books, furniture and pictures, sold in 1935.
Lit.: Oxford DNB
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 31.V.1935:
Russell, Lot 2: Lady Isabella Turnour; Lot 3: Lady Frances Turnour; Lot 4: girl

Edward Mead JOHNSON III (c.1934– ), author of monograph on Cotes, American art historian, trained at Stanford (where he received his AM in 1967), resident in London. He was the great-grandson of the founder of Johnson & Johnson, the pharmaceuticals business.
Pastels: Cotes, H. Freston

John Graver JOHNSON (1841-1917), lawyer and art collector. The son of a blacksmith, Johnson established himself at the Philadelphia bar by 1861, specialising in defending corporations against anti-trust litigation. He bequeathed a collection of more than 1200 Italian, Flemish, Dutch, Spanish, French and English paintings to the city of Philadelphia on condition that a gallery was constructed. The collection is now part of the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Lit.: Barnie F. Winkelman, John G. Johnson, lawyer and art collector. 1841-1917, Philadelphia, 1942
Pastels: Augustini, inconnue

Colonel George Hamilton JOHNSTON (1847-1920), of Kilmore, Co. Armagh. His large collection included paintings, prints and drawings, dispersed on the premises by Bennett & Son, 16-18.VI.1920:
561. Pastel portrait of the Earl of Charleville. Hugh Hamilton. [6½ gns]
562. Pastel portrait of the 2nd Lord Powerscourt. [14 gns]
563. Portrait, in colour, 3rd Lord Powerscourt. [5½ gns] [by Edridge or Cullen?
564. Portrait of Thomas and David Verner, in crayon.
565. Pastel portrait of 3rd Viscount Powerscourt. [by Cullen or Edridge]
567. Portrait of Hon. Mrs Staples, in crayon.
568. Portrait of William Locke. Signed J. Downman, 1780. [39/12/-]
570. Pastel portrait of Lady Lanesborough. Hugh Hamilton. [38 gns]
571. Pastel portrait of General Ross of Bladensburgh. [5 ½ gns; col. Wingfield]
574. Pastel portrait of Thomas Verner. Hugh Hamilton [14 gns]
582. Pastel portrait of Rt. Hon. David La Touche. Hugh Hamilton [21 gns]
583. Pastel portrait of the Primate Robinson.

Gaston JOLIET (1842-1921), curator of the musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon together with his brother Albert Joliet ( -1928); their father Antoine-Gaston Joliet had been maire of Dijon and an art collector. An important legacy (mainly of 19th century works, such as the Tissot Japonaise au bain) included pastels by Hoin and Pillement. He also owned the Boucher Femme au manchon acquired by David-Weill.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Jasper JOLY (1812-1892), LL.D., vicar of Tuam, bibliophile, who donated some 15,000 volumes, manuscripts and prints to the Royal Dublin Society in 1863. Two years later he presented four small Hamilton pastels to the Duke of Leinster; they represented memebers of the FitzGerald family.

Claude-Prosper JOLYOT DE CRÉBILLON (1707-1777), the licentious author, was the son of Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1674-1762), the tragedian, the subject of a pastel by La Tour, while Crébillon le fils was portrayed by Gautier-Dagoty in pastel and by Liotard in miniature. Four pastels by Boucher and a pair by M. Griet [Grillet] were in the son's posthumous sale, Paris, 3.VI.1777.

Édouard JONAS (1883-1961), antiquaire, place Vendôme; Ernest Cognacq was a frequent client, and Jonas catalogued his bequest to the city of Paris before becoming curator of the musée Cognacq-Jay. He became a député in 1936.
Lit.: Gimpel 1923
Pastels: La Tour [Lundberg], Auguste de Saxe; La Tour, présidente de Rieux; Perronneau, Mme Duval; Russell, Mrs Assheton; Saint-Non, Les deux sœurs; Éc. fr., marquise de Sassenage

François JOULLAIN (1697-1778), engraver, art dealer and auctioneer, active from c.1750 from a shop on the quai de la Megisserie. His stock, mainly of prints, was valued at 44,000 livres in 1762. His son Charles-François supplied frames.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a
Paris, 17.V.1779

Charles JOURDIER (1839-1906), from Moulins, and of 32 rue Michel Ange, Paris, was a donor to the musée départemental de l'Allier. His collection included pictures by Corot and Millet, as well as two pastels which he left to the comte de Champfeu.
Pastels: Mme Roslin, Lemonnier; Éc. fr., Homme jouant de la viole

Auguste JOUSSELIN, artiste peintre, économe du musée du Louvre (since before 1829), active as a painter 1834–42. His daughter Joséphine-Caroline married Philibert-Joseph Moissonet, secretary to Horace de Viel Castel.
Paris, Drouot, 15-16.IV.1858:
Lot 210: La Tour, inconnue

Jubinal, v. Saint-Albin

Jean de JULLIENNE [or Julienne] (1686-1766), director of the Gobelins; art collector, particularly associated with Watteau, many of whose works he had engraved by the Audrans, Boucher, Cochin etc. His contribution to the arts was recognised by the order of the Saint-Michel (1736) and he became an honorary member of the Académie royale de peinture in 1740. Jullienne's artistic patronage also extended to pastellists: his inventory records a number of pastels by Mlle Natoire as well as by Alexis Loir, who also presented a bust of Jullienne to the Académie in 1781. A manuscript illustrated Catalogue des tableaux de Mr de Jullienne, dating from c.1756, is in the Morgan Library, New York (inv. 1966.8), repr. in Tillerot 2010 and London 2011). A major sale, with 1679 lots, took place in 1767, and a further sale after the death of his widow in 1778.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: E. Dacier & A. Vuaflart, Jean de Jullienne et les graveurs de Watteau au 18ème siecle, Paris, 1929; Kopp & Tonkovich 2009, with Mariette's annotations; Tillerot 2010, with catalogue of Jullienne collection; London 2011; Ziskin 2012
Inv. p.m., AN xxix 529 1766
Paris, Martin, Remy, 30.III.-22.V.1767:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 65: Les quatre Saisons représentées chacune par une demi-figure de fille jeune & aimable, avec des attributs qui les caractérisent: elles sont au pastel, qui est, comme tout le monde sait, un genre de peindre que cette célebre Vénitienne possédoit supérieurement. Feu son Altesse Electorale de Cologne les lui a fait faire, & par conséquent on ne peut douter de la perfection de ces quatre morceaux. Ils sont sous glaces, & portent chacun 22 pouces de haut, sur 17 de large [1800 livres, Basan]
Lot 66: Rosalba Carriera elle-même, dans un âge avancé, coeffée en cheveux; elle tient un porte-crayon & une feuille de papier gris, sur laquelle est représentée le portrait d'une jeune fille. Ce Tableau au pastel, qui est d'un empâtement extraordinaire, vient encore du Cabinet de l'Electeur de Cologne: il porte 27 pouces de haut, sur 21 pouces 6 lignes de large [425 livres; Basan]
Lot 67: Deux Bustes de femmes extrêmement gracieuses; elles ont chacune un bouquet de fleurs dans les cheveux. Ces deux morceaux fins sont sous glace: ils portent chacun 16 pouces de haut, sur 12 pouces 6 lignes de large [400 livres]
Lot 68: Le Buste d'une Dame, vue de face & peinte au pastel, sous glace qui porte 20 pouces de haut, sur 15 de large [312 livres; Donjeux]
Lot 69: Un Buste d'homme, vu un peu plus de profil: c'est le portrait d'Antoine Pelligrini de Padoue, Peintre vénitien, que Carriera sa belle soeur a peint à Paris en 1720: il est sous glace, & porte 11 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 9 pouces 6 lignes de large. Ce pastel est d'une extrême beauté [42 livres; la présidente de Bandeville]
Lot 70: Le Buste de Sebastien Ricci de Belluno, peint à Venise. Il est sous une glace de 11 pouces 3 lignes de haut, sur 9 pouces 6 lignes de large [49 livres, Joullain]
Lot 71: Une femme tenant un papier de musique; elle est en buste & vue presque de face, sous glace qui porte 16 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 12 pouces 6 lignes de large [400 livres; Valade]
Lot 72: La Tete d'une jeune & agréable femme, vue de trois quarts, peinte en pastel sur papier bleu, sous un verre de 11 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 9 pouces 6 lignes de large [122 livres; la présidente de Bandeville]
Lot 73: La tête de Rosalba, âgée de 80 ans, peinte en pastel, par elle-même, sur papier gris, de même grandeur que la précédente [54 livres, de Bandeville]
Paul-Ponce-Antoine ROBERT
Lot 257: L'Enfant Jesus qui baise la Sainte Vierge. Ce morceau, qui a beaucoup de mérite, est peint en pastel, sous glace,de 15 pouces de haut, sur 12 de large [150 livres]
Lot 258: Un autre Tableau fait en pastel, aussi monté sous glace, de même grandeur. Il représente Sainte Anne & Saint Jean.
Lot 853: Une tête d'homme & celle d'une femme en regard, faites au pastel, sur papier bleu, de 14 pouces de haut, sur 9 pouces de large, pat Paul Ponce, Antoine Robert [38 livres]
François BOUCHER
Lot 273: Un Tableau du plus précieux de M. Boucher, peint en pastel. Il représente le Buste d'une belle femme, vue de trois quarts: elle tient un panier de fleurs. Sous glace, de 14 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces trois lignes de large [220 livres; d'Albertas]
Mademoiselle NATOIRE
Lot 278: Une Femme qui chante, & une qui prend du caffé, d'après de Troy, peintes en pastel. Chaque Tableau de 24 pouces de haut, sur 19 de larg [130 livres; Montulé]
[Mariette annotation: "Soeur du Peintre." "Tous ces pastels ont souffert de l'humidité. Je ne sçais trop si ce dommage se peut réparer"]
Lot 279: Deux autres Tableaux en pastel de même grandeur que les précedens [24 pouces de haut sur 19 de large]: l'un représente une femme en habit de Masque, & l'autre tient un écureuil, d'après Carriera [134 livres; Donjeux]
Lot 280: Une Femme coeffée en fleurs, & une qui lit, d'après de Troy, idem [140 livres; d'Albertas]
Lot 281: Deux femmes en pendants, l'une est en corset rouge, & l'autre tiend des fruits. [215 livres. Mariette annotation: "d'après de petites miniatures de la Rosalba"]
M. LOIR
Lot 290: Le Buste d'un jeune homme & celui d'une fille, peints en pastel & montés sous verre; chacun porte 14 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 11 pouces 3 lignes de large [160 livres; Naux]
M. GLAIN
Lot 303: Une femme se regardant dans un miroir, Tableau agréable peint en pastel, sous verre de 22 pouces de haut, sur 18 de large [210 livres, de Montullé. Mariette annotation: "en 1761" after "en pastel"; "Il faut s'y connoitre bien peu pour donner un tel prix d'une telle drogue"]
Lot 304: Le Sieur Caillot représenté en Capitaine Tempête: Buste en pastel, sous glace qui porte 19 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 16 pouces de large [30 livres, de Montullé. Mariette annotation: "On a rendu plus de justice à ce tableau mais c'est qu'il s'est trouvé moins agreable que l'autre." ]
[Manuscript addition to two copies:
Lot 320b: Tête de femme en pastel, copie d'après Boucher/Un portrait de femme à mi-corps [22 livres 10]
Lot 320c: Autre copie de tête en pastel/Un Portrait de femme en Pastel dans le stile de M. Boucher [30 livres]
Frederic BAROCHE d'Urbin
Lot 361: Une tête de Vierge, vue de face, dessinée au fusin, avec un peu de pastel, sur papier bleu. On la croit de Raphael [8 livres]
Lot 362: Une tête d'Ange en pastel, sur papier bleu de 9 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 7 pouces 3 lignes de large [16 livres; de Bandeville]
Lot 365: Une tête précieuse de Religieux qui regarde en bas: elle porte 12 ouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 9 pouces 3 lignes [16 livres 1]
Lot 370: Deux Etudes de têtes de femmes, & une feuille d'Étude de trois têtes d'enfants, en pastel [18 livres 3 sols, Pierre-François Basan]
Guido RENI
Lot 425: Le Buste d'un enfant vu de profil, très bien peint en pastel, & d'une belle conservation; & une Figure dessinée à la sanguine..., par le Dominicain [40 livres; Dumassot]
Pierre PATEL, le Pere
Lot 742: Six idem [Paysages], & deux en pastel [21 livres; Basan]
Charles de LA FOSSE
Lot 763: La Tête d'un agréable jeune homme, peinte en pastel, sur papier gris, de 12 pouces 3 lignes de haut, sur 9 pouces 9 lignes de large [24 livres; Liancourt]
Antoine WATTEAU
Lot 823: Dix idem [Paysages], dont plusieurs au pastel [50 livres 1 sol]
François BOUCHER
Lot 945: Deux agréables Bustes de femme; l'une de face, l'autre de trois quart, dessinées au pastel, de 8 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 6 pouces 6 lignes de large [39 livres; Sylvestre]
Charles NATOIRE
Lot 959: Vénus sur les eaux, & Diane au retour de la chasse; ces deux desseins sont en pastel, chacun porte 10 pouces 9 lignes de haut, sur 15 pouces 3 lignes de large [96 livres 1; Drais]
M. BACHELIER
Lot 974: Deux sujets d'enfans, études coloriées & très finies des Tableaux qui sont à la Manufacture de Beauvais, pour être exécuté en tapisserie, 13 p. 6 de haut, sur 6 p. 6 de large [151 livres 10; Valade]
Lot 975: Un sujet allégorique sur les Arts, composé de vingt enfans; dessein en pastel, sur papier bleu, de 18 pouces de haut, sur 30 pouces de large, par M. Loir [96 livres; Vassé]
Desseins, Gouazze & Pastel de différens Maîtres des trois Ecoles.
Lot 1002: Deux petits Bustes d'hommes, dont en en pastel, par des Maîtres François [13 livres]
Lot 1003: Deux autres de femmes, en pastel [20 livres]
Lot 1005: Un portrait de femme en buste, peint en pastel par M. Loir. Sa hauteur est de 16 pouces 9 lignes, & sa largeur de 13 pouces 3 lignes [50 livres]
Pastels in Tillerot 2010 catalogue (includes some but not all drawings):
[omitted: BACHELIER, Deux sujets d'enfans]
[omitted: BAROCCI, Tête de Vierge; Tête d'Ange; trois études; religieux]
BOUCHER. 24, 25: Deux bustes de femmes; 30: Jeune femme tenant un panier de fleurs
COYPEL. 59: M. & Mme François de Jullienne
GLAIN. 74: femme se mirant; 75: Caillot
LA TOUR. 100: Rousseau; 101: Jullienne; 102: Jullienne, préparation
LEMOYNE. 114: Tête d'enfant
LOIR. 120: Mme de Jullienne; 121, 122: jeune homme, jeune femme; [omitted: sujet allégorique sur les Arts]
[omitted: NATOIRE, Vénus & Diane]
Mlle NATOIRE. 133: a/r Berchem; 134-35: a/r Carriera; 136-37: a/r de Troy; 138-39: a/r Carriera; 140-41: a/r de Troy; 142-43: a/r Carriera
[omitted: LA FOSSE, Tête de jeune homme]
[omitted: PATEL, deux paysages]
[omitted: RENI, enfant]
ROBERT de Séry. 177: L'Enfant Jésus baisant la Vierge; 178: Sainte Anne et saint Jean; [omitted: Têtes d'homme & de femme]
VIVIEN. 200: Jullienne, oncle
Rosalba CARRIERA. 413: Jeune fille au chat; 414-17: Quatre Saisons; 418: autoportrait; 419-20: deux bustes de femme [Hiver; & Été]; 421: dame, vue de face; 422: Pellegrini; 423: S. Ricci; 424: femme tenant ue partition; 425: femme, vue de 3/4; 426: autoportrait à 80 ans; 427-30: 4 pstls a/r Rosalba
Mme de Jullienne, vente p.m., Paris, Florentin, Le Brun, 5.XI.1778 & seq.:
Lot 4: Rosalba Carriera, Un portrait au pastel en buste, représentant une femme. Sous verre hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 13 pouces [25 livres]

K

Désiré-Jean-Joseph KAÏEMAN (1796–1857), from Nivelles, conseiller à la cour d'appel, Bruxelles, 1836, member of the conseil communal from 1849. His four posthumous sales, 1858-60, included more than 3000 drawings.
Vente p.m., 2e partie: Paris, 2-5.III.1859:
Lot 640: La Tour, inconnu

The German brothers Rodolphe (1845-1905) and Maurice (1839-1906) KANN established themselves in Paris in the nineteenth century; their fortune was based on South African gold and diamond mining. In 1907 Duveen acquired the entire Kann collection, described by Friedländer as "superior to all private galleries on the continent excepting, perhaps, that of Prince Liechtenstein in Vienna". Their relative Alphonse (1870-1948), a British citizen after 1938, became an art collector and dealer in Paris before 1914, handling old master and impressionist paintings as well as antiquities and oriental and Far Eastern art. The 1927 sale contained a large collection of decorative art. Kann escaped to London during World War II, and his collections were seized by the ERR. Among his pastels was a Perronneau dame now in the Statens Museum, Copenhagen.
Lit.: Seligman 1961; Gimpel 1963; Donateurs 1989; The art newspaper, .X.2000, p. 65
Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, 6-8.XII.1920:
Lot 103: Gardner, lady; Lot 116: Hoin, Mme Dugazon; Lot 119: La Tour, ?Garnier; Lot 133: Perronneau, Marie-Louise-Catherine-Françoise Colette de Villers
New York, American Art Association, 7.I.1927:
Lot 9: La Tour, enfant

Wenzel Anton Fürst von KAUNITZ-RIETBERG (1711-1794), Austrian statesman. His francophile programme was complemented by an enlightened approach to the arts, which he saw as playing a significant political and economic role. He implemented this policy by establishing a Kupferstichakademie in 1766, which he then reorganised into Akademie der bildenden Künste in 1772. His own collections were extensive, and were sold between 1820 and 1840. He owned pastels by Liotard (Karl von Lothringen; and family portraits). Gräfin von Kaunitz took drawing lessons from Lion in Vienna.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996

KENNEDY Galleries was founded by Hermann Wunderlich ( –1892) in New York in 1874. Wunderlich was succeeded by Edward G. Kennedy, ant the name was changed to Kennedy & Co (1912) and the Kennedy Galleries (1852). The firm has handled pastels by Copley, Perkins, Lawrence and Sharples.

Alexei Zakharovich KHITROVO (1845-1912), master of the imperial hounds, from a family of collectors, formed an important collection of British portraits in his house on Sergeievskaia Street, St Petersburg. Bequeathed to the Hermitage, the collection included two pastels by Russell.
Lit.: Neverov 2004

François-Joseph de KLINGLIN, chevalier, baron d'Haastat [Hattstatt] (1686–1753), conseiller d'État, préteur royal de la ville de Strasbourg
Vente p.m., Strasbourg, 18.XI.1754:
Lot 168: [Anon:] Trois Tableaux dont deux en Pastel, & le troisiéme à l'Encre de la Chine, de différentes grandeurs.

Richard Payne KNIGHT (1750-1824), connoisseur and collector of bronzes, gems, coins and pcitures. His Analytical enquiry into the principles of taste was published in 1808. He was a trustee of the British Museum.
Pastels: Lely, nymph

M. KNOEDLER & Co., New York art dealer, founded by Michel Knoedler (1823-1878) who arrived in New York in 1846, initially as representative of Goupil. The firm moved to East 57th Street in 1925. Its clients included many of the wealthiest American collectors of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, Huntington, Havemeyer, Frick and Mellon. Knoedler was involved in Mellon's acquisition around 1930 of 31 paintings from the Hermitage now in the National Gallery of Art, Washington.
Lit.: Grove; 150th anniversary exhibition, 1996

Franz Wilhelm KOENIGS (1881-1941), a banker and merchant from Köln, settled in The Netherlands where he established the Rhodis Koenigs Handel-Maatschappij trading house. He also founded formed one of the greatest European art collections of the pre-war period, and was particularly famed as a connoisseur of drawings. His wife Anna von Kalckreuth was the daughter of a painter. In the early 1930s, his collection was placed on deposit with the Museum Boijmans in Rotterdam. A second collection remained with his descendants until 2001.
Lit.: Lugt S1023a
New York, Sotheby's, .I.2001
Pastels: Barocci, femme; Bassano, man; Boucher, Vénus; F.-H. Drouais, jeune fille; Fragonard, Le Premier Baiser

Eugène KRAEMER (1852-1912), antiquaire from Alsace. He was in business with his brother Léon Alphonse (1854-1903). Eugène's posthumous sales in 1913 included a number of pastels. Lucien Kraemer, also from Alsace, founded Kraemer & Cie, 43 rue de Monceau, which remains in business four generations later, specialising in XVIIIe furniture; the firm has handled some pastels. A number of pastels beloning to the firm were seized by the ERR during the war; they included Duplessis, Saint-Priest.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, Georges Petit, F. Lair-Dubreuil & Henri Baudoin-
1ère vente, 28-29.IV.1913: Tableaux anciens, objets d'art de Haute Curiosité et d'ameublement. 170 numéros
2e vente (5-6.V.1913): Tableaux anciens, pastels. Ecoles anglaise et française du xviiie siècle. Objets d'art et d'ameublement. 169 numéros
3e vente (2-5.VI.1913): Tableaux anciens, pastels & dessins, objets d'art et d'ameublement, sculptures:
Lot 112, 113: Boucher, atelier, Le Réveil; Le Sommeil; Lot 114: Caresme, Honni Soit qiu mal y pense; Lots 115, 116: Deshays, jeune femme au chapeau; jeune femme à la corbeille de fleurs; Lot 117: Anon., JF en rose; Lot 118: Anon., jeune femme à la lettre; Lot 119: enfant au tambour; Lot 120: artiste; Lot 121: jeune femme; Lot 122: homme en habit noir; Lot 123: Anon., Mme Vigée Le Brun; Lot 124: Médar: jeune femme 1771; Lot 125: Perronneau, homme 1747

Jean KREBS, banker, and his wife Margaret, Brussels, collectors in particular of surrealist art, owned a Perronneau inconnue, 1768 in 1953.

Samuel Henry KRESS (1863-1955) made his fortune through retailing. From the 1920s he assembled an enormous collection of European old master pictures, sculpture and decorative art. Some 1800 works were donated to the NGA, Washington in 1961, while a further 1300 works were donated to regional US museums.
Lit.: Paintings and sculptures from the Samuel Kress collection, Washington, 1959; kressfoundation.org
Pastels: Carriera, Reade; La Peinture; La Tour, Dupouch; Tiepolo, allegories (2)

Joseph Otto KRONIG (1887-1984), Dutch connoisseur, of The Hague, Florence and Monaco, partner and heir of Abraham Bredius. He owned a Perronneau, Hasselaer

Jan KRUGIER (1928–2008), art dealer with galleries in Geneva and New York, and his wife, the painter Marie-Anne Poniatowski: a collection of over 500 sheets of drawings over six centuries, of which 150 were exhibited in Paris 2002.
Pastels: La Tour, autoportrait

L

Jacques-Victor, comte de LA BÉRAUDIÈRE (1819-1895), celebrated collector and bibliophile. His son Jacques, comte de la Béraudière, owned the château de Bouzillé, Anjou. The comtesse de La Béraudière lent a Cotes lady to Paris 1911 exhibition.
Lit.: Chaix d'Est-Ange
Paris, 16-17.IV.1883
Paris, 12, rue de Poitiers, Escribe, Chevallier, 18-30.V.1885 [pastels on 21.v.1885]:
Lot 135: a/r Boucher, buste de jeune femme [500]
Lot 136: a/r Boucher, jeune fille endormie [80]
Lot 137: Coypel, Femme en Galatée [200]
Lot 138: De Troy, Homme [160]
Lot 139: De Troy, Femme [370]
Lot 140: La Tour, Femme [2450]
Lot 141: Perronneau, Marie Leszczynska [5500]
Lot 142: Prud'hon, Mme Meyer à dix ans
Lot 143: Éc. fr., femme
Lot 144: Éc. fr., La Camargo

The Palazzo LABIA in Venice, with its sumptuous ballroom decorated by Tiepolo, was the demonstration to Venetian society of the wealth of a family of recent nobility. Maria Labia, reputedly portrayed by Rosalba, had an important collection of jewelry. Contessa Cecilia Labia, Milan, owned pastels by Tiepolo in 1911. Other collectors in this family included Princess Ida Louisa (1879-1961) and Count Natale Labia who inherited a collection from his grandfather, Sir Joseph Robinson, Bt (1840-1929).

Jean-Joseph de LABORDE (1724-1794), a financier who enjoyed Choiseul's support, was a patron of the arts. Of numerous properties, the château de Méréville is perhaps the most beautiful. Both he and his wife Rosalie-Claire de Nettine were the subject of numerous pastel portraits (Ducreux, Roslin etc.). His son François (1761-1802) collected pictures, buying the duc d'Orléans's collection in 1791 before his emigration the following year. Some were sold to Jeremiah Harman, while the remaining collection was sold in 1803. The unrelated Jean-Benjamin de Laborde (1734-1793) was also a wealthy financier, his sister and brother-in-law François Fontaine de Cramayel commissioned a number of pastels.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996; Mathieu Coty, Jean-Benjamin de Laborde, 2001; Ormesson & Thomas 2002

Louis LA CAZE (1798-1869), doctor and amateur painter, whose bequest was one of the most important donations to the Louvre. Several of the paintings in his collection relate to pastels.
Lit.: Paris 2007

Étienne LA FONT DE SAINT-YENNE (1688-1771), influential early Salon critic. His reactionary views on the decadence of French art in his 1747 Réflexions… were particularly targetted against pastel, "espéce de Peinture excessivement à la mode".
Lit.: Grove 1996

De LA FONTINELLE, collector of books, curiosities, paintings, drawings and miniatures.
Paris, Couturier, Barre, 22-25.XI.1865:
Lot 44 bis: La Tour, inconnue

Karl LAGERFELD (1933- ), fashion designer. A sale of French XVIIIe furniture in Monaco in .IV.2000 yielded some $21.7 million. The paintings sale contained a number of portraits, one a drawing with pastel.
New York, Christie's, 23.V.2000
Lot 104: Coypel, tête

A.-Henri LAGLENNE, picture dealer in Paris, then antiquaire in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. His sale included a large collection of watercolours, gouaches, miniatures, prints as well as pastels.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, Roblin, 3-4.III.1905:
Lot 13: Boze, inconnu; Lot 95: Perronneau, attr. [Vallayer-Coster]: Jeune femme; Lot 99: Prud'hon, femme [Mlle Meyer]; Lot 128: Éc. fr., homme; Lot 134: Éc. fr., femme; Lot 136: Éc. fr., femme; Lot 137: Éc. fr., homme; Lot 138: Éc. fr., homme

Marin de LA HAYE (1684-1753), fermier général. His sale of pictures (including works by Poussin and Watteau), drawings and sculpture produced 9694 livres. His niece Catherine de La Haye des Fosses married Blondel d'Azincourt.
Lit.: Claeys 2008; Yves Durand, Les Fermiers généraux, Paris, 1996, p. 535
Paris, Martin, 1.VII.1754 & seq.:
Lot 111: [Anon.], Un tableau peint en pastel, représentant S. Andr[é] de 9 pouces de haut sur 7 de large, sous glace, dans sa bordure dorée, enfermé dans une boëte matelassée en dedans. Retiré

Ange-Laurent de LA LIVE DE JULLY (1725-1779), introducteur des ambassadeurs, amateur artist, collector and patron. He was an honorary member of the Académie royale de peinture from 1754. His early allegiance to contemporary French art and enthusiasm for the neo-classical style were notable; they were reflected in the catalogue of his collection he had printed in 1764. Hébert's 1766 description of the pastels in the "petit cabinet" is also of particular interest.
Dictionary, genealogy, La Live
Lit.: Livre-journal de Lazare Duvaux, marchand-bijoutier, 1748-1758, ed. J. Courajod, Paris, 1873, I, p. cclxxx ff, citing Almanach des Beaux-Arts, 1762; Barbara Scott, Apollo, .I.1973; Chardin 1979; Paris 1991a, pp 364-7; Grove 1996; Bailey 2002
Hébert, Dictionnaire pittoresque & historique, Paris, 1766:
Peinture en pastel du petit cabinet sur le jardin: le portrait en pastel du Roi, par Le Moine. Un pastel de la Rosa Alba, sur vélin, représentant l'Hiver sous la figure d'une jeune femme qui s'enveloppe d'une fourrure. Une tête de jeune fille, par Greuze, étude pour la tête de la jeune mariée du beau tableau appelé la Dottée de la noce de village, que possède M. le marquis de Marigny. Le portrait de Watteau, par la Rosa Alba. Une tête de femme, par la Rosa Alba.
Paris, Remy, [advertised for 5.III.1770, but postponed to] 2-14.V.1770:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 129: Le portrait de Watteau, représenté en buste: on voit le haut d'une chaise sur laquelle il est supposé assis; hauteur 12 pouces, largeur 10 pouces. Ce morceau est savant & d'un style formidable [123 livres, Remy pour le Chevalier Dameri]
Lot 130: Une très belle tête de femme, vue de trois quarts les yeux élevés: ce pastel fait à la presto sur papier petit bleu, est tout esprit & plein de ragoût, 12 p. x 10 p. [72 livres 3 sols]
Lot 131: Un autre pastel fini, sur velin, par Rosalba; il représente l'Hiver sous la figure d'une jeune femme en cheveux qui s'enveloppe d'une fourure & d'une draperie rouge, pastel sur velin, hauteur 1 pied 11 pouces, largeur 1 pied 6 pouces 6 lignes [460 livres]
Joseph VIVIEN
Lot 132: Le portrait de M. l'Abbé Lalouette, Aumônier de Louis XIV, peint avec toute la force & le précieux que l'on puisse donner aux morceaux de ce genre, 2 pieds de haut, sur 2 pieds 6 pouces de large [244 livres; Mme de Pange Vieille rue du temple [?] rue St Louis];
François LE MOINE
Lot 133: Le portrait de Louis XV en buste à l'âge de 19 ans, pour servir d'étude au grand tableau qui est à Versailles dans le sallon de la paix; on ne peut douter de la bonté de ce morceau, pastel, 19 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 16 pouces de large [150 livres, L'abée Le Blanc]
Charles COYPEL
Lot 134: Une Femme âgée, d'un caractere ridicule, à sa toilette; une femme de chambre lui met sa coëffure, & un Amour qui tient une fleche, semble s'envoler. 29 pouces de haut, sur 23 de large [56 livres 1 sol; Francois]
Mlle NATOIRE
Lot 135: Le buste d'une jeune femme tenant un masque, pastel, hauteur 14 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 11 pouces 8 lignes [9 livres; Matrat]
Lot 136: Un autre buste de femme, pastel, hauteur 12 pouces, largeur 10 pouces [8 livres 3 sols]
GREUZE
Lot 137: Une belle étude de la tête de la jeune Mariée du beau tableau de la nôce de Village qui est dans le Cabinet de M. le Marquis de Marigny, pastel, 1 pied 1 pouce de haut, sur 10 pouces de large [149 livres 19 sols; Basan pour M. Mariette]

Alexis-Janvier LA LIVE DE LA BRICHE (1735-1785), brother of La Live de Jully.
Inv. p.m., AN, xci, 1230, 1.IX.1785

Henri LALLEMAND [?(1810-1892), peintre]
Paris, Chevallier, 2.V.1894:
Lot 10: La Tour attr., inconnu; Lot 11: Prud'hon, Perchet

Eugène LAMI (1800-1890), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, 26.II.1891:
Lot 64: La Tour, Louis XVI

Carl Robert LAMM (1856-1938), industrialist and art collector. He and his wife Dora rebuilt Näsby slott (by Nicodemus Tessin), near Stockholm, after a fire in 1897.
New York, American Art Association, 21-24.II.1923:
Lot 595: Perronneau, M. Sarazin
Stockholm, Bukowskis, 19-21.IV.1939, Lot 621:
Hall, Choiseul

LAMOIGNON. This distinguished family of parlementaires included a number of patrons and collectors. Guillaume I de Lamoignon, marquis de Bâville (1617-1677), premier président au parlement de Paris, was portayed by Nanteuil. His great-grandson Chrétien-Guillaume de Malesherbes (1721-1794), his sister, their niece and her hsuband were all the subject of pastels by Valade; Malesherbes and other members of the family attended Valade's wedding in 1752.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996; Jeffares 2003

Karl, or Karol, Graf LANCKORONSKI (1848-1933), author, traveller and art collector of Polish origin, resident in the Palais Lanckoronski, Vienna. Among his children, Karolina Lanckoronska (1898-2002) was an art historian; in 1967 she established the Lanckoronski Foundation, which promotes Polish culture. A number of pastels from the Lanckoronski collection were obtained for the Führermuseum, including a S. Teresa thought to be by Carriera, but here reattributed to Cades,and a Longhi; copies after Meytens and de Troy. A Vigée Le Brun autoportrait was sold in 2004.

Mme Nicolas LANCRET, née Marie-Hyacinte-Bernard de Roussi de Boursault ( -1781), widow of the aritst: her sale, Paris, 5-16.IV.1782, contained pastels by Natoire and Vigée.

La marquise LANDOLFO CARCANO, née Adèle Cassin (1831-1921), reputedly the mistress of Édouard Delessert, Georges Petit and several Rothschilds, had a magnificent art collection in her house at 1, rue de Tilsit, Paris. She was the model for Dumas's Denise.
Lit.: André Maurois, Les Trois Dumas, 1957
Paris, Georges Petit, 30.V.-1.VI.1912:
Lot 180: Vigée Le Brun, jeune femme

Sir Edwin LANDSEER (1802-1873), the animal painter and sculptor, owned a Russell study for John Jefferys.

John LANE (1854-1925), publisher, founder of Bodley Head: owned pastels of unknown girls by Gardner, Russell and an anonymous pastel of Pauline Borghese.

Egide-Louis-Edme-Joseph de Lespinasse, chevalier de LANGEAC (1752-1839), chev. des ordres de Malte, de Saint-Louis & de la Légion d'honneur, maréchal de camp, diplomate, auteur; his sale, Paris, hôtel de Bullion, Chariot, Laneuville, 16-17.II.1824, included a pastel Tête de Cléopâtre (Lot 69) given as La Tour but no doubt the Labille-Guiard.

Jacques LANGLIER (1730-p.1810), marchand de tableaux, rue Sainte-Croix-de-la-Bretonnerie, Paris; in 1793, he was a membre de la Commission des arts de Seine-et-Oise. He purchased numerous pastels by French and Italian artists at auction, and in the early 19th century acted as expert at a number of sales.

Claude-Louis LANGLOIS de Sézanne (1757-1845), peintre. His posthumous sale included some 21 pastels, many of which could well be 19th century.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, Sauvan, 14-15.II.1845:
Lot 67: La Tour, magistrat

Albert LANIEL, Paris, was the eldest son of Eugène Laniel, a fabric manufacturer at Vimoutières. He acquired two Labille-Guiard pastels (princesse de Béthune and L'Heureuse Surprise) between 1898 and 1907 which, in 1973, were with Eugène's grandson, Joseph Laniel (1889–1975), prime minister of France 1953–54.

Édouard-Alexandre-Auguste LANON (1848-1881), a merchant in Elbeuf; with his brother Edmond, he formed a fine collection of faïence, left to the town of Louviers, together with the sum of FFr200,000 with which the musée de Louviers was built in 1888.
Pastels: Vigée, Le Massif d'Oisnel

La vicomtesse de LA PANOUSE, née Marie Heilbron (1851-1886), celebrated opera singer, who created the rôle of Massenet's Manon. She married the vicomte de La Panouse in 1881, much to the annoyance of his family.
Paris, 32 rue de Monceau, 26-29.IV.1882:
Lot 418: La Tour, La Condamine

Laurent LAPERLIER (1805-1878), 10 quai de la Râpée, Paris, a civil servant in Algiers. He collected Chardin (Bulles de savon etc.), Prud'hon (Abondance) and other French eighteenth century artists; he was a close friend of the Goncourts (their correspondence is in the BnF). By 1861, his collection of pictures of the French school numbered some 100 items. It was dispersed in two sales, one occasioned by his departure to Algiers, the other after his death.
Lit.: Annuaire des artistes et amateurs, 1861; Burty 1879; Chardin 1979
Paris, Drouot, Pillet, 11-13.IV.1867:
Lot 58: Chardin, tête de vieillard, sd 1771 [Fr85]; Lot 59: Chardin, auto [Fr505]; Lot 67: La Tour, Dupauch [Fr229]; Lot 68: La Tour, homme en habit gris, jabot, cheveux poudrés, [Fr210]; Lot 69: La Tour, femme [Fr2000]; Lot 71: Perronneau, homme en costume Louis XV [d'Aubais] [Fr48]; Lot 84: Prud'hon, L'impératrice Joséphine [Fr1640]; Lot 89: Prud'hon, une chanoinesse [Fr78]; Lot 117 bis: Prud'hon, étude de bras; Lot 118: Van Loo (école de), Mlle Laruette, rôle de Zémire dans Zémire et Azor [Fr23]; Lot 119: Weyler, Un amiral anglais [Fr77]
Paris, 17-18.II.1879:
La Tour, Lot 49: Chardin [Silvestre]; Lot 51: Schmidt; Lot 52: auto; Lot 53: inconnu; Lot 54: inconnue; Lot 55: auto

Émile-Charles-Julien de LA ROCHENOIRE (1825-1899), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, Tual, 4-5.XII.1899:
Perronneau, attr., homme

Georges Bottolier-LASQUIN [Bottollier, Bottelier etc.] (1882-1932): drawings expert at many of the Paris auctions in the 1910-28 period, succeeding his father Jacques (presumably the Bottollier credited with a La Tour pastel in the London 1877 exhibition). He worked with his brother Henri ( –1919) and Marius Paulme (q.v.).
Lit.: Le Figaro, 19.V.1932, obituary
Paris, Drouot, 7-8.VI.1928:
Lot 115: La Tour, masque; Lot 188: Perronneau, fillette russe; Lot 189: Perronneau [La Tour], femme au bonnet
Paris, Drouot, Ader, 16-17, 21-23.XI.1932:
Lot 15: Lenoir, fillette

J. LASSALLE. His sale, rich in eighteenth century pictures, furniture, porcelain and objets d'art, produced Fr603,000.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, 16-19.XII.1901:
Lot 27: Ducreux, fillette; Lot 28: Russell, fillette

Jean-Annet-Edmond, vicomte de LASTIC (1850–1927), château de Meillard, a landscape painter, owned a pastel by La Tour (Durey), in 1880, and left a Ducreux pastel (Plaichard) to the musée at Laval in 1929. Georges, marquis de Lastic (1927-1988), of the Saint-Jal branch of the family, was adopted by François de Lastic and inherited the château de Parantignat. He became conservateur des musées de la Vénerie à Senlis et de la chasse, an expert on Largillierre, and owned two Vigée Le Brun pastels (enfants de France) and a drawing with pastel by Aubert.
Lit.: Paris 2010b

Jean-François de LA TOUR (1726-1807), brother of Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, inherited the collection of La Tour pastels which are now in Saint-Quentin after unsuccessful attempts to sell them at auction.
Lit.: Brière 1932a; Cabezas 2004

César-Florimond, marquis de LA TOUR-MAUBOURG (1820–1886), chambellan de Napoléon III, married, in 1849, Anne-Eve, dite Nancy, Mortier de Trévise (1829–1900), through qhom the La Tour pastel must have passed to the duc de Trévise, her great nephew.
Pastels: La Tour, Jolyot de Crébillon

The Hon. Irwin Boyle LAUGHLIN (1871-1941), diplomat. He started to form an extensive collection of French eighteenth century drawings while ambassador to Spain, with help from Agnew's and comte Enrico Bosdari (known as Henri Brémont), an expert on eighteenth century drawings with a somewhat chequered history. The collection was of outstanding quality, and included over three hundred drawings by Fragonard alone. Laughlin built his home in Washington, Meridian House, in the Louis XVI style, and assisted in the planning of the West Building of the National Gallery of Art. His collection was preserved intact by his widow Therese Iselin Laughlin until her death in 1958, when it was inherited by their only child, Gertrude, who married Rear Admiral Hubert Chanler. Much of the collection was sold in 1959. Some of the remaining drawings were exhibited in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, in 1982.
Lit.: Washington 1982; Simpson 1987
London, Sotheby's, 10.VI.1959
Other pastels: Sharples, Mrs Winthrop

Harwood C. LAURENCE (1869–1949), of Godstone, Surrey and Newton Abbot, Devon, a stockbroker: two Gardner pastels, recently acquired, were reproduced in The Connoisseur in 1925. A number of pictures were bequeathed to British museums through the NACF in 1949, and a sale of modern pictures took place at Sotheby's, 21.VII.1949.

Ernest (1818-1894) and Olympe (1813-1887) LAVALARD, brothers; their collections were left to the musée d'Amiens.
Lit.: J. Foucart, Les Lavalard, Amiens, 1977, unpublished typescript; Chardin 1979

Henri LAVEDAN (1859-1940), de l'Académie française, novelist and playwright. From Orléans, he originally studied law before turning to the theatre; Le Prince d'Aurec was his best known play.
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, 28.XI.1941 : Valade [?Van Loo], RichelieuOther pastels: Ducreux, Robespierre; La Tour, Duval de l'Épinoy

Mme Lucien LAVEISSIÈRE, née Agathe Delahalle (1870-1946) offered a bequest to the state on condition that her home, at 68, rue Pergolèse, was converted into a museum. This was not accepted; but her nephew Jacques Lenté presented some 40 pictures to the Louvre, mainly French XVIIIe portraits, including two pendant pastels, attributed to La Tour [Lefèvre], M. & Mme de Rozeville.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

John LAW (1671-1729), the celebrated financier, was closely involved in the social circle of Crozat in Paris around 1720. He engaged, but failed to pay, Pellegrini to decorate the ceiling of the Mississippi Room of the Banque de France. John Law sat with his son to Rosalba Carriera during her trip to Paris, and these pastels, although absent from his posthumous inventory of .VIII.1729, reappeared in the Christie's 1782 sale, suggesting that they were retained by his daughter Lady Wallingford, née Mary Katherine Law (1711-1790) in Paris until her emigration to Belgium and subsequently England. Law also owned a couple of Reni heads of saints in pastel.
Lit.: Edwards 2001
London, Christie's, 16.II.1782:
Lot 47: La Rosalba - A highly finished portrait of the celebrated Monsieur Laws, one of the best of the charming artist [8½ gns; Wilde]
Lot 48: Ditto - His son, equally fine [7½ gns; Walton]

Dr John LAW ADAM (1866-1961), MB, FRCS, connoisseur and collector, of Far End, France Hill Drive, Camberley. He owned a group of early English pastels seen by Homer Eaton Keyes in 1928. He sold 47 drawings to British Museum, including Bellers's self-portrait in pastel.
Lit.: Keyes 1929

Lawrence, v. Durning

Sir Thomas LAWRENCE (1769-1830), PRA, painter and pastellist. He formed a large collection of old master drawings, from around 1820; it was dispersed in a series of sales from 10.V.1830.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Paul Joannides, The drawings of Michelangelo and his followers in the Ashmolean Museum, Cambridge, 2007
Pastels: Boltraffio, group of chalk drawings; Gainsborough, Pitt; Gibson, auto

Lawrence, v. Durning-Lawrence

André LAZARD (1869-1931), banker, of Lazard Frères. His widow, Georgette Berthier (1885-1971), bequeathed a Perronneau (Huquier) to the Louvre in his memory.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Louis-Marie LEBAS de COURMONT, marquis de Pomponne (1742–1794), fermier général in succession to his father, receveur général des aides et droits, rue des Francs-Bourgeois. His collection was particularly rich in Flemish pictures, but also included drawings by Fragonard and sculptures by Lemoyne. In 1784 he married Adélaïde-Louise Monmerqué, who remarried after he was guillotined, and was the grandmother of the Goncourt brothers.
Paris, Boileau & Charlot, Paillet, 26.V.1795 & seq.:
Lot 50: Deux figures de femmes vues à mi-corps, l'une ajustée d'un voile de gase est peinte au pastel, par Coypel, Hauteur 20 pouces, largeur 17 [Fr600]
Lot 51: Deux autres morceaux peints au pastel pas la Citoyenne Le Brun, en 1777 (v. ft.) ils représentent différentes figures de jeunes femmes, vues à mi-corps, l'une caractérisant la crainte, l'autre ajustee en vestalle. Hauteur 22 pouces, largeur 16 [Fr1000; Jaubert]

Charles LE BLANC (1817-1865), de la Bibliothèque impériale, auteur du Manuel de l'amateur d'estampes.
Vente p.m., Paris, 8.XI.1865:
Lot 12: La Tour, inconnu

L'abbé Jean-Bernard LE BLANC (1707-1781), writer and art critic, appointed historiographe des Bâtiments du roi with support from Mme de Pompadour. He was portrayed by Cochin and La Tour.
Vente p.m., Paris, Le Brun, 14.II.1781 & seq.:
Lot 53: La Tour, autoportrait

Georges-Louis-Claude LEBEUF DE MONTGERMONT (1854-1933), comte romain, camérier secret of popes Leon XII and Pius X.
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 16-19.VI.1919:
Lot 272: Prud'hon, Lagnier

Gaston LE BRETON (1845-1920), conservateur du musée de Rouen, 1898-1905, author of a study on J.-A.-M. Lemoine. His important collection of Rouen faïence was bought by J. Pierpont Morgan; according to Gimpel, he kept his discoveries for his own collection, which was sold in 1921.
Lit.: Gimpel 1963
Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, 6-8.XII.1921:
Lot 91: La Tour, Dumont le romain
Other pastels: Peronneau, Beaumarchais

Jean-Baptiste-Pierre LE BRUN (1748-1813), painter, dealer and auctioneer. Best known today as husband of Mme Vigée Le Brun, his step-father Nicolas Le Rouge was also a painter and dealer, as was his younger brother Joseph-Alexandre Le Brun. Le Brun played a very active part of the Paris art market for some forty years from 1770, acting as agent to Louis XVI, the comte d'Artois and the duc d'Orléans, and conducting some 165 sales (a far smaller number were conducted by his brother, but it is not always clear which). His catalogues and writings were a significant development on previous standards. His own collection, which included a number of pastels, was dispersed in many sales. A description of his house in the rue de Cléry by Thiéry 1787 mentions pastels by La Tour and Rosalba in the bedroom.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 157f; Grove 1996; Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008; Thiéry 1787, I, pp. 440ff
Paris, 18.XI.1771 & seq.:
Lot 59: [Anon.] Un portrait de Femme en pastel, sous verre & bordure. [21 livres 3 sols]
Lot 69: d'après Rosalba Carriera: Un portrait de Femme d'après la Rosalba, en pastel, sous verre & bordure, Hauteur deux pieds sur un pied [30 livres]
Paris, Basan, 23.XII.1771 - 11.I.1772:
Lot 246: Deux portraits en pastel d'après M. Greuse, représentant un jeune homme avec une jeune fille, sous verre & bordure [26 livres 1 sol]
Lot 493: Fragonard, la tête d'une jeune fille faite au pastel & très-finie
Paris, Le Brun, 11-23.IV.1791 [?11.IV.-8.V.1791]:
Lot 262: Rosalba Carriera. Deux charmantes compositions: la premiére offre une jeune fille vue á mi-corps, coiffée en cheveux, la gorge en partie couverte d'une draperie, et tenant dans ses mains une colombe. Le pendant représente une jeune fille, aussi vue á mi-corps, vêtue d'une draperie bleue, et tenant un paquet de fleurs, Pastel, Hauteur, 20 pouces; largeur, 15 pouces 8 lignes. Elles viennent de la vente de M. de Boullongne, no. 13 [200 livres, b/i]
Lot 958: Ros Alba Carriéra, Deux Esquisses au pastel, sur papier, représentant chacune Vénus jouant avec l'Amour; elle est vue jusqu'au dessous du genou. Hauteur, 9 pouces; largeur, 7 pouces. Montées sur glaces. Elles viennent de la collection du baron de Thiers, pastel sur papier, Hauteur, 9 pouces; largeur, 7 [retiré, 6 livres]
Paris, Le Brun, 27-30.IV.1791
Lot 958: Rosalba Carriera, Deux Esquisses au pastel, sur papier, représentant chacune Vénus jouant avec l'Amour; elle est vue jusqu'au dessous du genou. Hauteur, 9 pouces; largeur, 7 pouces. Montées sur glaces. Elles viennent de la collection du baron de Thiers.
Paris, Jeluseau, Le Brun, 29.IV.1793 & seq.
Lot 39: Carriera, Deux charmans pastels; le premier offre une jeune fille vue à mi-corps, coëffée en cheveux, la gorge en partie couverte d'une draperie, et tenant dans ses mains une colombe. Le pendant représente une jeune fille aussi vue à mi-corps, vêtue d'une draperie bleue, et tenant un paquet de fleurs. Haut. 20 p. larg. 15 p. 8 lig. Ils viennent de la vente de notre cabinet, No. 262, vendus 200 liv. [210 livres; Vincent Donjeux]
Paris, Le Brun, 6-8.I.1794:
Carriera
Lot 28 Deux charmantes Compositions en pastel; la première offre une jeune fille vue à mi-corps, coëffée en cheveux, la gorge en partie couverte d'une draperie, & tenant dans ses mains une colombe; le pendant représente une jeune fille aussi vue à mi-corps, vêtue d'une draperie bleue, & tenant un paquet de fleurs. Haut. 20 po. larg. 15 po. 8 lig. Elles viennent de la vente de M. de Boullongne, No 13 [201 livres; Nicolas Lerouge]
Lot 29: Une charmante Tête de femme au pastel sur papier bleu. Elle vient de la Collection du Baron de Thiers, Haut. 11 po. larg. 10 po. [12 livres; Le Brun]
Paris, Baudoin, Le Brun, 12.IV.1797 & seq.:
Carriera
Lot 90: Deux têtes de femme, étude au pastel, sur papier bleu. Hauteur 12 po. largeur 9 po. ½. montée sous verre [27 livres]
Vente p.m., Paris, Constantin & Paillet fils, 23.V.1814
Lot 243: Mme Vigée Le Brun, tête de jeune femme

[Antoine-Mathieu] [LE] CARPENTIER [(1709-1773)], architecte du roi.
Vente p.m., Paris, Feuillet, 14.III.1774 & seq.:
Têtes d'homme et de femme, pastels d'après Boucher

Mme Martin LE DAULCEUR, née Louise-Antoinette Mignot de Montigny (1726-1755), an amateur engraver of book plates etc., was connected with the Darlus and other wealthy families. She left a pastel by Pierre to her brother in her will.

Paul LEDERLIN (1868–1949), wealthy industrialist with a textile business in the Vosges, senator. His first wife was Olga, princesse Belski; after a divorce, in 1919 he married Martha Hatt (1882– ). Both wives were prominent in society. The auction of Mme Lederlin's collection took place following severe financial difficulties which forced the sale of the business in 1932.
Paris, Bellier, 22-23.III.1933
Lot 6: Ducreux, inconnu au livre

René LE DOUX (1913-2006). Built in 1610 for Henri de Chiffrevast, the château de Chiffrevast was acquired by the duc de Plaisance in 1803. Eugène Bretel (1842-1933), of Maison Bretel Frères, manufactures and major exporters of butter, acquired the château at the end of the 19th century, which he furnished with a growing collection of antiques, an enthusiasm passed on to his nephew Raoul Le Doux (1875-1970), René's father.
Vente succession, Paris, Beaussant-Lefèvre, 23.X.2006:
Lot 102: Perronneau, La Tour; Lot 109: Éc. fr. [Pougin de Saint-Aubin], inconnu [Hénault]; Lot 115: Sergent-Marceau, Chevert; Lot 118: Éc. fr., inconnu

Guy LEDOUX-LEBARD (1910-2006), professeur, expert in radiology. He lived in the family apartement in Paris 8e throughout his life, and followed a family tradition in pursuing medicine - his grandfather Auguste was a pioneer in radiology, while his father René (1879-1948) started the art collection which Guy continued, bringing to it the same intellectual approach that he applied to medicine. He contributed to the Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de l'art français and was co-author with Gérard Hubert of Napoléon: portraits contemporains, bustes et statues. He was particularly interested in this period, and made a number of donations to Malmaison.
Paris, Hôtel Dassault, Artcurial - Briest-Le Fur-Poulain-F. Tajan, 20.VI.2006:
Lot 34: La Tour, magistrat; Lot 49: Pillement, paysage; Vigée: Lot 30, Lacour; Lot 32: Lebois
Other pastels: Vigée, Mme Lacour

Duke of LEEDS [?Francis Godolphin Osborne, Marquess of Carmarthen, 5th Duke of Leeds (1751-1799)]. The two Rosalbas may be miniatures.
Dictionary, geneaology, Osborne
London, Christie's, 21-23.V.1796, brought from His Grace's seat in the country:
Rosalba
Lot 13: Two three-quarter portraits with plate glass [£1/8/-; Simpson]
Lot 14: Her own portrait and a holy family after Rubens, m/u [£1/17/-, Seguier]

Agénor-Alfred LEFÈVRE (1852–1913) and his wife, née Louise-Adèle-Estelle Bougon (1855–1934), Amiens, 33 rue Lamarck. The sale of their collection took place the year after the closure of the fabric retailing business of François Piquée, 122, rue de Rivoli, in which they were shareholders.
Paris, 1-2.IV.1895:
Lot 92: La Tour, inconnue

Edward Ernest LEGGATT (1876-1922). Eldest son of Henry Leggatt, a printseller in the City during the nineteenth century. Henry's fourth son Martin ( -1929) joined his brother when he left Agnew's to form Leggatt Brothers, fine art dealers, around 1880. They operated from Fenchurch Street and Cornhill before settling in St James's Street. The firm handled a number of pastels in the early 20th century. Ernest Leggatt donated a pastel by Dunkarton (Henderson) to the NPG, London, in 1919.
Lit.: The private collection of engravings, pastels, drawings etc., formed by E. E. Leggatt, London, Leggatt Brothers, 30 St James's Street, .VI.1906

Angelica LE GRU PEROTTI
Dictionary, artists
London, Christie & Ansell, 17.IV.1777:
Lot 1: Le Gru Perotti, gentleman; Lot 3: Perotti, Callisto; Lot 4: Carriera, Diana

Adolphe LE GOUPY: publisher, printer and bookseller in Paris, 5 boulevard de La Madeleine; sold several pastels to Forsyth Wickes, c.1935

Charles-Alexandre-François-Joseph LE HARDY, seigneur de Famars (1733–1774), Valenciennes, from a legal family, he was an amateur painter and engraver, and a collector of Watteau in particular.
Lit.: Archives du Nord, III, 1833
Paris, Dufresne, 19.XI.1772:
Lot 65: Une tête de femme en pastel, par M. Naudin; elle a de l'expression [...] elle est d'un joli ton de couleur [15 livres]
Lot 66: Une tête de femme vue de profil, dessin de feu M. Boucher, dans la manière du pastel [21 livres 10 sols]
Lot 67: [Anon.:] Un petit paysage de pastel à la gouasse [27 livres 9 sols]

Jacques LEHIDEUX (1871-1945), banker, collector of paintings by Fragonard, Schall etc.; married to Suzanne Simon (1876-1964), father of François Lehideux, director of the Renault motor company (once described as a "un pastel de La Tour sur petit châssis"). The Mme Lehideux who owned a Perronneau (Journu) may be his wife or niece.

Albert LEHMANN (1840-1922), amateur, father-in-law of Robert Schuhmann (q.v.); his fine collection ranged from pictures to tapestries and Limoges enamels.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Vente, 2e parte: Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, 8.VI.1925:
Lot 178: Rosalba Carriera, ?Isabella Fornari; Lot 179: Rosalba Carriera, homme; Lot 180: Drouais, l'enfant au bourdon; Lot 181: Perronneau, enfant sd 1747, le fils de Le Moyne?; Lot 182: Prud'hon, jeune femme

Charles William FitzGerald, 4th Duke of LEINSTER (1819-1897). The origins of the collection at Carton was that formed by Lord St George from around 1763. After his death in 1775 it was moved to Leinster House and in 1815, on the sale of Leinster House, arrived at Carton. In 1874 the 4th Duke inherited the title and the numerous Irish pastels of the Fitzgerald and Lennox families. A catalogue was published in 1885: see below; it does not include three Russell pastels of children with dogs, listed by Williamson in 1894. By the time of the 1925 sale these had passed to Edward, 7th Duke (1892-1976), who had already disposed of his interest in Carton House to settle gambling debts.
Lit.: Drumm 2003
Notes on the pictures &c. at Carton, Kilkea Castle, 13 Dominick Street, Dublin and 6 Carlton House Terrace, London, 1885:
Duke's study: H. D. Hamilton, 28 numbered oval portraits, with 2 additions purchased from Aubrey Beauclerk in 1885. A further four British pastels from 1805 (porbably not by Hamilton) were presented by Jasper Joly in 1865; G. Caroline, Lady Holland, d.1774 (in crayons), Rosalba, 1' 7 1/2" x 10"; Lady Cecilia Lennox, born 1750, died 1769, oval, crayons, 1' 3" x 9" [by Liotard, annotated on Duke's copy]; St George, Lord St George, died 1775, crayons, 1' 10" x 1' 5" [Pond]; Dog & Cat, crayons, Hamilton.
Duchess's sitting room: Emily, Duchess of Leinster, about 6 years old, crayons, Hoare; E. O. Duchess of Leinster, crayons, Rosalba, 2' 5" x 1' 9 1/2"
Duke's dressing room: W. R., Duke of Leinster, crayons, Hamilton, 2' 8 1/2 " x 2 5 1/2"; Lady Mary and Lady Emily FitzGerald, crayons, Hamilton, 1' 3 1/2" x 1' 8"; Old servant going to ring the bell, crayons, Hamilton, 2' 4" x 1' 8". Joe Foster; died about 1781; buried in Grange William churchyard. On his tomb is the following inscription: 'Here lies Joe, an honest man. Say more of mortal if you can.'
Autumn bedroom: Astronomer, crayons, Diazetti, 1' 9 1/2" x 1' 6"; Woman praying, crayons, Diazetti [Nogari], 1' 9 1/2" x 1' 6" Seven female heads, crayons, Rosalba, each 11½" x 10"; Two female heads, crayons, Rosalba, each 1' 5½" x 1' 2", one of Rosalba herself drawing. She died 1757; St George, Lord St George, d.1775, crayons, Rosalba 1' 11" x 1' 7"
Kilkea Castle
William R., Duke of Leinster, 8" x 6 1/2"; Emilia O. Duchess of Leinster, 8" x 6 1/2"; Lord Charles FitzGerald, afterwards Lord Lecale, 9" x 7 1/2". Three oval portraits, in crayons, bought from A. Beauclerk, Esq., of Ardglass, in 1885.
Dublin, Bennett & Son, 6 Upper Ormond Quay, 2-4.XII.1925:
Lot 428: Hugh Hamilton, Emilia Olivia Duchess of Leinster - small oval; Lot 431: Liotard, Lady Georgina Holland; Lot 440: Rosalba, Portrait of a lady wearing pearl necklet and flowers in her hair; Lot 444: Rosalba, 4 classical heads, in finely carved and giltwood frames; Lot 445: Rosalba, 3 classical heads, in finely carved and giltwood frames; Lot 446: Rosalba, Pomona; and The Art of Painting, a pair; Lot 447: Rosalba, Lord St George, in carved and giltwood frame; Lot 454: Rosalba, Girl with a basket of fruit

Pierre LÉLU (1741-1810), peintre, dessinateur et graveur.
Paris, 23.IV.1811:
Lots 116, 146: La Tour, préparations etc.

Henri LEMAN or Léman (1872-c.1950), collector, dealer and expert, 12 rue de Seine, then 37 rue Laffitte. A varied collection of antiquities, ceramics, enamels etc. was sold at Drouot.
Paris, Drouot, 15.III.1951

Anicet-Charles-Gabriel LEMONNIER (1743-1824), history painter, formed a major collector of drawings donated by his son Hippolyte Lemonnier to the musée de Rouen in 1862 (8 paintings) and 1868.
Lit.: Marcel 1913; Rouen 2013
Pastels: Vivien, Bernard; Éc. fr., abbé Lemonnier

Jean-Baptiste LEMOYNE (1704-1778), sculptor and collector. His son Pierre-Hippolyte Lemoyne (1748-1828), an architect, acquired a good number of the lots in the 1778 sale. He and his descendant Yves Lemoyne or Le Moyne ( -a.1925) each had further sales containing pastels. Yves Lemoyne also owned a Boucher pastel (Mme Baudouin) that did not appear in his sale, as well as several pastels by La Tour and Perronneau acquired by Georges Dormeuil.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Grove 1996; Réau 1927, p. 157
Lemoyne, atelier: 26.VIII.1778
Lot 33: Une copie au pastel du Portrait de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, d'après celui fait par M. Delatour.
Lot 36: Le portrait de Parrocel, au pastel, d'après celui fait par M. Delatour.
Paris, hôtel de Bullion, Duchesne, 19–22.V.1828:
Lot 88: Vigée, J.-B. Lemoyne
Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, 5.II.1912:
Lot 32: Mlle Beauvaste, Mme Cailleux, Lot 38: Drouais, jeune fille; Lot 44: Éc. fr., inconnu; Lot 47: Fragonard, Martinelli, Lot 64: Mme Roslin, Louise-Joséphine Lemoyne, Lot 65: Vien, Pontignon; Lot 66: Vigée, Lemoyne fils; Lot 67: Vivien, Jean Lemoyne, Lot 68: Vivien, Le Tellier

Jean-Denis LEMPEREUR (1701-1779), jeweller, échevin de la ville de Paris, amateur engraver, drawings collector.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Grove 1996; Lugt 1740
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, Boileau, 24.V.-28.VI.1773:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 23: Un beau Buste de femme, peint au pastel, & d'une pâte admirable. Hauteur 17 pouces, largeur 13 & demi [1225 livres; De Bosset]
Lot 24: Deux Têtes de femmes; études au pastel qui viennent, ainsi que les suivantes, du Cabinet de M. Crozat. Hauteur 12 pouces, largeur 9 & demi [210 livres; Louis-François-Jacques Boileau]
Lot 25: Deux, idem [175 livres; Louis-François-Jacques Boileau]
Frederic Le Baroche [BAROCCI]
Lot 211: Une étude d'une tête de femme, au pastel. [sous verre] [12 livres 12 sols; Chemilli]
Lot 212: Une idem [étude d'une tête de femme, au pastel] [6 livres 1 sol]
Lot 213: Une étude de paysages, deux feuilles d'études de mains au pastel, & une feuille de différentes pensées [6 livres; Joullain]
Lot 214 [part]: Une tête de vieillard, au pastel [30 livres; François] Lot 233 [part]: Deux desseins à la sanguine,...& un troisiéme dessein qui est le portrait de Saint Philippe de Nery, en pastel [20 livres; François]
Sebastien RICCI
Lot 252: Une belle tête d'enfant, au pastel [120 livres 1 sol; Joullain]
François LE MOINE
Lot 508: Une très-belle étude d'une tête de femme au pastel [50 livres; Francois]
Lot 511: Une tête d'Hebé, belle étude au pastel pour le plafond de l'apothéose d'Hercule à Versailles [41 livres; Joullain]
Lot 512: La tête d'un Ambassadeur Turc, peinte au pastel [15 livres 1 sol; Basan]
FRONTIER
Lot 527: Une composition, une étude pour un Apollon, & une tête au pastel, par Frontier [4 livres 5 sols; Clerisseau]
BOUCHER
Lot 533: Une tête de femme au pastel [24 livres; Chemilli]
Charles NATOIRE
Lot 569: Jesus enfant, dessein colorié au pastel. [sous verre] [28 livres 19 sols; Montval]
Lot 578: Deux têtes de vieillards au pastel, & un enfant, sur papier bleu [7 livres 4 sols; Joullain]
Jean-Baptiste-Marie PIERRE
Lot 591 [part]: deux têtes au pastel [12 livres 1 sol whole lot]
Lot 601: Une tête d'ange au pastel, étude pour le le tableau qui est dans l'Église de Saint-Louis du Louvre, & une feuille d'études d'enfans [5 livres]
Jean-Baptiste OUDRY
Lot 669: L'étude d'un blaireau au pastel [sous verre] [9 livres; Francois]
Lot 674: Un, idem [paysage], sur papier bleu; il est d'un effet piquant, & représente un petit pont de bois; un autre dessein colorié au pastel, où l'on voit trois chiens qui attaquent un loup cervier [60 livres; Aubert]
Lot 679: Un, idem [paysage]; plus, l'étude d'un sanglier au pastel [14 livres 3 sols; [Jean-Guillaume] Alibert]
AUBERT
Lot 755: Deux desseins coloriés au pastel; l'un représente l'éducation, & l'autre l'étude [21 livres 5 sols; Brunet]
Vente p.m.: Paris, André, Regnault, 27-31.XII.1796:
Lot 34: Baroche, (Frédéric) Rom. [Barocci], Deux études de têtes, faites au pastel; l'une pour la tête de la Vierge, dite à l'écuelle, dont le sujet est gravé par C. Cort: l'autre de jeune fille. [monté & sous verre] [16 frs 5; Cercane ?]
Lot 182: Onze compositions & études, par Hallé, Gillot, la Monce, le Moine, Vanloo & autres; plusieurs sont au pastels & deux sous verre. [monté & sous verre] [14 frs 3; Renoud]

Alexandre LENOIR (1761-1839), writer, archaeologist and museum administrator, responsible for collecting statues and other objects during the Revolution. In 1838, some 217 portraits (including eight pastels) from Lenoir's collection were purchased by George Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland (1786-1861). His fourth son Lord Ronald Gower (q.v.) published the collection in 1874; two years later it was purchased by the duc d'Aumale through Colnaghi's for 200.000 francs, and is now at Chantilly (v. Collections for list).
Lit.: Grove 1996

Veuve LENOIR
Vente p.m., Paris, 18-30.V.1874

Charles-François-de-Paule LE NORMANT DE TOURNEHEM (1684-1751), fermier général, uncle of the Charles-Guillaume-Borromée Le Normant d'Étiolles (1717-1799) who married Mme de Pomadour. Tournehem had a major influence on the development of art in France in the period from 1745, when he succeeded Orry as directeur général des Bâtiments, until his death. He appointed the pastellist Charles Coypel to the revived position of premier peintre du roi. Details of his own collection are unknown.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996

Elvira "Biki" LEONARDI, Sig.ra Robert Bouyere (1906–1999), women's clothes designer from Milan. She was the daughter of the first marriage of Puccini's stepdaughter Fosca Leonardi, who later married Mario Crespi (1879–1962), the Milanese newspaper (Corriere della Sera) and textile magnate; Biki inherited several pastels from his estate. Mario's brother Aldo (1885–1978) also owned a Rosalba lady.
Milan, Palazzo dei Giuresconsulti, Porro & c., 12.X.2004
Milan, Palazzo Durini, Porro & C., 29.XI.2012, Lot 71 as Carriera (v. a/r Nattier); Lot 72: Carriera, Potocka

Heinrich LEONHARD, from Mannheim. A large collection of miniatures sold in Berlin (26-28.IV.1910) and Munich.
Munich, Helbing, 14-18.XI.1910:
Lot 1872: Duhan, des Fourniers

Baron David Emmanuel LÉONINO (1864-1936). In 1892 he married baronne Juliette de Rothschild (1870-1896).
Vente succession, Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, 18-19.III.1937:
Lot 5: La Tour, d'Albepierre; Lot 6: La Tour, attr., ?marquise de Sassenage; Lot 9: Siccardi, Préville
Other pastels: Lenoir, dame

Rudolph LEPKE (1845–1904) founded the first German fine art auction house in 1869.

Alexandre-Jean-Joseph LE RICHE DE LA POUPLINIÈRE (1693-1762), fermier général, patron of the arts. His vast wealth allowed him to cultivate the arts on a magnificent scale, both at this hôtel in the rue Neuve-des-Petits-Champs and at Passy, where Mlle Fel, Jelyotte and Mme Van Loo sang in new work by Rameau and other composers. Forced by Fleury to marry his mistress, Thérèse Boutinon, her infidelity with the maréchal de Richelieu was notorious. La Tour's portraits of these figures are among the most celebrated works in pastel. According to Dumesnil, Histoire des plus célèbres amateurs, La Poulinière was an amateur painter and draughtsman; some of his work was bought by prince Galitzin.
Lit.: Cucuel 1913; inv. p.m., 22.III.1763
Pastels: Allais, ??Mme Le Riche de La Pouplinière; Vigée, Le Riche de La Pouplinière

Jean-François LE ROY de Senneville (1715-1784), fermier général 1772-80. He married a daughter of Jarente d'Orgeval, and was thus brother-in-law of Grimod de La Réynière. HIs sale in Paris, Chariot, Paillet, 5-11.IV.1780 included pastels by Briard, Greuze and Hall, while his posthumous sale (Paris, Commandeur, Paillet, 26.IV.1784) included "28 pastels": a miniature by Hall, a Boucher, 2 Fragonard drawings and numerous other glazed drawings.
Dictionary, genealogy Jarente

Comte Charles de LESSEPS (1849-1923), French consul in Alexandria, elder son of Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894), founder of the Compagnie Suez. He was implicated in the corruption scandal surrounding the Panama canal.
Paris, Drouot, 2.XII.1937

Émile LÉVY (1826-1890), painter and pastellist; exhibited at the Salon from 1848; prix de Rome, 1854. His collection passed to his widow, née Céline-Joséphine Bidard de La Noë (1835- ), from an important family in Rennes, a novellist under the pseudonym Paria Korrigan.
Lit.: Grove 1996
Pastels: Perronneau, d'Aubais

Wilmarth Sheldon LEWIS (1895-1979), specialist in Horace Walpole. His collections, which included a few pastels owned by Walpole, were bequeathed to Yale and remain in the Lewis Walpole Library at Farmington (q.v.).

Walter LEWISOHN (c.1882–1938), New York, from a family which made its fortune in copper trading. In 1912 he bought a pastel by Read, not Cotes, "Mrs Cotes", from Charles Wertheimer.

Charles LIANDIER: presumably the lender to the Paris 1888 exhibition.
Paris, Drouot, 16.V.1914:
Lot 59: Vigée, duc de Mouchy
Other pastels: Perronneau, homme

George Henry Lee, 3rd Earl of LICHFIELD (1718-1772). His posthumous inventory at Ditchley (Murdoch 2006, p. 155) contained 8 pastels, no doubt family pieces:
5 Pieces in Crayons, framed & Glazed Vizt The late Ld Lichfield, Present Do, 2 Dukes of Bedford, & Sr W Wm Wynne, by Hoare

Arthur L. LIEBMAN (1920–1991), of Lake Forest, Illinois, art consultant, patron and philanthropist, son of the publisher of the Milwaukee Sentinel. He donated works of art to various museums, including five pastels now in the National Gallery of Art, Washington.

Le prince Joseph Wenzel de LIECHTENSTEIN (1696-1772), minister to France 1737-41, Austrian general, and art collector. The princely collections are divided between the Liechtenstein Museums in Vaduz and Vienna.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Pastels: Pillement, paysages

R. M. LIGHT & Co., Inc., Santa Barbara, US dealer founded by Robert Light in 1956, dealing in engravings and drawings, first in Boston, and since 1977 in Santa Barbara

Le prince Charles-Joseph-Antoine-Lamoral-Ghislain de LIGNE (1759-1792), son of the celebrated prince de Ligne (1735-1814), formed a very large collection of old master drawings, many of which he acquired through the dealer Julien de Parme from French collections such as that of Mariette. Prince Charles engraved a number of these sheets himself. The collection was auctioned after his death by Bartsch. Some 800 of the drawings were acquired by Albert Casimir August von Sachsen-Teschen, and are now in the Albertina. The sale excluded the framed pictures and a few specific bequests, including a portrait of his wife left to his daughter Sidonie "afin qu'elle se ressouvienne de ne pas l'imiter."
Lit.: Lucien Perey, La princesse Hélène de Ligne, Paris, 1923, p. 442
Dictionary, genealogy Ligne
Catalogue raisonné des desseins originaux…de feu le prince Charles de Ligne, Vienna, hôtel Théresien, Adam Bartsch, 4.XI.1794:
BAROZIO (Frederic), dit le Baroche.
7. Un moine à genoux, les mains elevées vers le ciel. Dessein sur papier bleu, au crayon noir, rehaussé de blanc: la tête et les mains sont au pastel. E.H. in 4to.
DOLCE (Carle)
1. La S. Vierge à mi-corps donnant le sein à l'enfant Jesus; dans une forme ovale. Ce dessein capital est fait avec toute la délicatesse, la grace et le précieux ordinaires à ce peintre. Les carnations sont estompées aux deux crayons, la chevelure de l'enfant est teinte de jeaune, le manteau de la vierge en bleu, et son habit en couleur de rose. Le tout ensemble paroît être fait au pastel. E.H. in 4to.
LUTI (Benoit)
5. Tête de jeune fille couchée, les yeux entr'ouvertes. Peint au pastel sur papier teint en gris. E.L. in folio.
6. La Vierge à mi-corps, donnant le sein à l'enfant Jesus. Superbe piece ébauchée au pastel. In 4to.
7. Tête de jeune fille, qui paroî être effrayée. Esquisse fait au pastel sur papier bleu. In 4to.
CRANACH (Lucas Müller dit de) 1472-1552
1. Portrait d'homme dessiné aux deux crayons melés de pastel. Il est coëffé d'une espece de chaperon rouge, qui couvre les cheveux, dont on n'en voit qu'un peu à côté de l'oreille. Le cou et une partie de la poitrine sont nus. E.H. in 4to.
2. Autre tête d'homme du même faire; il a la tête couverte d'un chapeau gris, et il porte une chaîne autour du cou. E.H. in 4to.
4. Portrait d'homme avec une barbe rousse, la tête duquel est couverte d'une toque noire; au pastel. E.H. in folio.
VIVIEN (Joseph)
1. Portrait à mi-corps du cardinal Armand duc de Richelieu; dessiné aux trois crayons, sur papier gris. E.H. in fol.

Louis de LINTLAËR (fl. Paris 1651), owner of the Samaritaine on the Pont-Neuf where he maintained a museum.
Dictionary, artists

Adolphe LION, antiquaire, 27 boulevard de Courcelles, Paris 8e.
Paris, Couturier, 18-19 .XI.1908
Pastels: Allais, La Morelli; Labille-Guiard, Jeune femme

Jean-Étienne LIOTARD (1702-1789), pastellist, was also an active collector of old master paintings, assembled for prestige rather than study. Apart from a number of his own works, he seems only to have acquired pastels by two artists: Carriera (an unidentified Diana) and Caroline Luise von Baden. His son Jean-Étienne Liotard-Crommelin (1758-1822) assembled numerous pastels belonging to his father in Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of the Rijksmuseum's holding.
Dictionary, artists; genealogy
Lit.: Loche 1980; R&L
London, Christie's, 15.IV.1774

Pierre-Louis Eveillard, marquis de LIVOIS (1736-1790), art collector. Some of his collection in now in the musée d'Angers, including pastels by Chardin, Lenoir, Louis Vigée and Mme Vigée Le Brun.
Lit.: Chardin 1979; R. Planchenault, "La collection du marquis de Livois, l'art français", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, .VII.1933, pp. 14-30; .X.1933, pp. 220-237; "La dispersion de la collection du marquis de Louvois", Revue d'Anjou, 1934, p. 249-265; Grove 1996; Faroult 1999; Guillaume Faroult, "De l'hôtel de Livois au Logis Barrault: histoire de l'entrée partielle de la collection Livois au musée des Beaux-Arts d'Angers", Archives d'Anjou, 2004/8, pp. 115-39
Catalogue raisonné d'une très belle collection de tableaux...[de Livois à Angers], par P[ierre] Sentout, peintre, .VIII.1791:
299: Boucher: Le portrait d'une jolie Demoiselle tenant un chardonneret. On voit dans ce tableau le travail d'une couleur libre et franche et un dessin coulant et agréable, pastel, Hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12 pouces.
300: Chardin: Son portrait peint par lui-même, en bonnet de nuit, et portant lunette ; ce portrait est d'une touche savante, d'une couleur fraiche et d'une vérité étonnante, pastel, Hauteur 16 pouces, largeur 13 pouces [Orléans version, R&T 194A]
301: Une tête d'un Monsieur portant perruque, et faisant pendant à celui de M. Chardin. Hauteur 16 pouces, largeur 13 pouces.
302: Une copie au Pastel du Bénédicité, tableau dont l'original est dans le cabinet du Duc de Praslin, 19px25p.
303: M. Vigée: Le portrait d'une jolie Dame, vêtue d'une robe bleue, avec un noeud de ruban et un bouquet. Ce portrait est frais et agréable, pastel, Hauteur 24 pouces, largeur 20 pouces.
304: Elisabeth Le Brun: Un beau tableau au pastel, représentant l'Innocence, se réfugiant dans les bras de la Justice ; ce tableau fait honneur à la célébrité de Mde. leBrun, et lui a servi pour son agrément à l'académie. Ce suprbe morceau doit être regardé comme l'ouvrage le plus parfait de cette aimable peintre ; elle est la Rosalba de notre École, et on retrouve ici tout à la fois une touche vigoureuse et spirituelle, les graces dans la composition, et un ensemble séduisant et flatteur qui caractérise vraiment les chefs-d'oeuvres, pastel, Hauteur 37 pouces, largeur 47 pouces 6 lignes.
305: D'après Mde. Le Brun: Son portrait peint par elle-même, en buste de grandeur naturelle, elle s'est représentée au moment qu'on entre dans son appartement, elle tourne la tête pour regarder, et en même temps, elle veut cacher une lettre qu'elle écrit. Ce charmant portrait est d'une ressemblance parfaite et d'un mouvement qui fait illusion, joint à un coloris aimable et frais, pastel, Hauteur 30 pouces, largeur 24 pouces
306: M. Le Noir: Une portrait de femme en buste de grandeur naturelle, ayant l'épaule et le sein découvert et un bras appuyé sur un livre qui est sur une table, et de l'autre main tenant un masque; un costume élegant et un coloris frais et séduisant, font le mérite de ce portrait, pastel, Hauteur 30 pouces, largeur 24 pouces.
307: M. Le Noir: Une jolie tête de femme peinte agréablement, vue un peu plus que profil, pastel, Hauteur 17 pouces, largeur 14 pouces.
308: Anon.: Un cupidon assis sur un nuage, vu par derriere, tenant son carquois, avec une draperie rouge, pastel, Hauteur 19 pouces, largeur 23 pouces.
309: Rabillon: Portrait en buste d'une jolie femme, un ruban bleu à la tête, un mouchoir de gaze artistement arrangé, un corset blas; Hauteur 21 pouces, largeur 17 pouces. Il est de forme ovale.
310: Un jeune garçon en buste de grandeur naturelle, faisant des bules [sic] de savon. Ce tableau est peint d'après Grimoux, il est d'un bon effet de lumiere, pastel, Hauteur 24 pouces, largeur 20 pouces.
311: M. Watteau, Fils: Ce tableau représente une assemblée dans un sallon ; on y voit une compagnie de Dames assises à l'entour d'une table, où il y en a une qui s'occupe à tirer les cartes, on y remarque des Messieurs, et un petit enfant qui s'amuse. Ce tableau est d'une jolie couleur, et les figures sont bien costumées, pastel, Hauteur 30 pouces, largeur 36 pouces
312: Anon.: Deux tableaux au pastel, représentant deux paysages, dans l'un on y voit une riviere et un moulin à eau avec de jolies fabriques, et plusieurs figures enrichissisent ce morceau, pastel.
313: D'après la Rozalba. Son portrait tenant d'une main une tête dessinée sur papier, et de l'autre un porte crayon, on y voit sur un coin de table quelques crayons de pastel, Hauteur 28 pouces, largeur 22 pouces
314: Deux tableaux faisant pendans; l'un représente le buste d'une jolie femme, le sein découvert, tenant un pigeon blanc. L'autre représente une jolie femme peinte en buste, tenant des fleurs dans une draperie bleue : ces deux charmants pastels sont d'une finesse et d'une fraicheur admirable ; ils sont attribués à M. Vivien, pastel, Hauteur 23 pouces, largeur 18 pouces.
315: D'après Grimoux. Deux charmants pastels, faisant pendants, l'un représente une jolie femme peinte en buste avec un voile noir, ayant une main appuyée sur une chaise. L'autre représente le buste d'une jolie brune costumée à l'espagnole, avec une canne à la main. Ces deux tableaux sont d'un ton de couleur chaud et savant, la touche en est ferme et vigoureuse, et d'un effet de lumiere agréable, pastel, Hauteur 24 pouces, largeur 20 pouces.
316: M. Watteau, Fils: Un tableau ovale représentant un malade dans un lit, & plusieurs Demoiselles, occupées à le servir ; et à la porte de la chambre, on y voit le Médecin qui s'entretient de la maladie avec un Monsieur. Ce tableau est bien composé, ovale pastel, Hauteur 21 pouces, largeur 17 pouces.
Un autre tableau ovale, et faisant pendant au précédent ; il représente une compagnie de Dames, dans un jardin ; on y voit un jeune homme qui trouve un nid d'oiseaux. L'effet est agréable ; la couleur en est fraiche : il a d'hauteur 21 pouces, largeur 17 pouces, ovale pastel, Hauteur 21 pouces, largeur 17 pouces.

Jean de La Pinte de LIVRY ( -1771), premier commis du duc de La Vrillière (not to be confused with Louis Sanguin, comte de Livry). According to Wille, he was an "amateur et connoisseur dans les arts, vertueux et honnête homme." He and his wife were both portrayed by Tocqué, as was his father and brother, Nicolas, mgr de Livry (1715–1795), évêque de Callinique, a collector of medals, prints and pictures, including several drawings by Greuze; he corresponded with Wille concerning the price of three pictures by Mérelle. Jean's posthumous sale at Versailles, 13-20.I.1772, contained pastels by Boucher, Hallé and Lozanne.

William LOCK (1732-1810), v. Dictionary, artists, s.v. Lock Jr

Lothian, v. Carr-Gomm

LOUIS XV.
Dictionary, genealogy, France

LOUIS-PHILIPPE, roi de France 1830-48 (1773-1850). He abdicated and moved to England in 1848; a posthumous sale took place in 1851.
Vente p.m., Paris, Hôtel des Jeuneurs, 28.IV.1851 & seq.:
Rosalba Carriera:
Lot 288: Mlle de Clermont; Lot 289: Mlle de Charolais

LOVISA ULRIKA (1720-1782), sister of Friedrich der Große, she married Adolf Frederik of Sweden in 1751. She was responsible for the collections at Drottningholm, including a number of acquisitions made with the help of Tessin and Scheffer, Swedish ambassadors in Paris.
Dictionary, genealogy, Sverige/Preußen
Lit.: Merit Laine, En Minerva för vår Nord, Bjärnum, 1998

Charles LÖWENGARD ( -c.1923), antiquaire. Jules Lowengard ( -1909) was married to Joel Duveen's sister.
Vente p.m., Paris, Petit, 18.VI.1923:
Lot 63: Perronneau, femme

Léon-Marc LOWENSTEIN (1864-1935) bought pastels by Boucher and Ducreux at sales in the 1920s; various estate salestook place from 1935 on, including that of his widow, née Louise-Hélène Boas.

Stanislaw LUBOMIRSKI (1722-1783), of the Polish family of collectors and patrons, married Izabela Elzbieta Czartoryska (1736-1816) in 1753. Three of their four daughters married Potockis. Pastels by artists from Marteau to Batoni were commissioned.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996

Pierre LUCAS (1691-1752), sculptor, and his sons François (1736-1813), sculptor, and Jean-Paul, pastellist (v. Dictionary, artists) lent various pastels to the Académies de Toulouse, including some by their pupils.

Frits LUGT (1884-1970), collector, connoisseur and art historian, known in particular for the Marques de collections and the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes.
Lit.: Grove 1996

Gunnar W. LUNDBERG (1903-1973), art historian and founder of the Institut Tessin in Paris, to which he donated a Lundberg femme in pastel.
Other pastels: Saint-Michel, homme

Georges LUNG, Bordeaux, a member of the family of winegrowers, collector, owned a Perronneau inconnu in 1958.

Galerie Jean LUPU, antiquaire, 43 faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris, established 1958.
Pastels: Allais, dame

Francis Denis LYCETT GREEN (1893-1959), of 162 Ebury Street, London; the Treasurer's House, York; Finchcocks, Kent; and Constantia, Cape Province, South Africa. The son of a Norfolk baronet, he collected paintings from the 14th to 18th centuries. He donated numerous pictures to various English museums, including a Perronneau, Mme Legrix, presented to the National Gallery in 1925.

J. L.
Paris, Drouot, Ader, 25-26.V.1932:
Lot 68: Ducreux, auto

M

Maj.-Gen. Roderick MACKENZIE (1830–1916), royal artillery, of Foveran owned seven Russell pastels, of members of the Calvert, Campbell, Hanay and Tyrell families, which he lent to the Russell 1909 exhibition; a number were sold by a descendant in London, Sotheby's, 18.II.1953.

Hector MACLEASH (1758-1796), printer: The posthumous auction of his household effects, conducted on the premises at 12 Duke's Court, Bow Street by Chivers (?21.IX.1798), included "two pair of beautiful Crayons" (Times, 13.IX.1798).

Charles-Jules MACIET (1846-1911), collector and patron, 42 rue Cambon. He donated generously to French museums over an extended period, in particular to the Union centrale des Arts décoratifs. To the Louvre he gave paintings, drawings, ivories, Italian Renaissance and mediaeval bronzes. A number of pictures were donated to the musée Carnavalet in 1903. A collection of modern drawings and pastels was bequeathed to the musée du Luxembourg (now the musée d'Orsay) in 1911.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Lugt 432d; Saint-Marceaux 2007
Pastels: Boucher, pied; A. Coypel, jeune fille; La Tour, Mlle Puvigny; Perronneau, homme 1748; Troost, scene; C. Van Loo, femme; Éc. fr., femmes (3)

Maurice (1861-1939) and Jeanne (1855-1937) MAGNIN formed the collection which is now the musée Magnin, Dijon (v. Collections). This inlcuded a number of drawings, mostly added after 1922.
Lit.: Magnin 1922; dessins-magnin.fr

John MAHER (fl. 1928-32), of Bloomfield House, Enniscorthy: a group of five pastels by Hamilton, acquired in the 1930s, was sold by a descendant in 2005. He also owned a pastel by Hickey.
Dublin, James Adam, 28.IX.2005

Marie-Joseph-François MAHÉRAULT (1795-1879), conseiller d'État, art historian, author of catalogue raisonné of Moreau le jeune.
Vente p.m., Paris, 27-29.V.1880:
Lots 122, 123: La Tour, inconnues

Gustave MAILAND (1810-c.1881), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, 2-3.V.1881:
La Tour, inconnu

Karl Eric MAISON (1900-1971), Berlin and London, dealer in old master drawings, author of a catalogue raisonné of the works of Honoré Daumier.

John MALCOLM, 14th laird of Poltalloch (1805-1893), Scottish landowner and important collector of old master drawings. Most of his collection was acquired after his death by the British Museum in 1895. Malcolm's daughter Isabella married Alfred Erskine Gathorne-Hardy, and some sheets remained in that family, including a drawing with pastel by Portail.

M. MALENFANT, valet de chambre du roi, amateur d'estampes.
Vente p.m., Paris, Paiuger, 12-22.VII.1773:
Lot 493: Quatre tableaux en pastel, sujets des quatre Saisons représentées par de jolies femmes à demi-corps, par M. [Gabriel?] de Saint-Aubin, sous de très-beaux verres blancs, bordures dorées, forme ovale [60 livres]

Albert MAME, of Tours, and his son Paul ( -1904). At the 1904 sale of Paul Mame's collection, some items were bought by Armand Mame.
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 26-29.IV.1904:
Lot 63: Boucher, êtes d'enfants, l'un de profil à dr., endormi; le second le regarde, le troisième, vu de face (Collection Guierche) [Fr6500]
Lot 64: Perronneau, jeune femme [Fr 70,000, Mame] Lot 65: Perronneau, Femme endormie [Fr 30,000, Mame]
Lot 66: Éc. fr. [La Tour], Un magistrat, de ¾ à g., son rabat tombe sur sa robe noire, perruque moyenne d'un procureur (Collection Guierche) [Fr1600]

MANCIN.
Lit.: Grove 1996

Marchese Girolamo MANFRIN ( -1802), art collector. He made his fortune with a monopoly in tobacco in Dalmatia, and acquired the Palazzo Venier, Venice, in 1787, and assembled a collection of more than 450 pictures (including important paintings by El Greco, Giorgioni, Titian, Cimabue, Reni, Giulio Romano, Lotto and Andrea del Sarto) with advice from Pietro Edwards and Giovanni Battista Mignardi. He owned four Rosalbas (an Inverno and three donne) according to the catalogue of his collection published by abate Nicoletti in 1872. The collection passed to his children Pietro and Giulia, who married marchese Giovanni Battista Plattis, and was dispersed at auctions from 1851 until the final sale in Venice, 24-25.V.1897.
Lit.: Haskell 1963; Tormen 2009, pp. 245f

Charles MANNHEIM (1833-1910), expert.
Vente p.m., Paris, Georges Petit, 14.III.1913:
Lot 25: Russell, jeune femme

Sir Alexander Hume, 2nd Earl of MARCHMONT and Baron Polwarth (1676-1740), KT: commissioned a group of pastels by Birochon of the delegates to the Cambrai conference 1721-25. These were sold in 1912 to James Swinton, and appeared at auction from 1979.
Dictionary, genealogy, Hume

François-Martial MARCILLE (1790-1856), portraitist, and his sons Eudoxe (1814-1890), of 54 rue d'Hauteville, and Camille (1816-1875), also painters: important collectors of French art, and of Chardin in particular. Part of the collection was sold in two sales after François-Martial's death; the part inherited by Camille (who was conservateur du musée de Chartres) was dispersed in 1876, while that inherited by Eudoxe (who was conservateur du musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans) remained in the family into the late twentieth century, through his daughter Marie-Françoise-Eudoxie (1850-1917), Mme Henry Jahan. Her daughter Geneviève (1875-1895) marrried Pierre Chévrier (1865-1938, indicated by the initials M.C. in B&W in 1928). A number of records from around this period refer, presumably with intentional imprecision, to M. & Mme Chévrier-Marcille.
Lit.: S. Horsin-Déon, "Cabinet de M. Eudoxe Marcille", Annuaire des artistes et des amateurs, 1862, iii; G. Duplessis, "La collection de M. Camille Marcille", Gazette des beaux-arts, XIII, 1876, pp. 419-39; Chennevières 1890; Chennevières 1979; Lugt 605a; Ratouis de Limay 1938; Philippe Huisman, "La collection Marcille: 5000 tableaux méconnus", Connaissance des arts, .VI.1959, pp. 74-81; Chardin 1979
Vente p.m. (FMM), Paris, Pillet, 12-13 & 16-17.I.1857:
Lot 47: Ducreux, auto; Lot 95: La Tour, Pâris; Lot 432: Ducreux, Maloet
Vente p.m. (FMM), Paris, Pillet, 4-7.III.1857:
Dessins encadrés:
BOUCHER, pastels. Lot 55: Jeune fille jouant avec un chat [Fr38]; Lot 56: Jeune fille [Fr51]; Lot 57: Tête de jeune fille; Lot 58: Deux Amours et une colombe [Fr127]; Lot 59: Jeune fille endormie; Lot 60: L'Odorat.
BOUCHER (attribué à). Lot 61: La jeune fille à l'oiseau, pastel; Lot 62: Jeune fille sentant une fleur, m/u.
FRAGONARD. Lot 64: Femme et enfant, pastel.
GREUZE. Lot 148: Jeune fille, pastel [Fr42].
GREUZE (d'après). Lot 149: La jeune fille à la colombe, pastel.
LEDOUX (Mlle). Lot 153: Tête de jeune fille, pastel.
Dessins de divers maîtres:
COYPEL. Lot 200: son portrait, pastel.
DROUAIS. Lot 208: Jeune prince, pastel.
DUCREUX. Lot 211: Portrait de femme, pastel; Lot 212: Portrait d'homme, m/u.
FREDOU. Lot 216: Le duc de Bourgogne à l'âge de neuf ans, pastel.
GUIARD (Mme). Lot 218: Portrait d'homme, pastel.
GAULT DE SAINT-GERMAIN. Lot 219: Son portrait, pastel [Fr41].
JEAURAT. Lot 229: Son portrait, pastel.
LATOUR. Lot 236: Portrait d'homme; Lot 237: Portrait de jeune fille; Lot 238: Portrait de Mlle Clairon; Lot 239: J.-J. Rousseau, pastel; Lot 240: Portrait du Confesseur de Marie-Antoinette, pastel; Lot 241: Portrait de M. de Choiseul; Lot 242: Portrait de Rameau; Lot 243: J.-J. Rousseau; Lot 244: Mlle Dutey; Lot 245: Mlle Salé; Lot 246: Un portrait d'homme; Lot 247: Le comte d'Artois; Lot 248: Portrait d'homme; Lot 249: Portrait de Marie Leczinska. Étude sur papier bleu rehaussé de blanc.
LATOUR (attribué à). Lot 250: Marie Leczinska.
LEBEL. Lot 253: Portrait de J. Vernet, pastel.
LIOTARD. Lot 262: Portrait de Favart, pastel gravé.
MIGNARD. Lot 270: Mlle de La Vallière, pastel.
NANTEUIL. Lot 273: Anne d'Autriche; Lot 274: Gallois, médecin, pastel; Lot 275: L'abbé de Saint-Cyran, pastel.
PIERRE, peintre du roi. Lot 280: Son portrait, pastel.
SYLVESTRE, graveur. Lot 293: Son portrait, pastel.
VALADE. Lot 298: M. de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, défenseur de Louis XVI, pastel.
VIGÉE LEBRUN (Mme). Lot 314: Portrait d'homme; Lot 315: Tête de femme, pastel. Lot 316: Une Muse; Lot 317: Tête de femme.
ÉCOLE FRANÇAISE, pastels. Lot 340: Le duc d'Orléans; Lot 341: Portrait de femme; Lot 342: Portrait d'homme; Lot 343: Portrait de Gentil-Bernard; Lot 347: Bailly, maire de Paris; Lot 351: Jeune prince; Lot 352: Portrait de femme; Lot 357: Étude d'après une aiguière.
Dessins de l'École d'Italie:
CORRÉGE. Lot 370: Tête de femme, pastel.
POMPEO BATTONI. Lot 389: La Madeleine, pastel.
Vente p.m. (CM), Paris, Drouot, Pillet, Féral, in two sessions 6-7, 8-9.III.1876:
First session, 6-7.III.1876:
LA TOUR. Lot 150: Silvestre, dessin, 30x25; Lot 151: auto, 30x23 ov., pastel; Lot 152: Dumont le romain, 30x20; Lot 153: Louis le dauphin, pastel, 32x26
Seconf session, 8-9.III.1876:
VIGÉE. Lot 106: Homme de 3/4 en buste, regardant à dr., cheveux poudrés, cravate blanche, jabot, habit gris, sd L. Vigée 1747.

Paul-Frantz MARCOU (1860-1932), inspecteur général des monuments historiques et du service des objets mobiliers; collector of old master drawings. After his death, his collection was divided between his daughters: Valentine, Mme Jean Trouvelot, who donated 209 drawings to the Louvre, and Catherine, Mme Henry Dumas, sold in 2007. The two pastels by Allais do not seem to be in either group.
Lit.: Lugt 1918b
Vente, 2e partie, Paris, Drouot, Lafon, 23.V.2007:
Lot 35: Allori, femme
Other pastels: Allais, inconnu 1748; inconnue

Mme Blanche MARCY, a painter and antiques dealer of Bedford Square, supplied a set of four pastels by Boucher, representing the Four Arts, to the Leeds banker, MP and art collector, Ernest Beckett (later Lord Grimthorpe), for £1450, in 1897. He subsequently refused to pay, and procedings took place in the Queen's Bench Division; Mme Marcy was represented by Marshall Hall. Beckett relied on an opinion from Féral, who initially thought they were contemporary works, but he could not be sure that they were painted by Boucher; subsequently he stated that they were not genuine. The court heard also the opinion of Charles Davis (endorsed by C. Agnew) who had never heard of any pastels by Boucher and valued the set at £150. Blanche was in fact the daughter of a Paris antiques dealer, Mme Filieuse-Marcy, and married a Spanish historicist painter, Ignacio Leon y Escosura (1834–1901); she became the mistress of an Italian anarchist and forger, Luigi Parmeggiani (1860-1945), who called himself Louis Marcy. He was responsible for numerous apparently mediaeval objects found in many museums. There is no evidence that he made the "Boucher" pastels.

Pierre-Jean MARIETTE (1694-1774), collector. Fourth generation in a family of publishers and booksellers in the rue Saint-Jacques, Paris, Pierre-Jean studied drawing and engraving. He was associated with the comte de Caylus, Crozat, Jullienne and Watteau, as well as with European correspondents such as Gabburri and Zanetti, and he was among those who welcomed Rosalba Carriera to Paris in 1720-21. His notes on artists were later published as Abécédario (1851-60). Mariette's extensive collection of approximately 10,000 drawings, many with distinguished provenances, was offered to the king at his death, but the price could not be agreed and it was broken up at auction. A copy of the sale catalogue was annotated by Gabriel de Saint-Aubin. A Dossier des acquisisions du roi (AN O 1913, 4) records the sheets bought for the crown, while others were acquired by collectors such as the prince de Conti or Randon de Boisset. The reconstruction is currently being undertaken by the Association Mariette; the first two volumes, covering the French school, appeared in 2011 (numbers [Fn] below).
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Lugt 1852; Jean Cailleux, "Apud Mariette et Amicos", Burlington magazine, cix/773, .VIII.1967, pp. i-vi; Barbara Scott, Apollo, xcvii, 1973, pp. 54-59; Grove 1996; associationmariette.com; Rosenberg 2011
Inv. p.m., AN lxxvi 45, 12.XII.1774
Ventes p.m., Paris, Basan, 1-27.II.1775, (estmapes 811, livres 164); suppl. after 13.V.1775 (dessins 1, estampes 295)
Vente p.m., Paris, Basan, 15.XI.1775 - 30.I.1776 (tableaux 25; dessins 1338; estampes 1491; etc.; a facsimile of the Boston MFA copy with Saint-Aubin sketches is in Rosenberg & al. 2011):
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 5: Le Buste d'une jolie femme Vénitienne, ayant sur la tête un petit chapeau où sont attachées des fleurs, & tenant de la main droite un masque noir [800 livres 1 sol; Boileau]
Lot 6: Autre Buste d'un jeune homme, à la tête nue & des plus agréables, le col de sa chemise déboutonné; il tient de la main droite une draperie bleue qui le couvre: ce morceau, de même grandeur que le précédent, est d'un précieux aussi fini & d'une conservation parfaite [350 livres 1 sol; Boileau]
Lot 7: [a] Trois autres têtes de femmes [310 livres, Paillet], & [b] le Portrait de cette célèbre Artiste de l'Ecole Venitienne, que la mort nous enleva le 15 avril 1757, agée de 85 ans [1610 livres; Lempereur]
CORREGGIO
Lot 119: [a] La Ste Vierge, tenant sur ses genoux l'Enfant Jésus, & de la main droite le petit St Jean: ce sujet de forme ronde & plein d'art, est au bistre, rehaussé de blanc. [b, c] Sept feuilles, contenant diverses études d'enfants & autres figures, à la sanguine & à la plume [b:trois feuilles, 37 livres 19 sols, Basan; c: 16 livres; Cauvet]. Trois grosses Têtes, dont [d] une à la sanguine, & les [e] deux autres au pastel [a, d, e: 145 livres; Boileau]. [f] Trois figures d'études pour les Figures des Sybilles & Prophetes, peints dans l'Eglise de Saint-Jean à Parme [15 livres 15 sols; Basan]
BAROCCI
Cette Collection de dessins du Baroche, est extrêmement précieuse; M. Crozat les avoit trouvés à Urbin & à Venise, chez les amateurs qui en connoissoient bien le prix.
Lot 165: Une Tête de St Francois d'Assise, les yeux tournés vers le ciel; l'expression en est merveilleuse; la conscience d'un coeur pénétré y est peinte avec les traits les plus expressifs; elle est faite au pastel mêlé de pierre noire [39 livres; Basan]
Lot 166: Une Etude de deux Têtes d'enfants, dont l'une est vue de face, & l'autre de trois quarts; la sanguine & la pierre noire, mêlées d'un peu de pastel, y sont employées avec un art infini, & les rendent d'un beau caractere [41 livres 1 sol; Basan]
Lot 167: [Niert], La copie du Dessin précédent, & une autre Tête de femme, faits au pastel d'après le Baroche, par Alex. Nyert [10 livres 19 sols, de Tersan]
Lot 168: Six [a: deux; [b: quatre] ] grosses Têtes de Christ, Vierge, &c aussi au pastel. [a:: 19 livres; Paillet]; [b: 28 livres 2 sols, Augustin Ménageot]
Lot 171: Une Tête de vieillard à barbe blanche, de grosseur naturelle, de forme ovale, au pastel: elle est connue dans son Tableau de la Présentation de N.S. au Temple, qui est à Rome dans l'Eglise Neuve. Cette Collection de dessins du Baroche, est extrêmement précieuse; M. Crozat les avoit trouvés à Urbin & à Venise, chez les amateurs qui en connoissoient bien le prix, 143 livres 19 sols; Lempereur; Lot 609: Francesco Bassano, Etude d'une Tête de vieille, de forme ovale, faite au pastel, pour un Tableau de Pastorale qui est connu à Florence dans la Galerie du Grand-Duc [11 livres; Lempereur]
FETI (Domenico) Rom.
Lot 403: Une belle Tête de Vieillard à barbe, dessinée aux trois crayons [50 livres; de Tersan]
François de Ponte, dit le BASSAN, Vénitien
Lot 609: Étude d'une Tête de vieille, de forme ovale, faite au pastel, pour un Tableau de Pastorale qui est connu à Florence dans la Galerie du Grand-Duc [11 livres; L'Empereur]
BLANCHARD (Jacob)
[F53] Lot 1086: [part] Une Tête de Vieillard à grande barbe, faite au pastel. [15 livres; Joubert]
BRUN (Charles le)
[F2257] Lot 1181: [part] Une Etude de la figure de saint Etienne; & une autre Tete de femme aux trois crayons. [14 livres 19; Tersan]
CORNEILLE (Michel)
[F1555–1610] Lot 1207: Un volume in-folio, contenant 56 Sujets de Compositions & Etudes, de Têtes de Vierges, d'Anges & autres, faits avec beaucoup de soin à la plume, au bistre & quelques-uns au pastel, très-terminés. [88 livres; de Brosse]
COYPEL (Antoine)
[F1627–32] Lot 1215: Six sujets & Têtes diverses, dont Venus & Enée, Tête au pastel, &c. [15 livres 10, with Lot 1216; baron de Lunas]
GREUZE (Jean-Bapt.)
[F2106] Lot 1263: L'Etude pour la tête de la jeune mariée du tableau de M. de Marigny, faite au pastel, avec art. [300 livres; Chariot pour Randon de Boisset]
MOINE (François le)
Lot 1292: [F2294] Une Tête de femme, aux trois crayons, les yeux fixés vers le ciel, et pleine d'expression. [F2295] Une Tête d'homme à barbe, faite au pastel et savamment touchée. Une feuille d'études de chérubins [360 livres; Couvet]
[F2297] Lot 1293: L'étude au pastel pour la tête de la déesse Hébé, qui est au salon d'Hercule, à Versailles [80 livres 1; Paillet]
NATOIRE (Charles)
[F2537] Lot 1302: Une Tête de vieillard à barbem de grosseur naturelle, faite au pastel. [29 livres 19; Lempereur pour le Cabinet du roi]
PIERRE (le Chevalier Jean-Bapt. Marie)
[F2626] Lot 1317: [part] Une Tête de Vieillard à grande barbe, faite au pastel, d'une grande vérité. [100 livres; François Renaud pour Lempereur]
Dessins de Différents maitres, en volumes et en porte-feuilles:
[F2976–3025] Lot 1397: Quarante feuilles, contenant 50 Portraits de personnages célebres dans les Arts, dessinés au pastel, à la pierre noire, ä la sanguine & au bistre, exécutés avec soins par différents Artistes, parmi lesquels se trouvent ceux de B. Lutti, Velasquez, Ribera, Polidore, Primatice, Albane, M. An. de Carravage, P. Sante, Badalocchii, Vouet, Bourdon, le Gros, Chambray, Furetiere, Pitau, Vallet, massé, &c., &c. [489 livres, en 12 lots]

Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Ménars, de Vandières et de MARIGNY (1727-1781), brother of Mme de Pompadour (q.v.), directeur général des bâtiments 1751-73. Apart from the pastels below, the posthumous inventory included drawings by Portail and Vispré which have been described as pastels.
Dictionary, genealogy Poisson
Lit.: Émile Campardon, Madame de Pomadour et la cour de Louis XV, 1867; Chardin 1979; Alden R. Gordon, The houses and collections of the marquis de Marigny, ed. Carolyne Ayçaguer-Ron, Los Angeles, 2003
Inventaire, 21.VII.1781:
Chambre à coucher du marquis de Marigny:
[249] [sans numéro] A l'egard d'un Tableau peint en pastel Sous glace dans Sa bordure doré representant Le defunt Il n'en a été fait aucune prisée mais Cet article est tiré pour memoire Cy Memoire [possibly La Tour]
Galerie
[741] 805. Item un portrait de f[emm]e assise dans un fauteuil peint à l'huile et deux autres portraits de f.e au pastel dans un ovale prisés vingt Livres Cy 20 [n. 94 suggests that these are by Boucher; vente 1782, lot 14, but inv. 817 appears to cover this lot]
[746] 810. Item une corbeille Remplie de differentes fleurs et plumes Naturelles un dejeuner Representant des fruits en pastel prisés quinze Livres Tous deux Sous Verre Cy 15 [vente 1782, lots 156, 157]
[752] 816. Item Le portrait de Colbert Ministre peint au pastel [?Nanteuil] Celui de la fontaine aux Trois Crayons par Rigaud Tous deux Sous glace prises Soix.te quinze livres Cy 75 [vente 1782, lot 356]
[753] 817. Item Trois Têtes de femmes au pastel par f. Boucher dont La Dormeuse prisée quarante huit Liv Cy 48 [vente 1782, Lots 14 (La Dormeuse + 1), 15]
[754] 818. Item Le Buste d'un Jeune homme en Guerrier au pastel Sous glace par M:lle Rosalba prisé Trente Six Liv. Cy 36 [vente 1782, Lot 96, Louis XV jeune]
[766] 830. Item un buste de femme d'apres f. Boucher Sous glace prisé quarante huit Liv. cy 48 [=? vente 1782, Lot 15, "Une autre Tête de femme charmante, aussi au pastel"]
Salon de musique
[1818] A l'egard d'un grand Tableau peint en pastel sous glace d'un autre Tableau peint sur Toile et de deux autres Tableaux ovales aussi peints sur Toile Tous quatre dans Leurs bordures Il n'en a été fait aucune prisée Comme étant portraits de famille mais Le present article a été ici tiré pour Memoire
Paris, hôtel de Ménars, Basan, Joullain, 16.III.-29.IV.1782:
François BOUCHER
Lot 14. Deux Têtes de femmes, faites au pastel, dont une vue de face, appuyée sur un coussn; l'autre, de profil, aussi sur un coussin; cette dernière paroit endormie. Sous verre de 15 pouces sur 12 de large [71 livres 19 sols; Vestris]
Lot 15. Une autre tête de femme charmante, aussi au pastel. Elle est vue de trois quarts, avec bouquet à son côté, les cheveux attachés avec un grand ruban. Sous verre de 15 pouces de 12 de large.
VIVIEN
Lot 142. Le portrait de M. de Louvois en buste, avec rabat de dentelles; au pastel. De 21 pouces sur 15 de large.
ROSALBA
Lot 96. Le portrait de Louis XV étant jeune, en buste et cuirassé, au pastel. Sous glace de 15 pouces sur 13 de large [180 livres; Joullain]
Tableaux par différents maitres
Lot 156. Une corbeille remplie de fleurs, sur un fond blanc, avec une bordure, le tout en plumes de differentes coulours, sous glace. Hauteur, 22 pouces; largeur, 18 pouces.
Lot 157. Un panier de grosses pêches, prunes et noix, au pastel. Sous verre, 20 pouces sur 17 de large. Tous deux sous verre
François BOUCHER
Lot 282. Le portrait d'une jolie femme. Il est entouré d'une guirlande de fleurs formée par les Amours et accompagné des attributs des arts. Ce charmant morceau est au pastel. Hauteur, 13 pouces; largeur, 9 pouces 6 lignes.
Lot 283. Le même sujet, qui n'est pas moins intéressant que le précédent, avec quelques différences dans la compoistion, et qui a été fait de la même manière, en 1754, et de la même grandeur.
Lot 284. Deux Amours sacrifiant sur un autel et célébrant la convalescence d'une jolie femme qui s'élève en repoussant des nuages. On lit ces mots sur l'autel: Nous renaissons. Ce dessin est aux trois crayons mêlé de pastel, par le même. Hauteur, 15 pouces; largeur, 10 pouces 6 lignes.
Lot 285.Vénus assise. Elle est accompagné de deux Amours et tient en lesse deux colombes. Charmant dessin au pastel, dans une riche bordure entourée de guirlandes de fleurs. Hauteur, 18 pouces; largeur, 13 pouces.
Lot 286. Saint Jean enfant. Il est assis; son mouton est auprès de lui. Au pastel.
Lot 287. Une jeune fille accompagné d'un enfant. Elle porte deux paniers de fleurs suspendus par un bâton. Pastel. Hauteur, 10 pouces; largeur, 8 pouces.
Lot 288. Une bergère assise et vue à mi-corps. Elle est coeffée d'un chapeau de paille et tient une corbeille de fleurs. Ce joli morceau est peint au pastel. Hauteur, 14 pouces; largeur, 10 pouces 6 lignes.
Lot 369bis. Deux paysages par Desriches et Pillement; ils sont ornés de fabriques et figures. L'un à la pierre noire et à l'estompe sur vélin, et l'autre à la pierre noire mêlée de pastel.

MARIN, secrétaire du roi [?Jacques Marin (1682-1763) or his son Jacques-François Marin (1701-1777)]
Vente p.m.; Paris, Joullain, 23.XII.1775:
Lot 12: Boucher, Tableau en pastel, représentant deux Amours qui jouent avec un casque [120 livres, Carle]
Marin, vente p.m.: Paris, Serreau, Le Brun & Saubert, 22.III.1790 & seq.:
Lot 662: [Anon.] Un Buste de Nêgre, au pastel, de forme ovale sous verre & bordure.

The musician Antoine-François MARMONTEL (1816-1898) and his son Antonin (1850-1907), both pianists. Antonin left a number of portraits of musicians (notably Delacroix's Chopin) collected by his father to the Louvre, as well as the Roslin painting of their ancestor, the writer Jean-François Marmontel. A number of pastels from Antoine-François's collection were sold in 1883 and 1898.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, 25-26.I.1883:
Lot 157: La Tour, Mme de Pompadour; Lots 158, 159: inconnus; Perronneau, homme Louis XV
Paris, Drouot, 28-29.III.1898:
Lot 17: Chardin, ??Bachelier; Lot 39: La Tour, inconnue; Lot 44: Perronneau, homme [Van Robais]; Lot 51: Prudhon, Mme Prudhon; Lot 68: Anon, femme

P.-J. de MARNEFFE: possibly the Pierre-Joseph de Marneffe (1760- ) depicted in an anonymous pastel which may be the portrait by Legendre in the posthumous sale. In addition to forming his own regiment during the French revolution, he was also an art dealer, and father of the Belgian painter François de Marneffe.
Bruxelles, Mataigne, 24.V.1830 & seq.:
Lot 703: [Anon.] Six Pastels, dont 4 portraits; Lot 727: [Anon.] Caïn tue Abel. Pastelle; Lot 761: Le Gendre, portrait en pastelle

Alexandre MARNIER-LAPOSTOLLE, created the Grand Marnier liqueur in 1880. Among the family collection is a Vigée Le Brun painting.
Pastels: Ducreux, Marie-Antoinette

Daniel MARSBAG ( -1775), ontvanger [receiver] van de Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, kamer Amsterdam, assembled a large collection of Dutch, French and Italian prints and drawings, sold after in his death in Amsterdam with that of another unidentified collector, C***.
vente p.m., Amsterdam, Ploos van Amstel, de Winter & Yver, 30.X.1775 & seq.
J. Buys
Lot 723: Portrait agréable d'une femme, sous la forme d'une Bergere, d'une beauté peu commune, dessiné au pastel & fort terminé, d'après F. van der Myn [ƒ8]
Lot 725: Portrait de femme, vue jusqu'aux genoux, vêtue à l'ancienne maniere hollandoise, morceau vigoureusement desssiné au pastel & très terminé, d'après F. Hals [ƒ15]

A. MART:
Paris, 2-3.III.1882
Lot 37: La Tour

Admiral Sir William Fanshawe MARTIN, 4th Bt. (1801-1895), GCB, first naval lord, of 5 Oxford Square, London W1. A group of five, identically framed Lawrence pastels of senior naval officers is now in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.

Aimé MARTINET, Geneva: acquired a number of Liotard pastels, and a La Tour Rousseau, from around 1930 on. It is unclear if he was a private collector or a dealer.

Pietro Antonio MARTINI (1739-1797), Italian draughtsman and engraver; active in Paris; the 1797 sale took place shortly before his death in Parma.
Paris, Delaunay, Regnault, 5-6.IV.1797:
Lot 6: Baldrighi, Une Tête de Vestale, peinte en pastel [10 frs; Breard]

Jean-Baptiste MASSÉ (1687-1767), miniaturist. His posthumous inventory (AN MC xcvii, 422, 31.X.1767) included two pastels by Natoire, a portrait of his brother by Lundberg, as well as miniatures by Carriera.
Dictionary, artist
Lit.: Marandet 2003b

Jean MASSON (1856-1933): industrialist at Amiens and Paris; gave an extensive collection of early drawings of the French school to the École des beaux-arts in 1925.
Lit.: Lugt 1494a; Notice des dessins, enluminures, manuscrits d'art français du xiie au xviiie siècle tirés de la donation Jean Masson, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 1927; M. P. Lavallée, "La Donation Jean Masson - Dessins de maîtres français", in Richard Cantinelli & Émile Dacier, eds., Les Trésors des bibliothèques de France, Paris, 1928
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, 7-8.V.1923 :
Lots 1, 2: Aubert inconnus; Lot 64: Ducreux, du Pré

Charles MATHEWS (1776-1835), theatre manager and actor, the son of a Wesleyan Methodist printer; formed the large collection of theatrical pictures now in the Garrick Club (v. Collections for exact holdings), which included some pastels by Russell acquired in the artist's sale in 1807.

La princesse MATHILDE (1820-1904), Napoléon's niece, daughter of Jérôme Bonaparte. In 1840 she married Anatole Nikolaievich Demidov, prince de San Donato (q.v.), but they were separated in 1848. In that year her cousin Louis-Napoléon was elected president and she held court at the Élysée palace; subsequently she lived in the rue de Courcelles and the rue de Berri where "elle accueillait tous ses visiteurs avec un sansfaçon qui était l'extrême raffinement de la condescendance et de la politesse" (Abel Hermant). These visitors were the leading figures of the worlds of art, literature and science. She was herself an amateur artist, although her efforts and connoisseurship were disparaged by the Goncourt brothers, who noted that her atelier was "encombré de ces choses qui ne sont des objects d'art que pour les femmes, un faux pastel de Boucher, de faux pastels de Chardin." (Journal, 10.XII.1852).
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Vente p.m., Paris, Chevallier, 17-21.V.1904:
Pastels: La Tour, Nollet
Other pastels: Chardin, garçon; fillette

Francis MATTHIESEN, dealer in old master pictures in Berlin and London since before 1949, continued by his son Patrick since 1978; v.q. Durand.

René-Charles de MAUPEOU (1688-1775), premier président au parlement, garde des sceaux, chancelier de France
Dictionary, essay

M. MAUPETIT, brocanteur.
Vente p.m., Paris, Brisse, Prault & Joullain, 18.VII.1774 & seq.:
Lot 38: [Anon.]: Six Portraits au pastel, dont ceux du Chancelier le Tellier & du Président de Novion [2 livres 12 sols]

Louis-Joseph MAURICE (1730-1820), pastellist and art collector. His collection included objets d'art and curiosities, as well as paintings by Boucher and Fragonard. It is not known if it included pastels.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, 8.XI.1820

Citoyen MAURICE.
Paris, Thierry, Regnault, 16-17.I.1797
Lot 59: Une copie du fleuve scamandre, peinte au pastel, d'après Boucher; & divers dessins non-décrits [8 frs 15]

Ernest MAY (1845-1925), banker and collector, 29 faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris 8e in 1922. He collected both Impressionists and old masters. His son Jacques Ernest-May (1885-1970) was also a banker and collector, lending a Berjon fillette to the Paris 1927a exhibition.
Lit.: Qui-êtes vous?, 1924; Gimpel 1963; Donateurs 1989
Paris, Drouot, 19.VI.1933

Pierre-Georges MAY: a pastel by Bernard was lent to the Paris 1927 exhibition.
Pastels: Bernard, femme 1757; La Tour, Dupouch

François MAX-KANN, dealer and expert, of 78 avenue Mozart, Paris, from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Jean-François MAXE ( -1851), marchand de curiosités. His business appeared in the Almanach du commerce from 1823, initially rue Rovale-Saint-Honoré, then from 1839, rue Neuve-du-Luxembourg, and from 1844, 4 rue Caumartin. His second posthumous sale included 11 pastels, 10 by (or at least as by) La Tour, Boucher and Marteau.
Vente p.m., Paris, rue des Jeuneurs, Ridel, Henry, Crosnier, 22-24.III.1852, Lots 265-270.

Alphonse MAZE-SENSIER (1831-1892), art historian and collector. He published Carriera's journals.
Paris, 19-20.III.1886
Paris, 13.IV.1892

John MCGOUAN or McGowan ( –1803), FRS, FASE, "Writer" and antiquary, of 83 Princes Street, Edinburgh, where his p.m. sale was conducted by Edwards, 14.IV.1803 (Lot 39 was Cotes's pastel of Flora MacDonald). He had an extensive collection of drawings, ceramics, antiquities, coins and medals assembled over more than 50 years.

Edward A. MCGUIRE (1901-1993), chairman of Brown Thomas, the Dublin retailer, senator and collector. Newtown Park, his house in Blackrock, contained pictures by El Greco, Gainsborough and Reynolds as well as rare china, glass, tapestries and objets d'art. He contributed an article on Irish 18th century pastels to the Connoisseur in 1939, and he owned a group of pastels by Forrest now in the NGI, Dublin.
London, Christie's, 20.IX.1976
Other pastels: H. Hone, Lady Lanesborough

McSwiny, v. Swiney

Dr Richard MEAD (1673–1754), physician and collector. A "compleat catalogue of the pictures" auctioned after his death in London, Langford & Baker, 20.III.1754, for over £3400) appeared in the London magazine, XXIII, .III.1745, pp. 130f, and included the following:
Dean Swift, 3 qrs. in crayons, Mr Barber. Admiral Spragge, 3 qrs. [m/u], Greenhill. A madonna and our Saviour, in crayons, from Guido, Mr Coates.

F. R. MEATYARD, fine art dealer, London, specialising in British drawings; 59 High Holborn 1912-20; Museum Street, from 1920 until c.1964.

Cardinale Leopoldo de' MEDICI (1617-1675), brother of Cosimo III. He was a leading patron of the arts and sciences, and pursued scientific research with Galileo. He founded the Accademia del Cimento in 1657; it closed in 1667 when he was made cardinal and moved to Rome. He collected paintings, drawings, sculpture, coins and books; he initiated the series of artists' self-portraits now in the Uffizi, and which include a number of works in pastel. He and other members of this illustrious family owned several sheets by seventeenth century draughtsmen (Leonardo, Mola etc.) described in inventories as pastel but more probably chalk drawings. The Medici collections also included pastels by Vouet, Nanteuil, Tempesti, Fratellini, Vivien and Carriera; they are now in the Uffizi (v. Collections for holdings).
Dictionary, genealogy, Toscana

George Bubb-Dodington, 1st Baron MELCOMBE, né Bubb (1691-1762), diplomat and statesman, art collector. He was in Rome in 1732 to buy pictures for Eastbury, his seat in Dorset; there he made the acquaintance of Cardinal Albani whose pastel portrait by Katherine Read was subequently sent to him.
Lit.: Cockayne; Ingamells 1997

J. H. J. MELLAART, The Netherlands: dealers; handled pastels by Russell.

Paul MELLON (1907-1999), son of Andrew W. Mellon; philanthropist, racehorse owner and art collector with a particular interest in British art. An exhibition took place in the Royal Academy (London 2007a) on the centenary of his birth.
Lit.: London 2007a
Pastels: v. Collections, New Haven, Yale Center for British Art

Augustin MÉNAGEOT (c.1700-1784), picture dealer, father of the painter François-Guillaume Ménageot. His sale (Paris, Chariot, Paillet, 17.III.1778) included pastels by Rosalba, L. M. Van Loo and others.
Lit.: Nicole Willk-Brocard, "Augustin Ménageot (ca. 1700-1784), marchand de tableaux. Quelques jalons", Gazette des beaux-arts, .IV.1998, pp. 161-82

Alphonse MENNECHET DE BARIVAL (1812-1903) married his cousin Henriette-Caroline Paillet ( –1861), granddaughter of the auctioneer A.-J. Paillet (q.v.). In 1880 he had constructed the pseudo-renaissance château Mennechet in Chiry-Ourscamp intended to be a museum to house his collection of pictures, sculpture and faïence, but the project was incomplete at his death, and the château was destroyed by bombing during the 1914-18 war. He left three pastels to Saint-Quentin (initially housed in the Palais de Fervaques, later transferred to the musée Antoine Lécuyer) which may well have come from the disastrous La Tour sale run by Paillet. His brother Félix-Alexandre MENNECHET, administrateur, secrétaire perpétuel de l'École gratuite de dessin, Saint-Quentin, was the author of an 1866 catalogue of the La Tour pastels there.
Lit.: legs Alphonse Mennechet de Barival, Journal de Saint-Quentin et de l'Aisne, 165, 17.vii.1903, p. 1
Pastels: La Tour, Cassanéa de Mondonville; inconnu no. 21; inconnue no. 13

Gustave MENNESSON (1847–1934), avocat, 79 boulevard Haussmann: collectionneur des pastels du XVIIIe par Perronneau. Only one is known: the version of Mlle Huquier that he bought in 1905. It was Lot 31 in his posthumous sale, Paris, Drouot, 24.V.1933.
Lit.: Renart 1908

Anton W. M. MENSING (1866-1936): a bookbinder by training, he joined the Amsterdam firm founded by Frederik Muller in 1885. He became director and owner of the firm, expanding its activities to those of an international art auction house. He collected pictures, bookbindings as well as scientific instruments (his collection is now in the Adler Planetarium in Chicago). Two of his pastels are now in the Museum Boijmans-Van Beuningen. His son Ben (1903-1972) continued the firm until c.1960.
Lit..: W. F. J. Mörzer Bruyns, "The Amsterdam Scheepvaartmuseum and Anton Mensing", Journal of the history of collections, vii/2, 1995, pp. 235-41; W. F. J. Mörzer Bruyns, "Frederik Muller & Co and Anton Mensing: The first international art auction house in Amsterdam, and its director", Quaerendo, xxxiv/3-4, 2004, pp. 211-39
Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 27-29.IV.1937, dessins anciens:
Lot 148: Cotes, Lady Mary Eyre; Lot 171: Ducruex, Dame; Lot 329: La Tour [Éc. fr.], homme; Lot 330: La Tour, auto; Lot 523: Perronneau, femme 1766
Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 15.XI.1938, tableaux anciens

Paul MERSCH (1859-1909), docteur en droit, of 13 rue Montchanin, Paris, vice-consul of Luxembourg, son-in-law of Charles Sedelmeyer (q.v.).
Paris, Georges Petit, 28.V.1909:
Lot 47: La Tour, bénédictine; Lot 65: Perronneau, homme

Charles-François-René MESNARD DE CLESLE or de La Claye (1732-1803), chevalier de Saint-Louis. A former maréchal de camp de cavalerie, he was appointed gouverneur et lieutenant du roi dans le Pays de Soule before 1769, but his poor health prevented his being invested, and he remained in Paris. During the Revolution he was briefly imprisoned (his brother, the comte de Chousy, and nephew were executed), and deposed that his income came mainly from the sale of pictures and funiture. A pastel by Hall was sold in Paris, Boileau, 4.XII.1786 & seq., Lot 118. The catalogue for his posthumous sale listed among his collection of "curiosités" a large number of drawings and miniatures. They were sold from his brother's former home.
Vente p.m., Paris, rue Saint-Étienne, coin du Boulevard Poissonnière, 1.I.1804 & seq.
Lot 13: Mlle Belleporte, 2 pstls a/r Carriera; Lots 14, 15: Mérelle, femmes; Lot 18: Natoire, 2 dessins coloriés

Armand-Louis de MESTRAL DE SAINT-SAPHORIN (1738-1805), Danish representative at the court in Dresden 1762; collector of drawings, including the Michelangelo Study of Christ and the woman of Samaria (New York, Sotheby's, 28.I.1998). While in Madrid he commissioned four pictures from Pillement.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Michaud; Danske Biografisk Lexikon
Pastels: Carriera [Vleughels], tête de femme

Meurville, v. Petit

Albert L. MEYER, Paris, drawings specialist, associate of Jacques Seligmann (q.v.).
Lit.: Seymour de Ricci, Dessins du dix-huitième siècle, collection Albert Meyer, Paris, 1935; Seligmann 1961
Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Ader, 15.VI.1938:
Lot 6: Boucher attr., jeune fille à la colombe
Other pastels: La Tour, Pompadour

André MEYER (1898-1979): emigrated to the USA in 1940; head of Lazard Frères for 33 years until his retirement in 1977. He and his wife, née Bella Lehmann (1903-1980), were donors to the Louvre, musée d'Orsay, Metropolitan Museum of Art and MOMA, New York. A sale in New York, Christie's, 26.X.2001, included paintings by Perronneau and Greuze, numerous XVIIIe drawings as well as furniture and porcelain. His musical manuscript collection was sold in Paris, Sotheby's, 16–17.X.2012.
Exh.: Exhibition of the collection of Mr and Mrs André Meyer. Washington, National Gallery of Art, 10.VI.-8.VII.1962, paintings and drawings from Rembrandt to Picasso.
Lit.: Cary Reich, Financier: the biography of Andre Meyer, New York, 1983; F. Lesure, Collection musicale André Meyer, Abbeville, 1973
New York, Parke-Bernet, 22.X.1980:
Lot 8: La Tour, Camargo
Paris, Sotheby's, 16–17.x.2012:
Lot 93: Duplessis, Gluck

Jean MEYER ( –a.1807), propriétaire de la Gazette de Gand; vente p.m., Gand, salle de Saint-George, P. F. de Goesin-Verhaeghe, 8-9.iv.1807
Lot 76: Deux portraits d'homme et de femme. Au pastel, forme ovale, d'égale grandeure. h. 38. l. 32
Lot 77: Quatre portraits de femme. Au pastel, forme ovale, d'égale grandeure. h. 47. l. 39

Louis MEYER: lent a Perronneau enfant to the Paris 1927a and Paris 1936b exhibitions.

Meyer, v. Sée

Herman Stern ( -1887), Barao de Stern in the Portuguese peerage, founded the London banking house of Stern Brothers. He bought Strawberry Hill in 1883. He was succeeded by his son Herbert, 1st Baron MICHELHAM (1851-1919), a banker and philanthropist. His widow, née Aimée Geraldine Bradshaw ( -1927), 20 Arlington Street, London, acquired a Carriera, James Dawkins from Agnew's in 1920. The Michelham collection was dispersed from the premises by Hamptons, 23-24.XI.1926, and included an anonymous French pastel, The telescope.

Henri MICHEL-LÉVY (1845-1914), painter.
Paris, Drouot Salle 9, 25.V.1905:
Lot 35: Boze, femme âgée, Lot 36: La Tour, auto [B&W 234, rejected]; Lots 37, 38: Anon., a/r Fragonard, jeune fille tenant une marmotte; petit garçon accoudé sur une cage
Paris, Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, experts Féral, Paulme, 12-13.V.1919:
Lot 41: Boucher, jeune fille brune

Léon MICHEL-LÉVY (1846-1925).
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 17-18.VI.1925:
Lot 39: Boucher, jeune fille brune; Lot 40: Boucher, ?Mme Deshays au bonnet; Lot 41: Boucher, jeune fille au pigeon; Lot 44: Chardin, auto au chevalet; Lot 48: Ducreux, fillette; Lot 77: La Tour, Silvestre; Lot 84: Peronneau, Mme Laruette; Lot 85: Perronneau, Mme Dutillieu; Lots 104, 105: Vigée, actrices

Émile MICHELOT ( –1879), industrialist from Bordeaux. An important library and a large collection of XVIIIe engravings (portraits and galant pieces) was sold in several sessions from 1880, after his death.
Vente p.m., Paris, 14-17.II.1881:
La Tour, homme

Alan Brodrick, 2nd Viscount MIDLETON (1702-1747), commissioner of customs, MP for Midhurst. He was in Italy in 1724-25 to buy pictures (among them works by Luti and Poussin). He sat for his portrait by Rosalba; he also purchased a version of her portrait of Faustina Bordoni. The bill, for 54 zecchini, was settled by Owen Sweeny.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997

Edwin MILGROM, endocrinologist, and his wife Monique donated a painting by François de Troy to the musee de l'Île-de-France, Sceaux, where their collection, particularly rich in paintings of the French XVIIe, was exhibited; it included a version of Van Loo's pastel, Mme de Prie.
Lit.: Sceaux 2007; Gazette Drouot, 11.VII.2008, pp. 130-31

Eric George MILLAR (1887-1966), keeper of manuscripts in the British Museum 1944-47, collector. He donated or bequeathed over 300 items to the British Museum.
Lit.: "The Eric George Millar bequest of manuscripts and drawings 1967", British Museum quarterly, XXXIII, 1968
Pastels: Downman (8 pastels)

Mrs Clarence MILLHISER, née Regina Viola Greenwoald [(1874-a.1965). The Millhiser fortune was based on a lumbar, dry goods and retail business in Richmond started by Clarence's father, Moses Millhiser. In 1920 Mrs Millhiser was the victim of theft by an employee at a New York hotel involving jewelry worth $350,000. After her husband's death (c.1924), Mrs Millhiser travelled frequently to Europe. Several pastels by Ducreux were donated by her estate to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in 1965.

Joseph Leeson, Viscount Russborough 1760, Earl of MILLTOWN (1711-1783), MP 1743-56, collector. He had six Carriera pastels, now in National Gallery of Ireland (v. Collections).

Milnes-Coates, v. Cotes

MINOT, Saint-Jean-d'Angély
Paris, 25-26.IV.1887:
Lot 42: La Tour attr., officier

Marchesa MINUTILLI CAFFARELLI, née Anna Maria Petrosini. Her estate inventory (Rome, 14.IV.1731) included eight pastels by Parmigianino, no doubt chalk drawings; her son Scipione was the heir.

Charles-Edmond MITANTIER (1817-1887), notary and bibliophile: his widow donated an important collection of early printed books to the bibliothèque municipale de Troyes. The musée des Beaux-Arts received a group of six pastels by Petit de Villeneuve.

James MITCHELL (fl. 1803), of Richmond Hill, Surrey, "gone to Jamaica", leading to a sale on 4.XI.1803 by Mr Winstanley on the premises, advertised in the Morning chronicle (31.X.1803) and including "a small but well chosen Collection of Painting, Drawings in Crayons etc."

La comtesse André MNISZECH, née Anna Potocka, wife of the Polish émigré portraitist Andrzej Mniszek (1823-1905). A number of Marteau pastels of members of the Mniszech or Potocki families were in her posthumous sale; others were recorded by Fournier-Sarlovèze in 1906. Some were also dispersed at the posthumous sales of the collections of her son Leon Mniszech (1849-1901), an enthusiastic art collector and founder member of the Red Cross. His collection included several Marteau pastels that had belonged to Stanislaw August; some of it is now in Warsaw.
(Comtesse A.M.): Vente succession, Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, 9-10.V.1910:
Marteau, Lot 1: Mme Geoffrin; Lot 2. La comtesse François Potocka; Lot 3: La comtesse Pélagie Potocka; Lot 4: Aniéla Lodochowska; Lot 5: Sophie Potocka; Lot 6: jeune fille; Lot 7: La comtesse Ursule Mniszech
(Comte L. M.): Vente p.m., Paris, Chevallier, 28.IV.1902

Toussaint-Eugène-Ernest MOCKER (1811-1895), singer and professeur, de l'Opéra-Comique, owned a Perronneau, Van Robais.

Sir John Rawdon, 1st Earl of MOIRA (1720-1793), FRS, Dilettanti 1741; the subject of portraits by Knapton, Pond and (in pastel) Charles Martin. According to Twiss 1776, p. 23, his collection included "a few portraits in crayons, by Rosalba".

Charles MOISSON (fl. 1878-94), Paris, published a catalogue of the pictures at the musée Jeanne d'Aboville, La Fère, in 1889.
Pastels: Ducreux, Manuel; Frey, Mmes Adélaïde, Sophie, Victoire

Hender Delves MOLESWORTH (1907-1978), keeper of sculpture, V&A 1931-66, and his wife, née Eve Galloway ( -1995), a designer and decorator: owned a Mengs pastel (Ismael Mengs) which was sold in 1985, as well as the Carriera pendants of John, 2nd Viscount Molesworth (a noted collector) and his wife, seen in the 1990s but absent from the estate in 1995.
Lit.: Molesworth 2010; Times obituary, 26.IV.1978

Girolamo Ascanio MOLIN ( -1814), bibliophile and art collector, left two pastels by Rosalba to the Gallerie dell'Academia di Venezia, possibly of his grandmother and father or uncle.
Lit.: Nepi Scirè 2009

Il marchese Giovanni Carlo MOLINARI (1715-1763), titular archbishop of Damascus, papal nuncio in Brussels, subject of a portrait by Carriera.
Bruxelles, H. Vleminckx, 15.VII.1763:
Lot 38: Carriera, Deux Pastels pareils, représentans l'Hiver, dont l'un peint par la fameuse Rosalbe, & l'autre copié d'après elle, cadre noir avec glace [30 Dfl, Flamand?]

Amédée-Charles-Jean MOLLOY (1814-1893), docteur en médecine, chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, place du marché-Saint-Honoré. He was given (it seems by a grateful patient) a pastel of Sophie Arnould, included in his vente p.m., Paris, Chevallier, 29.I.1894, as by La Tour but now attributed to Vigée Le Brun.

Henri-Roger Conquéré de MONTBRISON (1837-) owned a pastel by La Tour (Mme Louise) in 1888; his daughter, Marianne, Lady Ashbourne (∞ 1896 William Gibson, 2nd Baron Ashbourne), gave it to the Louvre in 1920. A Nanteuil (Montpezat) now in Reims was acquired in 1907 from E. de Montbrison, possibly Roger's son, Édouard (1887- ).
Lit.: Burke's Peerage; Donateurs 1989

MONTESQUIOU-FEZENSAC. This ancient house included a number of collectors. The Paris, 19.III.1897 sale by the widow of Adrien-Edgar, marquis de Montesquiou-Fezensac, née Anne-Marie de Rohan-Chabot included pastels of inconnues by Boucher and La Tour. Adrien-Edgar's first cousin, comte Odon, married Marie Bibesco (1845-1929), château de Courtanvaux; her sale (Paris, Georges Petit, 9-10.XII.1929) included two anonymous pastels (Rosamée de Montesquiou-Fezensac and la marquise de Lastic). Odon's nephew was the Symbolist poet and collector, comte Robert de Montesquiou-Fezensac (1855-1921). A second cousin, comte Blaise de Montesquiou-Fezensac (1886-1974), bibliophile, antiquary, author and collector, 9 rue de Chaillot, Paris 16e in 1922; married Anne de Vogüé; she lent the Vivien pendants, M. & Mme Bombarde, to the 1927a exhibition.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Léonard-Marie-Constant-Charles Drouet, comte de MONTGERMONT (1861-1942) succeeded his father, also Léonard (1832-1897). The Annuaire de la noble association de secours mutuels des chevaliers pontificaux for 1934/35 has a portrait of him. The château de Montgermont at Pringy still belongs to the family.
Pastels: Prud'hon, Lagnier

Jean-Gabriel MONTJOIE (fl.1767-95), pastellist, pupil and collector of La Tour.
Dictionary, artists

Montrdeon, v. Bourlat

Jean-Baptiste-François de MONTULLÉ or Montulé (1721-1787), secrétaire des commandements de la reine, associé-libre 1764, honoraire-amateur 1781 de l'Académie royale de peinture, heir to the estates of his uncle Jean-Baptiste Glucq, related also to Jullienne (q.v.) at whose sale he acquired a number of pastels.
Dictionary, genealogies, Jullienne, Montullé
Lit.: Ziskin 2012
Paris, Le Brun, 22-30.XII.1783:
Lot 101: Hallé Quatre têtes de jeunes filles, pstl/ppr bl., 2 vus de face, deux de profil;
MÉRELLE d'après Boucher:
Lot 107: Deux Pastels, représentants, l'un Jupiter & Callipso; & l'autre Jupiter et Léda. Hauteur 22 pouces, largeur 26 pouces, sous verre
Lot 108: Un Pastel, représentant une femme nue & couchée, détachée d'un arbre par un homme. Hauteur 22 pouces, largeur 26 pouces, sous verre
Lot 109: La Dormeuse; & la figure qui lui fait pendant, tableaux retouchés et figuré par Boucher. Hauteur 14 pouces, largeur 11 pouces, sous verre
Lot 110: Une femme vue à mi-corps et couchée sur son lit. Hauteur 20 pouces, largeur 16 pouces, sous verre
Charles [??; Jeanne] NATOIRE d'après Rosa Alba:
Lot 111: L'Hiver & le Printems, représentés par deux figures de femme, vue à mi-corps. Hauteur 17 pouces, largeur 13 pouces, sous verre
Other pastels: Parrocel, L'ambassadeur turc, trois crayons, coloré d'un peu de pastel; Glain, Caillot; femme se regardant dans un miroir

Étienne MOREAU-NÉLATON (1859-1927), artist and collector, 73 bis faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris 8e in 1922. By donation in 1906 and bequest he gave a large collection of mainly nineteenth century pictures to the Louvre.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, Chevallier, 11-15.V.1900
Lot 118: Mallet, Constance Mayer

MOREL.
Paris, Le Brun, 3.V.1786 & seq.

John Hill MORGAN (1870-1945), art historian, author of monographs on early American artists, curator of American painting at the Yale University Art Museum, to which his collection of drawings was donated by his widow.
Lit.: Sarasota 2006
Pastels: Blackburn, lady; Copley, man; Johnston, Mrs Gibbs

John Pierpont MORGAN (1837-1913), banker and collector. His rare book collection began after his father's death in 1890, and now forms the Morgan Library housed in a building he constructed in 1900. In the next 13 years he formed one of the largest collections of highly prized works of art, including in particular English and French eighteenth century paintings. Pastels by Russell, The Topham family, and La Tour, Mme de Mondonville, were shipped from London to New York in 1912; the latter passed to J. P. Morgan's daughter Anne (1873–1952). The collections were mostly inherited by Mortgan's son John Pierpont Morgan, Jr (1867-1943), of Wall End, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, but parts were disposed of during his lifetime (for example the miniatures were sold by Christie's, 24.VI.1935), while others, including a second Russell (Reynolds) were sold in his sale p.m. at London, Christie's, 31.III.1944; he also owned a Sharples pastel of Washington. The old master drawings collection which was acquired from Charles Fairfax Murray remains in the Morgan Library (v. Collections). Morgan's sister, Mary Lyman Morgan (1844-1919), who married the banker Walter Hayes Burns, owned two Gardner pastels, one of (Miss Elliot) which passed to her daughter, Mary Ethel, Viscountess Harcourt; the other unknown sitter was sold at Christie's, 10.VII.1931.

Charles-Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau, comte de MORVILLE (1686-1732), de l'Académie française, diplomat, statesman and collector. The son of Fleuriau d'Armenonville, he was ambassador to Holland before being appointed ministre de la Marine 1722, des Affaires étrangères 1723-27. He was protecteur de l'Académie de Bordeaux. He owned the celebrated Carriera pendants (inv. p.m., 8.III.1732, AN MC CXV 476); soon after his death they graced the cabinet of Jean de Boullongne, and are now in Dijon. A third femme qui tient un chat was probably by her as well. His collection was left to his widow, née Charlotte-Élizabeth de Vienne (1687-1761); inv. p.m., 7.I.1762; it also included two pastels by Coypel, Maroulle; L'Amour précepteur.
Lit.: Marandet 2011; Ziskin 2012
Dictionary, genealogy Fleuriau

Mme Paul MOTTARD, née Laura Bonehill, the widow of a Belgian industrialist, connected to the Groult family, left an important Manet and two Pillement pastels to the Louvre in 1945.

Louis-Gustave MÜHLBACHER (1834-a.1907), industrialist and art collector. The Mühlbacher coach business was founded in Paris in 1797 by a carrossier from Strasbourg, and it became one of the most prestigious coach-makers in Paris, supplying Napoléon III and royal families across Europe.
Paris, 28.II.- 5.III.1881: sale of 1158 prints
Paris, Chevallier, 15-18.V.1899:
Lot 61: La Tour, attr., femme, pnt.; Lot 156: La Tour, auto; Lot ?: Le Barbier, fille
Vente p.m., Paris, Chevalier, Lair-Dubreuil, 13-15.V.1907:
Lot 33: Labille-Guiard, jeune femme

Colonel Herbert Hull MULLINER (1861–1924), of Albany and Clifton Court, Rugby, honorary colonel of a territorial artillery regiment. He founded the Coventry Ordnance Works which provided naval armaments, but resigned when his predictions of German intentions were ignored before the First World War. His family had been coach builders, and he founded the antiques firm of Lenygon's which occupied a Queen Ann house he owned at 31 Old Burlington Street. His extensive collections were very broad ranging.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 18.VII.1924
Lot 2: Cotes, Lady Mary Eyre
Lot 5: Gardner, naval officer & wife
Lot 6: Hoare, Countess Granville
Lot 7: Russell, Mrs Rawlins

Charles Allen MUNN (1881-1924), editor of Scientific American. His extensive collection of Americana, including drawings by Trumbull, Peale and Benjamin West, is now in the Fordham University Libraries. Two pastels by Du Simitière were owned in 1922. Three by Sharples, among a large collection of paintings, prints and silver, were donated to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York in 1924.
Lit.: C. Louise Avery, H. B. Wehle & Alice Newlin "The Charles Allen Munn Bequest", The Metropolitan Museum of Art bulletin, xx/1, .I.1925, pp. 17-26

Charles Fairfax MURRAY (1849-1919), painter, pupil of Burne-Jones and Rossetti. In 1873 Ruskin sent him to Rome and Siena to copy frescoes, and he settled in Florence. He was active as a portraitist, but also as a dealer, advising Colnaghi and Agnew. His collection of more than 1400 old master drawings was bought by J. P. Morgan (q.v.) in 1910.

Sir John MURRAY SCOTT (1847-1912), eldest son of a physician based in Boulogne; he became Sir Richard Wallace's secretary and after his death, advisor to his widow. He was the residual legatee for her estate, which included all the collections apart from those at Hertford House. He was instrumental in establishing the Wallace Collection and was also a trustee of the National Gallery. One pastel was in his sister's sale in 1942.
Pastels: a/r Liotard, Belle chocolatière
Miss K. T. Scott; Willis's, 27.VIII.1942
Lot 127: C. Van Loo, lady

M. M***
Paris, Boileau, Paillet, 9.IV.1793 & seq.:
Lot 174: copie d'après Boucher: Deux petits morceaux ovales, peints au pastel

Chevalier de M***
Paris, 15.III.1852:
Lot 16: La Tour, inconnues

A. M...
Paris, 16-17.III.1857:
Lot 128: La Tour, inconnue

N

Ernest NAEF, from Geneva, acquired the château de Mont, Mont-sur-Rolle in 1911. The château had belonged to a Liotard subject, Joseph Bouër, in the eighteenth century. Ernest's son Bernard, author on Liotard, gave a pastel by Dupan to the Société des arts in Geneva in 1984.
Pastels: Dupan, Sellon; Liotard, Mlle Lavergne; Maria Theresia; Dame turque; Petitot, Sterky; hommes (2); femmes (2)

Mme NANNONI, née Anna Barbara Bansi (1777-1863): donated two pastels by Labille-Guiard (Bachelier and Vincent) to the Louvre in 1832.
Dictionary, artist, s.v. Bansi

Charles-Joseph NATOIRE (1700-1777), peintre. In 1751 he returned to Rome as directeur of the Académie de France; the anonymous sale of pictures from the collection of "M. Natoire, faite avant son départ pour Rome" contained a number of pastels, mostly without attributions. A posthumous sale took place in Paris under Chariot and Paillet, 14.XII.1778 & seq., but does not seem to have included any pastels; however a supplement bound into the catalogue (both were illustrated by Saint-Aubin) included lots consigned by Sophie Arnould (q.v.).
Dictionary, artist
Paris, 11.IX.1751:
[Anon:]
Lot 181: 2 Pastels en ovale bordure dorées et verres. [48 livres]
Lot 220: Deux Pastels, une chanteuse & [?]. [250 livres; Joullain]
Lot 221: Natoire, Deux Sujets de M. Natoire en Pastel. [562 livres 1 sol]
Lot 222: Sujets d'après Watteau en pastel [120 livres; Huls]
Lot 223: Bacchus et Adrianne en ovale en largeur en pastel [250 livres 5 sols avec le lot 232]
Lot 224: Une [sic] pastel [124 livres]
Lot 225: Une Païsanne d'après La Rosalba [30 livres]
Lot 226: Repos de Diane Pastel
Lot 227: Deux pendans d'après Rubens et Wandick pastel [60 livres; Devins]
Lot 228: La victoire pastel
Lot 229: Une dame tenant un bouquet, pastel
Lot 230: Une dame d'après Larosalba, pastel [48 livres]
Lot 231: Un Tableau de Fleurs pastel [18 livres; Joullain]
Lot 232: Triomphe d'Amphitrite pastel [250 livres 5 sols avec le lot 223]
Lot 233: Une petite nimphe en buste pastel [54 livres]
Lot 234: Une dame tenant un Peroquet pastel [30 livres]

Mansuetus de NECKER, Dutch cleric.
Brugge, François Eeck, 12-14.I.1802:
Lot 99: [Anon.]: Un Solitaire et une Pièce en Pastel

Jan Izaak. de NEUFVILLE BRANTS (1768-1807), Amsterdam, grandson of the Amsterdam collector Jan Isaac de Neufville (1706-1772), of Herengracht 130. His major collection of Dutch pictures was inherited by the banker Jan Jacob Brants, who married Anna Maria de Neufville (1742-1813). A number of Troost pastels from the de Bruijn collection were with J. S. de Neufville Brants in 1829, and may have been acquired by Jan Izaak c.1798.

Ludwig NEUMANN (1859-1934), of 11 Grosvenor Square, London, of Bavarian origin (brother of Sir Sigismund Neumann, Bt), prominent banker in the firm of L. Hirsch & Co. (associated with Jacques de Gunzburg), racehorse owner and picture collector. Following the Wall Street crash, some of his collection was sold by Christie's, 2–4.VII.1919, but he was still able to come to the aid of his nephew, the modern art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Neumann owned a small Russell pastel head.

Pol-Louis NEVEUX (1865-1939), romancier, inspecteur général des bibliothèques de France. He lent a La Tour inconnue to the Paris 1927a exhibition. His widow bequeathed some French XVIIIe furniture to the musée des Beaux-Arts in his native Reims, and his large collection of sale catalogues is now in the bibliothèque municipale.

Lady Dorothy NEVILL (1826-1913), of 45 Charles Street, Berkeley Square, daughter of Horatio Walpole, 3rd Earl of Orford. She was a collector of plants and pictures and a well-known salonnière, entertaining politicians and society figures with her finely honed conversation. Her son Ralph edited her memoirs. Her collection included three pastels of members of the Walpole family by Carriera; there were also a pair of copies after Greuze, and four anonymous pastels of unknown sitters. The Perronneau which she sold to Duveen, now in the National Gallery, was acquired by her husband, her cousin Reginald Henry Nevill (1807-1878), who "was very fond of pastels and bought at a time when they were not valued as they are now."
Lit.: Simon Houfe, "Cult of the curious. Lady Nevill's collection", Country life, CLXXXIII/16, 20.IV.1989, pp. 224-28; Lady Dorothy Nevill, "My collection", Connoisseur, II, 1902, pp. 151-57; Nevill 1907; Oxford DNB
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 13.VI.1913:
ANONYMOUS. Lot 64-67: five ladies;
Lot 68: After GREUZE, two girls [52 gns; Asher Wertheimer]
Lot 69: HOARE, Sir Edward Walpole [135 gns; Asher Wertheimer]
CARRIERA. Lot 70: Horace Walpole [380 gns; Asher Wertheimer]; Lot 71, Sir Robert Walpole [300 gns; Asher Wertheimer]; Lot 72: Admiral Galfridus Walpole [380 gns; Asher Wertheimer]

NEYMAN, Amsterdam. His sale included 1266 drawings. Apart from these, he owned another six Troost scenes which he acquired in the Johan van der Marck sale, 1773.
Paris, Basan, 8-11.VII.1776:
Lot 1064: H. van der Mijn, femme; Lot ?: Troost, 2 scènes

Henry Fiennes Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, 2nd Duke of NEWCASTLE (1720-1794): The collection of pictures at Clumber included pastels by Carriera, Hoare and Lion; they are now in Nottingham, University Art Gallery (q.v.).
Dictionary, genealogies, Clinton; Pelham
Lit.: Nottingham 1992

Grand Duke NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH (Romanov) (1859-1919), historian, cousin of Tsar Alexander III, Mikhailovsky Palace, Petrograd. His art collection was seized after his execution, and entered the Hermitage in 1923.
Pastels: J. P. Bardou, Galitzin; Geiger, Maximilian I.; Grassi, P. P. & E. A. Bakunin; German sch., Dame

Eric Heatley NOBLE (1886–1971), captain, Grenadier Guards, grandson of John Noble, who made his fortune in paints and varnishes. Noble lived at the family property Park Place, near Henley, until 1945; thereafter at Harpsden Court, Henley-on-Thames. He was co-heir of his uncle, Lieutenant-Colonel Leonard Noble (1859–1943), an "eclectic collector" who may previously have acquired the pastels in Eric's sale.
London, Christie's, 5.X.1945:
Lot 55: Cotes, [Mrs Cotes] [175 gns; Lumley]
Lot 68: La Tour, auto [300 gns; Turner]

Armand-Frédéric-Ernest NOGARET (1734-1806) enjoyed a royal pension of 13,500 livres thanks to the protection of Saint-Florentin to whom his father was secrétaire. He purchased the position of trésorier du comte d'Artois, and set about establishing an important collection, in which he was influenced by J.-B.-P. Le Brun, acquiring a number of Dutch pictures. He was disgraced by accusations by d'Artois's creditors in 1780, although exonerated by a criminal enquiry in 1783. His posthumous sale took place in Paris in 1807, but two earlier sales of 23.II.1778 and 18.III.1782 contained pastels by Boucher, Callet, Fragonard and Hall.
Lit.: M. P. Fromageot, Revue de l'histoire de Versailles, 1904

Pierre de NOLHAC (1859-1936), de l'Académie française, conservateur au château de Versailles 1887-1920, directeur du musée Jacquemart-André, 1920, author.

Wilbore Ellis Agar, 2nd Earl of NORMANTON (1778-1868), "a great connoisseur in works of art" according to GEC, bought a Gainsborough pastel, Pitt, at one of the Sir Thomas Lawrence sales.

M. de NORZY, agent de change, collectionneur.
Paris, 12-17.III.1860

Mme E. de NOUHES, château de la Cacaudière, Pouzauges: collector of old pastels (none listed).
Lit.: Renart 1908

Jean-Baptiste-François NOURRI (1697-c.1784), secrétaire du roi, conseiller au parlement de Paris, art collector. His posthumous sale included 168 paintings and 1037 lots of drawings (among them a Leonardo).
Lit.: Favre-Lejeune; Lise Bicart-Sée, "Some archival references for Jean-Baptiste-François Nourri", Master drawings, XLV/1, 2007
Paris, 1779:
Patel, neuf paysages
Vente p.m., Paris, 24.II.-14.III.1785:
Antoine Coypel, femme; some pastels

O

Livio ODESCALCHI, duca di Ceri e di Bracciano (1653-1713), collector.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Bert W. Meijer, The famous Italian drawings at the Teyler Museum in Haarlem, 1984
Inv. p.m., Rome, 1713:
1386 Un Ritrattino del defunto Sig.re Duca Don Livio in pastello con Cornicetta liscia nera
1491 Altro disegno incarta alta due palmi larga un palmo, e due terzi rappresenta la Testa di un Vecchio fatta a Pastello di Giacinto Brandi con Telaro attorno e vetro sopra
1492 Altro Pastello con disegno sopra carta incollata in tavola alta palmi due larga un palmo, e due terzi rappresenta la Testa di un Giovane in profilo del Mola originale con cornicetta tinta color di noce, e filetto nero con vetro rotto d'avanti
1493 Un disegno dell'istessa misura rappresenta la Testa di un Vecchio in Pastello di Giacinto Brandi originale con telaro attorno, e vetro sopra
1497 Un Pastello in carta alto un palmo, e mezzo largo un palmo rappresenta la Testa in curcio di un Giovane maniera del Rubens con cornicetta nera

Mme OGER, née Louise-Suzanne de Bréart ( -?1886/?1902), of 6 rue Laffitte, Paris, mistress of the 4th Marquess of Hertford (q.v.), who previously owned the Coypel pastel in her sale.
Paris, 14 place Malesherbes, 17-22.V.1886:
Lot 11: Coypel, L'Amour précepteur

Julius OEHME Galleries, New York (fl. 1908), handled pastels by Russell.

Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, conde-duque de OLIVARES (1629-1687), ambassador to Rome 1674-82 and Naples 1682-87, art collector. Most of the sheets described as pastels in his inventory are probably chalk drawings.
Dictionary, genealogy Guzmán
Inv., Rome, 7.IX.1682 - 1.I.1683; inv., Naples, 17.XI.1687 - 20.II.1688
Pastels: Correggio, testa; Leonardo, testa; Mola, 3 pstls; Reni, 2 pstls; Rosa, 4 pstls; Zuccaro, 2 pstls; Italian sch., testa

Dr Hugo OLTRAMARE (1887-1957), Geneva, member of the executive committee of the Croix-Rouge, grandson of Gustave Ador (1845-1928), president of the Croix-Rouge.
Pastels: Petitot, femme

Cardinale Luigi Alessandro OMODEI (1607-1685). Born in Milan, he studied in Parma and Perugia, and became a cardinal in 1652. His homonymous nephew also a cardinal, from 1690. An art collector, he was particularly known as a patron of Poussin.
Inv., Rome 2.V.1685
Pastels: Barocci

Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of ORFORD (1717-1797), writer and collector. Third son of Sir Robert Walpole, prime minister, he undertook a Grand Tour from 1737 to 1741 with the poet Thomas Gray. In Venice he sat to Rosalba Carriera In Florence he met Horace Mann, as on a later trip to France he met Mme du Deffand, and Walpole's correspondence with these and other friends is his lasting monument. His inheritance on his father's death allowed him to lead the life of a connoisseur, cataloguing Sir Robert's art collection and creating his own Gothic fantasy at Strawberry Hill. He finally inherited his father's title in 1791. His collection descended to Earl Waldgrave, and much of it sold in 1842 (two Hamiltons, of Mrs Damer and the Countess of Upper Ossory, do not appear in the 1842 sale). His interest in pastels is measured by the numerous examples he owned by Carriera, Hamilton and Liotard; he himself made copies (in watercolour) of pastels by Rosalba and Luti. The collection also included a number of anonymous family portraits in pastel.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Walpole 1784; Ketton-Cremer 1940; Adams & Lewis 1970; Mowl 1996; Brownell 2001; New Haven 2009
Eleventh day's sale - 6.V.1842 (pp. 113-23):
Lot 69: Mrs Tonelli: Portrait of two young ladies [?b/i; no price recorded]
Thirteenth day's sale - 9.V.1842 (pp. 132-39):
The collection of cabinet pictures and drawings
Lot 1. Rosalba: Lady Brown, crayons [1 gn]
Lot 21: Rosalba: Madame Suarez, a Florentine beauty, exquisitly drawn and finished [2 gns; Thorne]
Lot 43: Rosalba, Corregio's Magdalen, a beautiful drawing in crayons, from this extraordinary picture [£11/-/6; Sell]
Lot 46. A portrait of Sir Peter Lely, in crayons, by himself [2½ gns; Earl of Derby]
Eighteenth day's sale - 14.V.1842 (pp. 179-86):
The pictures, drawings, models &c. in the Green Closet
Lot 73: Joseph Harris, the comedian, in the character of Cardinal Wolsey [£5; Forster]
Hamilton: Lot 88: Lady Mary Bruce, Duchess of Richmond, crayons; Lot 89: Anne Chambers, Countess Temple, crayons [£1/4/- the pair; Forster]
Lot 98: Sir Jeffrey Barwell, grandfather of Sir Robert Walpole, and Mary his wife, daughter and coheiress of Thomas Derchaugh of Colton Hall, Suffolk [£2/10/-; Forster]
Lot 104: Earl and Countess of Stanhope, time of George I, a pair of drawings, in crayons [12/- the pair; Sheppard]
Lot 108: Sir John Shorter and his lady, pair, crayons; Lot 109: Sir Robert Walpole's father and mother, pair, crayons [15/- the pair; Forster]
Lot 147: Ditto [?ambiguous, ?Portrait or ?in oil] of Mary Lapelle, Lady Harvey, by Miss Reade [10s.; Richard Preston]
Twentieth day's sale - 17.V.1842 (pp. 195-206):
The interesting pictures of the Library, Holbein Chamber and Great North Bed Chamber
Lot 2: Sir Robert Walpole when a boy, crayons [£2; Dent]
Twenty-first day's sale - 18.V.1842 (pp. 207-18):
Pictures and portraits, in old carved frames
Rosalba [CARRIERA]
Lot 1: Six curious and interesting sketches, drawn at Venice, Portraits of the Earl of Lincoln, Horace Walpole, John Chute, Joseph Spence, Mr Chaloner and Mr Whitdsend [Whithed] [1½ gns; Cholmondeley]
Lot 3: A curious drawing, Group of Heads, sketch for the story of Diana and Calisto [5/-; Wheeler]
Lot 73: John Low [Law], the inventor of the Mississipi scheme, and Prime Minister to the regent, Philip, Duke of Orleans, crayons, glazed, considered one of the best pictures of this master [18 gns; Brown]
Lot 74 [73* in 2nd ed.]: Francis Seymour Conway, Earl of Hertford, in court costume, glazed [15 gns; Fuller]
Lot 86: Lady Sophia Fermor, as the Goddess Juno, crayons, eldest daughter of Thomas Earl of Pomfret, and second wife of John Earl of Granville, Prime Minister to George II [13 gns; ?Foster]
[added in 2nd ed.]: Liotard: Lot 74: Bashaw Bonneval, in crayons, and glazed [1½ gns; Luxmoore]; Lot 74*: Henry Fox, Lord Holland, in crayons, and glazed [4½ gns; Colnaghi]
Twenty-second day's sale - 19.V.1842 (pp. 219-28):
Pictures and drawings
Lot 8: Barwell Walpole, elder brother of Sir Robert [14/-; Money]
Lot 10: Horace Walpole, when a child, in a white frock, drawn about 1720, crayons coloured drawing [10/-; ?Bell]
Lot 52: Madame de Prie, with a Bird, crayons, a charming picture [?b/i; no price recorded]
Lot 56: Russell: Diana, a clever drawing in crayons [5 gns; Jeremy]
Lot 123: A portrait of Lady Anne Hamilton, wife of the Earl of Southesk
Lot 124: A ditto of Lady Elizabeth Butler, the above drawings are copies from sir Peter lely's portraits, by Farringdon

Philippe, duc d'ORLÉANS (1674-1723), regent during the minority of Louis XV, started his collection while duc de Chartres. He is said to have learned painting from Antoine Coypel, an artist whom employed to decorate the Palais-Royal which housed the Orléans collection and where Rosalba Carriera was welcomed on her trip to Paris in 1720-21. On Coypel's death in 1722 his son Charles was appointed premier peintre du duc d'Orléans. The next duc, Louis (1703-1752), supported Nattier, while his son Louis-Philippe (1725-1785) was particularly interested in architecture. His son Philippe-Égalité (1747-1793) succeeded to the title at a time of political and financial turmoil, and in 1790 he asked James Christie to purchase the Orléans paintings collection for 100,000 guineas. In the event the pictures passed through the hands of a Belgian banker, then to Laborde (q.v.) before being sold in a difficult market in London over the next decade. Many of the family portraits were left. Vatout's catalogue includes a number of pastels, listed below (PR refers to the Palais Royal).
Dictionary, genealogy, France
Lit.: Reitlinger 1961; Grove 1996
Jean Vatout, Catalogue historique et descriptif des tableaux appartenans à S.A.S. Mgr le duc d'Orléans, Paris, 1823-26, 4 vol.:
193. Marie-Victoire-Sophie de Noailles, comtesse de Toulouse
193 quater. La même, au pastel, 24 p. x 19 p.
215. Mlle de Clermont peint en 1823 par Sophie Allard d'après le pastel de Rosalba
215 bis. La même au pastel par la Rosalba, 20 p. x 16 p. (PR)
216. Mlle de Charolais
216 bis. La même au pastel par la Rosalba, 21 p. x 16 p. (PR)
218. La Rosalba peint en 1823 par M. Laby d'après le pastel peint par elle-même
178 [i.e.218] bis. La même au pastel par la Rosalba, 27 p. x 20 p. (PR)
226. Louis-Philippe duc d'Orléans, equestre, par Roslin, 112 p. x 88 p.
226 bis. Le même, Nattier
216 5°. Le même par Mme Lebrun
216 6°. Le même par Mme Lebrun
216 8°. Le même (au pastel), 21 p. x 17 p. (PR)
227. Louise-Henriette de Bourbon-Conty, duchesse d'Orléans, en Hébé, par Nattier
227 6°. La même au pastel, 17 p. x 14 p. (PR)
230. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
230 bis. La même peint par M. le comte Louis de Girardin, d'après La Tour, 11 p. x 8 p. (PR)
240. Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de Lamballe, par Mlle Victorine Lemoine
240 ter. La même, en peignoir, au pastel, 20 p. x 17 p. (PR)
251. Stéphanie-Félicité Ducrest, comtesse de Genlis, 37 p. x 30 p. (PR)
251 bis. La même, au pastel, 24 p. x 20 p. (PR)
258. Antoine-Philippe d'Orléans, duc de Montpensier
258 quater. Le même, pastel, peint à Newyork, en 1797 par M. Sharples, 9 p. x 8 p. (PR)
259. Louis-Charles d'Orléans, comte de Beaujolais
259 ter. Le même, ovale au pastel, 22 p. x 18 p. (PR)
259 5°. Le même, au pastel par M. Sharples New York 1797, 9 p. x 8 p. (PR)
260. [Eugénie-Adélaïde-Louise] Mlle d'Orléans
260 ter. La même au pastel, 21 p. x 17 p.
Inconnus:
22. Une femme en deshabillé, caressant un chat, (Pastel), 20 p. x 16 p. (PR)

Mme Émile OROSDI, née Ellen Esther Alice Helleu (1887-p.1935) was the daughter of the painter Paul-César Helleu (1859–1927). She married Émile Orosdi (1869-1930) in 1912; the wedding was attended by Proust and Robert de Montesquiou, as well as by her sister-in-law, Mme Léon Orosdi, née Marie Abeille Guillot; her husband Léon Orosdi ( –1922), rue Cimarosa, had a major collection of modern French pictures sold p.m. in Paris, Drouot, 25.V.1923 (v. Henri Lapauze, "La collection de Léon Orosdi", La Renaissance de l'art français, Paris, .V.1923). The Orosdi brothers were the sons of the Austro-Hungarian Adolf Orosdi, né Schneider, who emigrated to Constantinople; the family made its fortune in retailing (Galeries Lafayette) and perfume exporting, in partnership with Alexandre-Napoléon Bourjois and with Ernest Wertheimer. Ellen Orosdi inherited from her father a drawing by Watteau as well as the Perronneau, Tassin, which she lent to the Paris 1927 exhibition.

ORRY, comte de Vignory (1689-1747), ministre d'État, contrôleur général, directeur des Bâtiments du roi 1737-45. Financial pressures on the state's funds prevented Orry from spending liberally at the Bâtiments, but he was instrumental in establishing annual salons at the Académie royale. La Tour's pastel of him was shown in 1745. He also ensured that Lundberg was reçu despite the religious obstacle.
Lit.: Grove 1996

Orsay, v. Grimod

Principessa ORSINI [des Ursins], née Anne-Marie de la Trémoïlle-Noirmoutier (1641-1722). A number of unattributed pastels were in her estate inventory (Rome, 1723) and subsequent Orsini inventories (9.XII.1822).
Ortiz-Patiño, v. Patiño

Charles-Clément OULMONT (1883-1984), professeur à la Sorbonne, writer, musician and art historian, author of monograph on Heinsius, friend of the painter Eugène Carrière, a number of whose works he donated to the musée de Saint-Cloud in 1969. He lived at the château de Charmoy and at Saint-Cloud; many items from his collections at both properties were looted by the Nazis during the war, but subsequently recuperated. Charles was the nephew of Paul Oulmont (1849-1917), a medical doctor from Épinal based in Paris, and assisted him in creating the collection of French drawings donated to the musée d'Épinal in 1917.
Literature: Épinal 2007
Pastels (CO): Coypel, Lecouvreur; Ducreux, auto; Frédou, Foulon; La Tour, Mme Masse, préparation
Pastels (PO): Lenoir, Foulon; Vigée, du Boisbaudry

Richard OWEN, Paris art dealer, lent pastels by Oudry (paysage) and Boucher (Mme Favart) to Paris exhibitions in 1927 and 1929. He also owned a Rosalba femme, and a version of Fragonard's Adeline Colombe. His photographic archive is now at Harvard.
Lit.: French drawings of the 18th century from the collection of Richard Owen of Paris, Rhode Island School of Design, 20.I.-3.II.1933, exh.

Basil Heneage Dixwell OXENDEN (1874-1919), collector; his pictures were inherited by his sister, Lady Capel Cure (q.v.).
Lit.: Manners 1915
Pastels: Ashfield, Sir James & Lady Arabella Oxenden

Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of OXFORD (1689-1741), connoisseur, collector and patron.
Lit.: Adlam 2013
Pastels: Faithorne, Sturt; v.q. Welbeck

P

Gilbert PAIGNON DIJONVAL or d'Ijonval (1708-1792), secrétaire du roi, entrepreneur of the Sedan factory, bibliophile and art collector. His collection of some 4000 drawings, 11,000 engravings and numerous paintings, books, manuscripts etc. passed to his grandson Charles-Gilbert Morel de Vindé (1759-1842), who continued to add to parts of the collection while disposing of a number of the paintings for which he did not have space. He retained specimens of all methods of painting in a collection which passed to his grandson, Charles-Louis Terray, at the château de La Motte-Tilly.
Lit.: Bénard, Cabinet de M. Paignon-Dijonval, Catalogue, 1810:
D'après RAPHAEL, sans noms d'auteurs
193 [part]. Belle étude d'une tête de vieillard, vue de profil et penchée vers la droite: au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 9 po. sur 7 po.
Frédéric BAROCHE
219. La Vierge assise, tenant l'Enfant-Jésus: d. colorié au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 10 po. sur 7 po.
221 [part]. Une étude de tête de vieillard, vu de toirs quarts: au crayon oir et colorié d'un peu de pastel sur papier blanc; h. 4 po. sur 3 po.
223 [part]. Quatre études de têtes d'hommes et de femmes: color. au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 14 po. sur 12 po.
214 [part]. Huit feuilles d'études de pieds et de mains: coloriés au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 14 po. sur 10 po.
225. Trois études de têtes d'hommes: au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 11 po. sur 9 po.
ÉCOLE romaine, anonymes
355. Trois études de têtes de mendians; deux d'hommes, et une de femme: au pastel sur papier; h. 7 po. sur 6 po.
Dominique-Marie CANUTI (1623-1684)
628 [part]. Etude d'une tête de jeune homme, vue de trois quarts, coloriée au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 13 po. sur 9 po.
Sébastien RICCI
768 [part]. Etude d'une tête denfant: au crayon noir et coloriée de pastel sur papier bleu; h. 13 po. sur 9 po.
ÉCOLE vénitienne, anonyme, vers 1772
782. Etude d'une tête de femme: au pastel; h. 15 po. sur 10 po.
D'après Salvator par CHANTEREAU
901. Marche de Polonais à cheval; autre marche de troupes armées de cuirasses et de casques: ces deux croquis sont aux crayons noir et blanc, coloriés de pastel sur papier gris. l. 16 po. sur 9 po.
Bernard VAILLANT
1594. Une tête de femme vue de trois quarts; elle est coiffée en cheveux avec un rang de perles; colorié au pastel sur papier gris; h. 6 po. sur 5 po.
D'après Vander Meulen, par CHAUFOURIER
1624. Effet d'une mine au moment de l'explosion: d. au pastel sur papier bleu; h. 17 po. sur 11 po.
G. SAUNDERS, né en Hollande vers 1702
2377. Une tête de Chérubin: d. au pastel en 1748; h. 12 po. sur 7 po.
Claude MELLAN
2629 [part]. Tête d'un homme replet, vu de trois quarts et portant des moustaches; coloriée au pastel; h. 8 po. l. 6 po.
LAGNEAU
2677. Six portrait d'hommes…: d. aux crayons rouge et noir colories de pastel sur papier blanc; h. 12 po. sur 8 po.
Pierre MIGNARD
2680 [part]. Cinq dessins; études de têtes d'hommes, de femmes et d'enfans: aux crayons rouge et noir coloriés de pastel; h. 11 po. l. 8 po.
Charles LE BRUN
2710. Son portrait, encore jeune, fait par lui-même, il est de trois quarts: d. de forme ovale aux crayons rouge et noir colorié de pastels; h. 10 po. l. 9 po.
2745. Deux études de têtes au pastel l'une de soldat; l'autre de jeune homme; h. 15 po. l. 10 po.
Noël COYPEL
2800. Deux têtes au pastel sur papier gris; un jeune religieux, vu de trois quarts, et un enfant; l. 7 po. sur 7 po.
Robert NANTEUIL
2805. Buste de l'abbé de Coislin, vu de trois quarts: d. au pastel sur papier; h. 12 po. sur 9 po.
2812. Trois bustes d'hommes inconnus: d. aux crayons noir et blancs, les têtes terminées au pastel fixé; h. 7 po. sur 5 po.
Nicolas DUMOUTIERS
2825. Six portraits, bustes d'hommes inonnus: dessinés au crayon et colorié d'un peu de pastel; l. 9 po. sur 8 po.
Antoine COYPEL
3060. Quinze dessins: études de têtes d'hommes, de femmes et d'enfans, etc. tant aux crayons qu'au pastel; h. 10 po. sur 8 po.
Nicolas VLEUGHELS
3087. Venus servie par les Graces: d. agréable colorié de pastel; i. 10 po. sur 7 po.
Nicolas de LARGILLIÈRE
3030. Le Prevôt des marchands et les Echevins de Paris complimentant le Dauphin: esquisse au pastel d'un grand tableau peint par largillière pour la ville de Paris; l. 16 po. sur 11 po.
François le MOINE
3254. Sept d. études de têtes d'hommes, de femmes et d'un enfant: aux crayons rouge, noir et blanc coloriés de pastel sur papier de couleur; h. 11 po. sur 8 po.
Charles-François NATOIRE
3337. St Jean-Baptiste enfant assis à terre, tenant d'une main sa croix, et de l'autre une couronne de fleurs; son mouton est à ses pieds: d. au pastel; l. 12 po. sur 9 po.
3354. Vingt-un dessins…deux des t^etes sont au pastel; h. 10 po. sur 6 po.
François BOUCHER
3379. Vénus sur les nuages, tenant un collier de perles; Vénus attachant sa chaussure: deux dessins aux crayons noir, rouge et blanc coloriés de pastel sur papier gris; l. 13 po. sur 9 po.
3382 {part]. Une bergère assise et tenant un bouclier, au milieu duquel est un coeur percé d'une flèche: d. au pastel; l. 18 po. sur 15 po.
3383. Deux bustes, l'un d'une femme endormie, et l'autre d'une femme tenant une rose: d. au pastel; l.18 po, sur 15 po.
3389. Une jeune marchande de fleurs offrant des bouquets: joli dessin aux crayons noir et rouge colorié de pastel sur papier blac, en 1753; h. 11 po. sur 8 po.
3411. Trois d. digures académiques de femmes: d. aux crayons rouge, noir et blanc sur papier gris, deux sont coloriés de pastel; h. 14. po. sur 9 po.
3413. Neuf d. têtes de femmes et d'enfans: aux crayons r9ouge, noir et blanc coloriés de pastel sur divers pap. h. 12 po. sur 10 po.
3415. Cinq jolis d. de têtes de femmes: faits aux crayons rouge, noir et blanc, coloriés de pastel sur des papiers de différentes teintes; h. 9 po. sur 6 po.
Jean-Baptiste NATTIER, né à Paris en 1712, étoit fils de Jean-Marc Nattier
3482. Buste de femme vue de face et coiffée à la turque: d. au pastel; h. 7 po. sur 5 po.
Jean-Baptiste-Marie PIERRE
3540. Dix têtes de vieillards, femmes et enfants, dessinées au pastel, h. 11 po. sur 8 po.
J.-B.-H. DESHAYS (1729-1765)
3604. Un buste de femme vu de profil et couronné de fleurs: aux crayons noir et blanc colorié d'un peu de pastel sur papier bleu; h. 12 po. sur 9 po.
SAINT-QUENTIN, dessinateur vers 1775
3891 [part]. L'Amour couché à terre et tenant une colombe; son carquois est près de lui: d. aux crayons noir et blanc colorié de pastel; l. 11 po. sur 7 po.
Mme de VILLEBRUNE
4019. Six d. bustes de femmes: au pastel; l. 5 po. sur 5 po.
Dessins de différens genres
4095 [part]. Quatre autres dessins de fleurs coloriés au pastel, par CHAUFOURIER, in-folio.
Vente p.m., Paris, Bonnefonds, 17.XII.1821 & seq.: no pastels

Alexandre-Joseph PAILLET (1743-1814), renowned expert, auctioneer and collector. Numerous pastels passed through his hands in the fourth quarter of the 18th century. He was the expert on the La Tour sale, and three pastels were subsequently donated to Saint-Quentin by Alphonse Mennechet de Barival (q.v.) who married Paillet's granddaughter.

Mme de PAIMPART.
Paris, Drouot, 18.III.1908:
Lot 1: Allais, inconnue 1752

Edward Grosvenor PAINE (1911-c.1989), based in London, 106 East 60th Street, New York, and Jackson Square, New Orleans. Trained as a milliner, he became a dealer and collector of portrait miniatures. He disappeared under mysterious circumstances. He owned a pastel by Sharples (Summers).
London, Christie's, 15.X.1996

Jacques-Augustin-Catherine PAJOU (1766-1828), painter, son of the sculptor.
Vente p.m., Paris, 12.I.1829:
Lot 104: La Tour, 4 dessins

Carl Ulrik PALM (1864-1954), collector, dealer and proprietor of Bukowskis auction hosue, Stockholm, 1900-54.
Pastels: Allais, inconnue; Frey, Marie Leszczynska; Hall, Mme Cronstedt; Lundberg, Berch; inconnue; Roslin, Hedvig; mme Roslin, Peill; Vivien, La Bruyère.

Félix PANHARD (1842-1891): collector of miniatures, including some copied after Vigée Le Brun and Boze pastels.
Paris, Galliera, 5.XII.1975

Henry PANNIER (1853-1935), Paris. With his brothers Georges (1853-1944) and Gaston (the sons of Émile-Augustin Pannier (1828-1892), in turn the son of a marchand faïencier, Augustin-Benjamin Pannier (1800-1859)), Pannier owned L'Escalier de Cristal, a decorative arts workshop that made objects in metal and glass under the influence of Sino-Japanese and Art Nouveau design. He was also interested in art history, contributing a catalogue of Fragonard works at auction to Nolhac's monograph. He owned four pastels formerly in the Favart family, some via Mme Lambotte.
Lit.: Lemoisne 1918; Céline Lefranc, "À l'Escalier de cristal", Connaissance des arts, 638, 2006, pp. 94-99
Pastels: Mme Favart, Favart, père; La Tour, Saxe; Liotard, Favart

Abate Giuseppe PAOLUCCI (1661-1730), author, from Spello. His inventory (Rome, 8.III.1695) included four "pastels" by Mola.

Denis-Pierre-Jean PAPILLON DE LA FERTÉ (1727-1794). As intendant des Menus-Plaisirs from 1756 he was responsible for commissioning a number of pastels. He was also an amateur draughtsman and collector.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Grove 1996
Paris, Le Brun, 20.II.1793

Henri PARGUEZ, architect and historian, author of several monographs on Poissy; lent a pastel by Regnault (homme) to the Paris 1927a exhibtion.

Philippe-Louis PARIZEAU (1740-1801), pinter and engraver, pupil of Wille. A pastel by J.-B. Van Loo was in his sale, Paris, 26.III.1789 & seq.

Louis PASQUIER ( -1755), négociant à Rouen, député du commerce de Rouen à Paris, collector. He was himself the subject of a pastel by Lenoir, with a pendant of his wife, née Antoinette Mangelschot.
Vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 10.III.1755 & seq.:
Lot 5: [Rosalba Carriera], Deux Tableaux, peints en pastel, par Mlle Rosalba, de 24 pouces de haut sur 18 de large. Ils sont traités allégoriquement; l'un représente la Paix, & l'autre la Justice, composés chacun de 2 Figures, vues à demi corps. Ils viennent du Cabinet de feu M. le Cardinal de Polignac, qui les apporta de Rome. Ils peuvent être regardés sans contredit, comme des chef-d'oeuvres de cette habile Artiste. Ils sont sous glace, 24 pouces de haut sur 18 de large [2416 livres; Godefroy, pour le duc de Tallard]

Giuseppe PASSALACQUA (1797-1865), Italian horse dealer turned egyptologist. He sold his collection to the King of Prussia in 1828 and became director of the Berlin museum that housed it. A sale in Paris, rue des Jeuneurs, Ridel, Laneuville, 18-19.III.1853, included a Boucher pastel femme (Lot 107).

Mme Anne-Marie PASSEZ, author of monographs on Mme Labille-Guiard and Vestier.
La Flèche, Hôtel des ventes, Manson, 22.IV.2001:
Lot 131: Capet, homme
Tours, Odent, 25.VI.2001:
Lot 44: Hoin, Mme Hoin

Antenor PATIÑO (1896-1962), Bolivian diplomat and industrialist, heir to the tin magnate Simón Patiño, and art collector. He was married to the duquesa de Dúrcal, and their daughters married the prince de Beauvau-Craon and Sir James Goldsmith. Patiño acquired La Tour's Mme Rouillé from his compatriot Granier-Ballivián c.1927. By 1930 he had bought Nattier's pastels of M. & Mme Royer from Gimpel. His nephew, Jaime Ortiz-Patiño (1930-2013), of Vandœuvres, near Geneva, sold Mme Royer in New York, Sotheby's, 22.V.1992.Important sales of rare books and silver followed in 1998.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Connoisseur, CCXIX, 1989, pp. 146ff

Paul-Émile-Marius PAULME (1863-1928), one of the most influential experts in French eighteenth century drawings. He formed the largest single collection of drawings by J.-A.-M. Lemoine, having "une particulière prédilection" for this artist. Gimpel commented dismissively of the "prix énormes pour ces petites cochonneries" in the 1923 sale. His main sale, in 1929, included a small number of pastels, one of which (Perronneau, d'Aubais) is visible on the wall in his study (10, rue Chauchat) in a contemporary photograph. The reviewer in L'Art vivant (1929, p. 458) considered that the collection epitomised "l'apothéose du goût et de la perspicacité". A further sale took place in 1949 after the death of his widow, née Léontine-Marie-Marguerite Barjot (1869-1948).
Lit.: Lugt 1910, 1910S; Le Gaulois Artistique, 28.V.1929, p. 310; Gimpel 1963; Donateurs 1989
Paris, 23.XI.1923
Paris, Georges Petit, F. Lair Dubreil, 13-15.V.1929:
La Tour, Lot 119: auto; Lot 120: Rousseau; Lot 121: jeune femme; Lot 195: Perronneau, d'Aubais; Rosalba Carriera, Lot 225-226, L'Hiver; & L'Automne; Lot 227: jeune femme
Vente succession, Paris, Drouot, Ader, 23-24.III.1949

PAWSEY & PAYNE, of 90 Jermyn Street, London, art dealers active in the first half of the 20th century, supplying clients such as James Thursby-Pelham (q.v.).

Abate Antonio PAZZI (1706-p.1780), Florentine engraver and collector of portraits.
Dictionary, artists

William PEACOCK (1721–1786) of Godmanchester, near Huntingdon; his estate sale, by J. Fox, 11.iv.1786, included "Paintings and Crayons, in carv'd and gilt Frames" according to an advertisement in the Northampton Mercury, 1.iv.1786.

Ricardo PENARD Y FERNANDEZ (1882-1960), collector, born in Buenos Aires, of 21 rue Cognacq-Jay, allied to Pierre Verlet.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Isaac PEREIRE (1806-1880) and his brother Émile (1800-1875), of 33 rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré, were important bankers, financing the early development of the French railway system and founding the Compagnie des Paquebots transatlantiques. A sale took place (Paris, 6-9.III.1872) of works belonging to the brothers as Galerie Pereire. Isaac, Émile's son Henry (1841-1932) and grandson André (1891-1987) were all donors to the Louvre of old master paintings, drawings, antiquities and objets d'art. A version of La Tour's pastel of Duval was acquired by one of the Pereires at the Beurnonville sale in 1881, as of Buffon; they also owned a préparation for the Duval pastel.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Pastels: La Tour, Duval (2)

Daniel PERREAU (1733–1776), with his twin brother Robert, was executed for forgery, after a sensational legal case; his common-law wife Margaret Rudd was acquitted. At the estate sale of "the unfortunate Daniel Perreau", at his house in Harley Street (15.i.1776), "a picture in crayons of Madam Barré sold for only four guineas and an half" according to press reports followed in the Hampshire chronicle, 22.i.1776.

Johann Anton de PETERS (1725-1795), peintre en miniature, pastellist. Several pastels appearin in his 1779 sale in Paris. A group of anonymous pastels appeared in his sale in Paris, Le Brun, 9.XI.1787.
Dictionary, artist
Paris, Augustins, Remy, Basan, 9.III.1779 & seq.
Tableaux en Pastel.
François Boucher.
Lot 110. Deux têtes en pendant; l'une représente une femme, vue de face demi-raccourci. On la nomme la Thérèse; l'autre couchée & endormie sur un oreiller; 1 p. de h. sur 9 po. de l. [15 l. 11; Meunier]
Lot 111. Un jeune enfant tenant dans sa main gauche une grappe de raisin blanc, dont il prend un grain de la droite; h. 1 p. 2 po., l. 11 po.: ce morceau bient de la collection de M. le Baron de Thuire. [5 livres 10; Remy]
Le chevalier Meins [Mengs].
Lot 112. Une jeune Grecque ayant une couronne de fleurs sur sa tête; elle tient dans sa main gauche un chalumeau, au bout duquel il y a une boule de savon; ce tableau fidélement copié par Mademoiselle Devillebrunne, porte 1 p. 2 po. 6 l. de h., sur 11 po. 6 l. de large [120 livres; Langlier]
Tableau en demi-pastel.
Le chevalier J. B. M. Pierre.
Lot 113. Deux têtes de vieillards; l'une vue de face regardant à droite; l'autre de profil regardant en bas: elles portent chacune 1 p. 9 po. de h., sur 1 p. 1 po. de large [24 livres ou 199 livres 10; le peintre]

Herman PETERSEN af Petersens (1713-1765), grosshandlare i Stockholm, direktör vid Ostindiska Kompaniet, brother-in-law of Frederik Bedoire. He owned a pastel (possibly Lundberg's portrait of him) exposed to Fischer's method of fixing for a trial over 15 years.
Lit.: Fischer 1770

The comtesse de PÉTHION, a Russian singer in Paris who performed under the stage name Mme Nirwana, collected drawings. She bought two dozen sheets at the Goncourt sale, including two Van Loo drawings with pastel.
Paris, Lair-Dubreuil, 14-17.V.1902:
Lot 22 bis: Van Loo fillettes

Galerie Georges PETIT, Paris. Established as a picture dealer in 1846 by François Petit ( -1877), it was taken over by his son Georges ( -1920) in 1877. Its spacious premises were at 8, rue de Sèze, and numerous presitigious auctions were held there in preference to the Hôtel Drouot. After Petit's death, the business was continued (by Étienne Bignou and Gaston and Josse Bernheim-Jeune) until it finally closed in 1933.

Louis PETIT DE BACHAUMONT (1690-1771), writer and critic, with a particular interest in art. He was Crozat's executor, a friend of Charles Coypel and a supporter of Boucher, and his views on the administration of the arts were regularly submitted to the surintendants des Bâtiments and others. His lasting monument is the series of Mémoires secrets which were continued by several other writers after his death. In his salon critiques he showed a decided preference for La Tour, who had exhibited his portrait, over Perronneau. In 1748 he expressed concern over the longevity of pastels, and recommended they be fixed using La Tour's secret method.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 305ff; Grove 1996; Burns 2007

Charles PETIT DE MEURVILLE (1841-1927), lawyer, of 31 allées Damour, later 4 rue Montesquieu, Bordeaux, collector of pictures, sculpture, objets d'art etc. He organised the Bordeaux 1895 retrospective exhibition of Les Arts anciens et modernes. Parts of his collections (which included pictures, ceramics, bronzes, tapestries, furniture and dolls) were presented to the musée des Beaux-Arts and the musée du vieux Bordeaux. His 1904 sale of pictures contained an unusually large number of pastels. He also collected drawings by Boucher, Gainsborough and Reynolds at a time when these were not highly sought after.
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, 26-28.V.1904:
Lot 15: Anon., femme [Fr150]; Lot 24: Labille Guiard [Hall], Mme Roland de Villarceaux; Lot 24 bis: Mlle Roland de Villarceaux, fille de la précédente; Lot 30 bis: La Tour, école, homme; Lot 30 ter: femme; Lot 36: Mlle Loir, femme; Lot 37, femme; Lot 44: Perronneau,: Camiran; Lot 45, jeune femme [?marquise d'Anglure]; Lot 46: Pillement, paysages, 2 pendants; Lot 47: Pougin de Saint-Aubin, femme en savoyarde; Lot 48: Roslin, attr., homme; Lot 49: Roslin, école: femme; Lot 58: Vestier, Lamour et sa femme; Lot 59: Mme Vigée Le Brun, école, femme; Lot 60: Vigée, homme; Lot 61: Anon., peintures ou pastels non catalogués

Jacques PETITHORY (1929-1992), collector-dealer with a particular interest in XVIIe and XVIIIe drawings, paintings, sculpture and ceramics. He bequeathed his collections, including an important collection of drawings by Greuze, Watteau, Boucher and Van Loo, to the musée Bonnat in his native town.
Paris 1997c
Pastels: Luti, tête de femme

Louis-François PETIT-RADEL (1740-1818), landscape and architectural painter, pupil of De Wailly; inspecteur général des musées nationaux.
Paris, Petitcuénot, Dubois, 8 February 1819 & seq.:
Lot 101: Greuze, attr., Une tête de jeune fille, peinte au pastel. Hauteur, 38 centimètres

Paula Fentriss PEYRAUD (1947-2008), of Chappaqua, New York, collector specialising in books and pictures relating to English Georgian writers, in particular the Burney family, Jane Austen, Mrs Thrale, Maria Edgeworth, Hannah More, Johnson, Garrick, Thrale and Burney.
New York, Bloomsbury, 6.V.2009:
Lot 7: Beauclerk, boy; Lot 18: Cotes, Mrs Burges

Sir Thomas PHILIPPS, Bt (1792-1872), antiquary and bibliophile, of Thirlestane House, Cheltenham; trustee of the British Museum. Some of his collection passed to his grandson, Thomas Fizroy Fenwick (q.v.).
Pastels: Luttrell, man 1694

Le baron Jérôme PICHON (1812-1896), président de la Société des bibliophiles français.
Paris, 29.III.-10.IV.1897:
Lot 47: La Tour, Mme de Pomadour; Lot 1405: Ducreux, Louis XVII

Pierre-Amédée PICHOT (1841-1921), bibliophile arlésien, owned a a Tour femme, subsequently acquired by Pol Neveu.

M. PIGACHE, négociant, marchand de vin en gros, collector in particular of natural history. The catalogue of his collection was illustrated by Saint-Aubin. A portrait of a Mme Pigache by Glain descended to the writer Lucie Coueffin from Bayeux.
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 21.X.1776 & seq.:
BOUCHER
Lot 432: Vénus couchée; elle est nue, vue de face & tient une colombe: dessin au pastel, 14 p. x 19 p. [69 livres]
Lot 435: Un joli buste de femme, vu de face, au pastel, 11 p. x 9 p.
Lot 436: Un groupe de deux enfans volans, au pastel, 14 p. x 11 p. [12 livres 16 sols]
Lot 473: Deux jolies têtes de femmes, de profil; elles sont au pastel & sont pendans, 8 p. x 5 p. 6 [38 livres 10 sols]
Lot 476: Un groupe de trois amours volans, l'un d'eux tient une guirlande de laurier & une fleche; à la pierre noire mêlé de pastel, 11 p. 6 x 8 p. 6 [36 livres 4 sols]
CHANTREAU
Lot 482: Quatre différentes compositions & études, à la pierre noire & au pastel [3 livres 1 sol]

Armand-Edmond PIGALLE (1844-1921), préfet honoraire d'Alger, légion d'honneur. He lent pastels of Baron Martin's parents by Prud'hon to the Paris 1908a exhibition. A third Prud'hon pastel was bequeathed to the musée Baron Martin in 1921. His mother was a Martin.

Jean-Baptiste PIGALLE (1714-1785), sculptor and collector.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Inv. p.m., AN lvii, 574, 29.VIII.1785

Isidore PILS (1813-1875), peintre.
Paris, Boussaton, 20.III.-1.IV.1876:
Lot 1058: La Tour, Pompadour

Dominique PINEAU (1718-1786), de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, decorator and maître-sculpteur. Pastels by Mérelle of members of this family, and by Nattier of Dominque's daughter, Mme Moreau le jeune, indicate a predilection for the medium.
Lit.: Emile Biais, ed., Les Pineau, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs des Batiments du Roy, Graveurs, Architectes (1652-1886), Paris, 1892
Paris, Sauvgrain, 28.III.1786

Cardinale Carlo PIO DI SAVOIA (1622-1689), a member of a Roman family which formed one of the great private art collections in the 17th century. Apart from 126 old master paintings which remained in Rome and are now in the Capitoline Museum, Prince Gilberto moved most of the collection to Madrid in the middle of the 18th century. A few pictures and a large collection of furniture and objets were disposed of from the estate of Princess Pio De Savoia in a series of sales in London c.2000.
Inv. Rome, 1.III.1689
Pastels: Barocci
London, Sotheby's, 5.VII.2000:
Lot 250 Folower of Carriera, lady; Lot 251: Italian sch., Maria Teresa; Lot 252: Bigatti, 2 pstls

Jacques PINGAT ( -1751), peintre de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, and art dealer in Paris. He was associated with Gersaint, and employed Pierre Rémy, the leading expert of the next generation. His stock was inventoried after the death of his wife, Catherine de Mortain, in 1733, and again after his own, 2.IV.1751; his heir was his brother, Michel Pingat. The 1751 inventory contained "son portrait au pastel" and "un autre portrait du même".
Lit.: Glorieux 2002; Guiffrey 1915; Marandet 2003

Eugène PIOT (1812-1890), art historian, archaeologist and collector with wide ranging interests. Of greatest interest is his acquisition in Venice in 1852 of works from the workshop of Rosalba Carriera; the collection was sold at auction in Paris, Drouot, 31.iii.1856, in 58 lots. The first group of 43 lots are described as pastel (there are separate groups for miniatures and drawings), and while it is impossible to form a proper assessment of so many works which have subsequently disappeared, it would appear that there are numerous repetitions of works such as the Ragazza tirolese. Some of these may have been bought in, as they probably reappeared in a posthumous sale, 21-24.V.1890. That sale included one further Rosalba, self-portrait, acquired in Venice in 1865.
Lit.: Bonaffé 1890, pp. 26, 35, 53, 54
Paris, Drouot, Pillet & Laneuville, 31.iii.1856
Pastels de Rosalba Carriera:
1. Portrait de l'artiste.
2. Portrait de Frédéric-Auguste, électeur de Saxe.
3. Portrait de la comtesse Labbia, vénitienne célèbre par sa beauté.
4. Portrait de femme.
5. id. id.
6. id. id.
7. id. id.
8. La Gloire. Jeune femme tenant une couronne de lauriers.
9. L'Abondance. Jeune femme portant des fruits.
Ces deux pastels font pendants.
10. Tête de femme couronnée de lauriers.
11. id. id.
12. id. id.
13. id. id.
Ces quatres têtes forment pendants.
14. Jeune fille tenant une pêche.
15. Tête de femme. Portrait.
16. id. id.
17. id. id.
18. Tête de jeune villageoise.
19. Tête d'homme. Portrait.
20. La Vierge et saint Joseph. Deux pastels.
21. Salvator mundi.
22. L'Amour. Étude d'après Corrége.
23. La Laure de Pétrarque, d'après le Giorgion.
24. Diane.
25. Le Baiser. Étude.
26. Tête de femme, Etude vigoureuse.
27. Un Amour. Fragment de composition.
28. Petit portrait de femme.
29. Id.
30. Id.
31. Petit portrait d'homme.
32. Petite esquisse. La Vierge.
33. Id. Jeune fille, costume de la Suisse saxonne.
34. Id. id.
35. Id. id.
36. Id. id.
37. Id. id.
38. Id. Femme, costume de bal masqué.
39. Petite esquisse. Homme, costume de bal masqué.
40. Id. Femme. Tête de fantaisie.
41. Id. id.
42. Id. id.
43. Id. id.
Paris, Pillet, 25-30.IV.1864:
La contessa Labia
Paris, Drouot salles 8 & 9, Chevalier, 21-24.V.1890:
Lot 594: Cupidon
Lot 595: auto
Lot 596: tête de femme
Lot 597: Bordoni

General Augustus Henry Lane Fox-PITT-RIVERS, né Lane Fox (1827–1900), soldier, archaeologist, ethnologist and collector, changed his name when he succeeded to his great-uncle's estate in 1880. His grandson, George Henry Lane Fox-Pitt-Rivers (1890–1966), of Hinton St Mary, Dorset, captain, Royal Dragoons, sold several pastels following his father's death, at Christie's, 1929. They included a Cotes lady and a Perronneau, inconnu 1772

Camille PLANTEVIGNES (?1858-1955), a wealthy tie-maker; collector, particularly of silver; he also owned drawings by Saint-Aubin and Carle Van Loo. Proust challenged him to a duel over some remarks made by his son Marcel Plantevignes.
Pastels: La Tour, Dumont le romain

Cornelis PLOOS VAN AMSTEL (1726-1798), collector, son-in-law of Cornelis Troost; each made pastel portraits of the other.
Dictionary, artists; genealogy
Vente p.m., Amsterdam, van der Schley, 3.III.1800 & seq., De Wit, Tête de Christ [Dƒ140]
Other pastels: Lely, chancellor

Jean-Baptiste POISMENU ou Poixmenu ( -1784), a picture dealer in Paris, rue Saint-André-des-Arts, active from c.1770. His brother Abel-François was a marchande-mercier in the Palais-Royal. His posthumous inventory reveals a large number (4691) of low-value pictures, consistent with the anootation of "brocanteur" in several sale catalogues from 1779 on. Two pastels attributed to La Tour and one by an unknown Mme Volette appeared in these sales.
Lit.: Michel 2007

Mathias POLAKOVITS (1921-1987), connoisseur and collector. More than 3000 French drawings from his collection were donated to the École nationale superieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris.
Lit.: Princeton 1977; Paris 1989a
Pastels: Vigée Le Brun, étude pour La Paix

Christiane de POLÈS ( -1936), of 39, avenue d'Iéna, Paris. In addition to the pictures and a number of exceptional pieces of XVIIIe furniture sold in her 1927 sale, that year Mme de Polès sold a Velasquez to Wildenstein; it is now in the NGA, Washington. She owned paintings by Labille-Guiard and Vigée Le Brun, drawings by Hoin etc.
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 22-24.VI.1927:
Lot 7: Coypel, auto
Vente succession, Paris, Galerie Charpentier, 17-18.XI.1936

La princesse Edmond de POLIGNAC, née Winnaretta Singer (1865-1943), heiress to the Singer sewing machine fortune, amateur artist and early enthusiast for Manet. She married first prince Louis de Scey-Montbéliard and then, in 1893, entered into a "marriage blanc" with prince Edmond de Polignac (1834-1901), companion of comte Robert de Montesquiou and an amateur composer. Their salon at 3 rue Cortambert, Paris was particularly important musically, with new works performed by composers from Fauré to Poulenc; it is now the seat of the Fondation Singer-Polignac. Edmond's nephew comte Jean de Polignac (1888-1943), owner of a La Tour autopotrait, married the daughter of the dress designer Jeanne Lanvin; they too were actively interested in music and art, supporting Poulenc in particular. A sale of Souvenirs de Mme Lanvin et de sa fille, la comtesse Jean de Poulignac (Paris, 8.XII.2008) included a number of anonymous pastels. Thérèse, princesse de Polignac (1916- ) married Pedro de Barros in 1948; she owned a Vigée Le Brun pastel (duchesse de Guiche). The Vigée Le Brun pastels of the two Polignac children were also in the family until 2004.
Lit.: M. de Coosart, "Princesse Edmond de Polignac, patron and artist", Apollo, .VIII.1975, pp. 133-35; Donateurs 1989; Sylvia Kahan, Music's modern muse: a life of Winnaretta Singer, Princesse de Polignac, Rochester, 2003; Saint-Marceaux 2007
v.q. Fellowes

Frederick POLLARD ( –1916), dealer; he purchased pastels by J. H. Benwell, Hamilton adn Russell at aucion. The posthumous sale of his stock took place at Christie's, 27.xi.1916.

L'abbé François-Emmanuel POMMYER (1713-1784), honoraire amateur de l'Académie royale de peinture, collector of paintings by Chardin, friend of La Tour and Cochin. A number of family portraits by Largillierre descended via Charles Theurier-Pommyer (1800-1876) to the Jacquier de Rosée family before appearing at auction in London, Christie's, 10.XII.1993.
Dictionary, genealogy; essay
Lit.: Jeffares 2001
Pastels: La Tour, Marie Fel; Pommyer; Nattier, Maupeou

La marquise de POMPADOUR, née Jeanne-Antoinette (1721-1764). She became mistress of Louis XV in 1745, and played a central role in the arts for the rest of her life. Her protector Le Normant de Tournehem (she was married to his nephew) was appointed directeur général des bâtiments in 1745, and her brother, the marquis de Marigny, succeeded him in 1751. She was an amateur engraver, an activity alluded to in La Tour's monumental portrait of her in the Louvre. In view of her enlightened interest, it is perhaps surprising that there were few pastels in her own collection.
Dictionary, genealogy France; Lenormant; Poisson
Lit.: Émile Campardon, Madame de Pomadour et la cour de Louis XV, 1867; Versailles 2002
Inv. p.m. (AN MC LVI 113-4, 26.VII.1764), ed. Jean Cordey, Paris, 1939
Paris, Remy, 28.IV.1766:
Lot 56: Coypel, Un Repos en Égypte, peint en pastel par Charles Coypel. Il est sous glace et porte 22 pouces de haut sur 27 de large.

POPE
Vente p.m., Paris, Le Brun, 30.I.1792

Sir John Wyndham POPE-HENNESSY (1913-1994), Italian rennaissance scholar, director of the V&A 1967-73, British Museum 1974-76, curator at the MMA, New York.
London, Christie's, 7.VII.1998, Lot 85: Vanni, Crogi

Albert PORCHER (1834-1895), painter from Orléans. He owned four Perronneaus (M. & Mme Chevotet; M. & Mme Demadières) which he lent to the Orléans 1876 exhibition.

Henri (Heinrich) PORGÈS (1828-1901), 16, rue François Ier, Paris, born in Vienna, where he established the Banque Porgès et Ephrussi. He moved to Paris. His sister Emilie (1836-1900) married Ignaz von Ephrussi (1829-1899). His brother Jules (1839-1921), a diamond magnate (his business became the De Beers Company), was also an art collector. Edmond Porgès (1878-1941) was the heir of ; his wife was Marie-Mathilde "Macha" Brodsky (1888-1978). Their hôtel particulier at 11 ave. de Friedland contained an important art collection which was confiscated by the ERR in 1942; it included a La Tour, vieil homme, and a Vigée Le Brun pastel jeune femme.
Paris, 9.V.1885:
Lot 72: La Tour attr., inconnue

Baron Roger PORTALIS (1841-1912), art historian, author of numerous monographs on French XVIIIe artists (Fragonard, Hoin, Labille-Guiard) and co-author with Henri Béraldi (q.v.) of Les Graveurs du xviiie siècle.
Lit.: Lugt 2232; Paul Eudel, L'Hôtel Drouotet la curiosité en 1886-1887", pp. 109ff
Paris, Chevallier, 14.III.1887:
Lot 43: Boucher, Vénus [Fr2000]
Lot 133: La Tour, inconnue
Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dureuil, 2-3.II.1911:
Lot ?: Hoin, homme; Lot 121: Hoin, femme
Other pastels: Ducreux, auto; Greuze, jeune fille

William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of PORTLAND (1709-1762) married Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley (1715-1785), one of the most avid collectors of both fine art and natural history. Her posthumous sale (London, Skinner, 24.IV.-8.VI.1786) lasted 38 days, and included the Portland Vase now in the British Museum. The remaining collections, exhibited at the Harley Gallery at Welbeck, are particularly rich in portrait miniatures. The Bentinck family commissioned pastels from artists from Pond to Perronneau.
Dictionary, genealogy, Bentinck
Lit.: Goulding 1936
Pastels: v. Collections, s.v. Welbeck

Claude POTIER, lawyer, wealthy collector of pictures, drawings and prints; ∞ 1701 Marie Moreau ( -1751x55).
Lit.: Marandet 2003
Vente p.m.: Paris, Helle & Glomy, 28.II.-15.III.1757:
Lot 55 [part]: Quatre Desseins Vénitiens; savoir un bain de Diane du Tintoret, d'une belle composition & d'une touche legere: un portrait au pastel du Padouan; une feuille d'Etudes parfaitement dessinée à la plume, & lavée de bistre, du jeune Palme; & une belle composition, dans la maniere du Zuccaro. [24 livres; Glomy pour Silv[?]; Lot 156 [part]: Noel-Nicolas Coypel, deux Etudes au pastel [37 livres, whole lot]; Lot 159 [part]: François Le Moine, une jolie tête au pastel [11 livres 19 sols, whole lot]

James-Alexandre, comte de POURTALÈS-GORGIER (1776-1855), from a Swiss family of Huguenots; his father was an industrialist, ennobled by Friedrich Wilhelm II. His collection of over 1000 works included paintings by Rembrandt, Botticelli and Quentin Massys; they were kept in his residence in the place Vendôme before the construction of a Florentine-inspired hôtel at 7 rue Tronchet. Some of the pictures in his estate sale were subsequently owned by comte Edmond de Pourtalès ( -1895), Paris; others - such as Hals's Laughing cavalier - were acquired by the Marquess of Hertford.
Lit.: NGA website; Rieder 2000
Vente p.m., Paris, 7 rue Tronchet, Pillet, Escribe, Laneuville, 27.III.-4.IV.1865:
Lot 315: Corrége, Tête de Vierge; elle est vue de profil dirigé à droite, et paraît lire dans un livre qu'elle tient à la main.
Lot 330: Rosalba, L'artiste peint par elle-même. Tête nue, une légère dentelle mêlée à ses cheveux, des pendants d'oreille en perles. Pastel
Lot 375: La Tour, Femme vue en buste; des fleurs dans les cheveux. Pastel

Pierre PRAULT (1683-1768), imprimeur-libraire des fermes du roi, owned a cabinet d'œuvres d'art et de curiosités, including a pastel by Mérelle (Néricault Destouches). The collection passed to his son Laurent-François (1714-1780), who succeeded his father first as libraire, then as imprimeur du roi; a sale of part of the collection in 1780 included portraits and other pastels by Mérelle. His sister married Dominique Pinault. Prault printed the first livret of the salons de Saint-Luc (1751). The family were also close to Nattier.
Lit.: Biais 1892
Laurent-François Prault; vente p.m., Paris, Hubert, Le Brun, 27.XI.1780 & seq.:
Lot 34: Fragonard, deux jeunes filles; Merelle: Lot 35: Deux têtes; Lot 36: Duclos; Lot 37: a/r Mignard, Racine; Lot 38: a/r La Tour, Voltaire; Lot 39: a/r Maître inconnu [?La Tour], Crébillon

Charles-André-Melchior, comte de PROLI (1723-1786), conseiller receveur général des finances, collector and merchant. Of Italian origin, he settled in Antwerp and established the compagnie de Trieste, an international trading house. His nephew Pierre-jean-Berchtold, comte de Proli, was based in Paris from 1783. Charles de Proli's very wide ranging collection including a group of framed and glazed pastels, in 31 lots, remarkable "soit pour le nombre ou popur la beauté" according to the sale catalogue, which however offers no attributions.
Charles, comte de Proli; Antwerp, Knyff & Met de Penningen, 23.vii.1785:
Lot 24. Un Medaillon représentant une jeune Demoiselle vue à mi-corps, & tenant un pigeon à la main; Morceau d'un grand relief. Haut 23 po. large 19¼ en ovale. [22 ?livres]
Lot 25. Une autre Demoiselle pendant du précédent, & du même mérite. [15]
Lot 26. Une mere qui allaite son enfant: beau Morceau. Haut 23 po. large 19¼ en ovale [27]
Lot 27 & 28. Deux Portraits, l'un d'une femme & l'autre d'un enfant. Haut 20 po. large 16½ [6.15]
Lot 29 & 30. Le Portrait d'une femme, & un Buste dans le goût Italien, de différentes grandeurs. [4.10]
Lot 31, 32 & 33. Trois Bustes. [3.10]
Lot 34 & 35 Deux idem. [2.08]
Lot 36 & 37 Deux idem. [2.05]
Lot 36 & 39 Deux idem. [2.12]
Lot 40 & 41 Deux idem. [2.05]
Lot 42 & 43 Deux idem. [2.06]
Lot 44 & 45 Deux idem. [3]
Lot 46 & 47 Deux idem. [2.16]
Lot 48 & 49 Deux idem. [3.05]
Lot 50. Un dito [Le Comte duChan… illegible; 7]
Lot 51 & 52 Deux idem. [5.10]
Lot 53 & 54 Deux idem. [3.10]

Alexandre-Denis Abel de PUJOL (1787-1861), peintre.
Paris, 7.XII.1861:
Lot 56: La Tour, femme

Nicolas-Joseph Marcassus, baron de PUYMAURIN (1718-1791), syndic-général des États de Languedoc, was the son of a capitoul de Toulouse who had made his money from the Manufacture royale de draps established in Toulouse in 1698 with the encouragement of Colbert. At its height the business employed nearly 3000 people, many of them from the Low Countries. The baron became a passionate art collector, supporting local artists such as Rivalz and Gamelin (whose trip to Rome he sponsored) and protecting the salon de Toulouse (to which he lent a pastel by Despax). His brother-in-law was the scientist Antoine Darquier de Pellepox, while his son Jean-Pierre-Casimir (1757-1841) was also a collector. His daughter Julie, Mme de Faye, exhibited a pastel at the 1773 exhibition.
Dictionary, genealogy; artists, Faye

Q

M. QUENTIN DE LORANGERE ( -1743), patron and collector. His cabinet of curiosities included shells (which he had bought from Gersaint in 1737), maps and prints as well as an important collection of Flemish paintings, and the catalogue by Gersaint advanced the standards of description.
Vente p.m., Paris, Gersaint, 2.III.1744 & seq.:
Tableaux
Lot 21: Deux pastels de M. Boucher, de 14 pouce 1/2 de haut, sur 11 pouces 1/2 de large, montés en bordures unies, & verre blanc [104 livres]
Desseins. Ecole de France
Lot 48: Vingt-cinq Desseins représentant différentes Têtes & Portraits, tant au Pastel, qu'au Crayon, par Mignard, du Moutier, de Troyes, &c.

Sir Cuthbert QUILTER, 1st Bt (1841–1911), MP for Sudbury, collector, son of a wealthy accountant. His collection was exhibited at Lawrie's Galleries, Bond Street, in 1902, and volume of Sir Cuthbert Quilter's pictures. London collection was issued [n.d.]. Fearing the effects of Lloyd George's supertax, he disposed of his house at 74 South Audley Street (which was connected via his picture gallery to 28 South Street); much of his collection of British and old master paintings was sold at Christie's on 10.vii.1909, yielding £88,000. It included two Humphry pastels, one of them Baron Nagel's servant, described as "an African prince, painted by order of the English government of the day"; it fetched 34 gns. His wife, née Mary Anne Bevington (1841–1927), was probably the owner of the Luti pastel sold in 2013. The composer Roger Quilter was their son.

R

Pierre-Louis-Paul RANDON DE BOISSET (1708-1776), receveur général des finances, collector of books, pictures, sculpture etc. He travelled to Italy and The Netherlands, and was a friend of Greuze and Hubert Robert as well as of Boucher, whose drawings were heavily represented in his collection. His posthumous sale, one of the most celebrated of the era (yielding 1,320,149 livres), was particularly rich in Dutch paintings.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 291f; Durand 1996, pp. 539ff; Grove 1996
Inv. p.m. AN lxxxiv, 546, 18.X.1776
Paris, Chariot, Remy, Julliot, 27.II.-25.III.1777:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 22: Le buste d'une femme; elle est vue presque de face, & tient un papier de musique. Ce beau & savant portrait, peint en pastel, est sous glace; il porte 16 pouces 6 lignes de haut, sur 12 pouces 6 lignes de large. [641 livres]
Lot 23: Un autre beau buste de femme, vue presque de face, & ayant des fleurs qui ornent ses cheveux. Ce tableau porte 17 pouces de haut, sur 13 pouces 6 lignes de large; il vient du Cabinet de M. Lempereur, no. 23 du Catalogue de sa vente, faite en 1773, rue Vivienne. [1499 livres]
BOUCHER
Lot 201: Le buste d'un jeune garçon, vu presque de profil & tenant une carotte; ce tableau, peint savamment au pastel, est sous verre, hauteur 11 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 9 pouces [1101 livres]
GREUZE
Lot 215: Le buste de l'accordée, & celui de la fille à la cruche cassée; ces deux beaux pastels portent chacun 15 pouces de haut, sur 12 de large [2360 livres; Brongniart]
Lot 216: Autre buste de fille peint au pastel, hauteur 12 pouces ; largeur 19 pouces
BOUCHER
Lot 366: Deux autres dessins faits au pastel; dans l'un une femme tient la bride d'un âne chargé de légumes; dans l'autre, une femme décharge un âne, une petite fille la tient par son jupon; 14 pouces 6 lignes par 10 pouces [625 livres; Chariot alias Dailly]

Herman RASCH (1879-1957), Stockholm, art collector, film producer and engineer.
Pastels: Perronneau, M. Sarazin

Wolfgang RATJEN (1943-1997), Liechtenstein, from a banking family in Berlin. His collection of old master drawings passed to the Stiftung Ratjen in Vaduz after his death, and 185 German and Italian sheets were acquired by the National Gallery of Art in Washington in 2007.
Lit.: Washington 2010
Pastels: G. Fr. Schmidt. auto; Frau Schmidt

Paul RATOUIS DE LIMAY (1881-1963), a descendant of Perronneau's patrons, the Cadet de Limay family, conservateur de la bibliothèque de l'Union centrale des arts décoratifs, expert and author of numerous publications on French XVIIIe pastels, 80 rue de Grenelle, Paris 7e in 1922.
Pastels: Perronneau, Mme Cadet

Gustav RAU (1922-2002), doctor, collector and philanthropist. The son of a wealthy German industrialist, he took over the business, but, at the age of 40 he retrained to become a paediatrician. He sold the family business to establish a medical charity, and worked himself in Nigeria and Zaire for 20 years. During this period his only indlugence was the collection of paintings of all schools which he assembled and stored in Switzerland. In 1985 he constructed a building to house the collection in Marseille, but subsequently his collection was donated to Unicef in Köln with the intention of its being sold to raise funds. Exhibitions of the collection took place in Paris 2001, Dayton, Bergamo 2002.
London, Sotheby's, 9.VII.2008:
Pastels: La Tour, Collin

Gustave de La Croix, baron de RAVIGNAN (1868-1912). His widow owned a Perronneau (femme) in 1923.

Giambattista RECANATI (1687-1734), membro dell'Accademia dell'Arcadia, FRS 1720, Venetian scholar and art collector. His collection included a number of pastels by Rosalba (both family portraits and mythological pieces) which were dispersed by his widow, Fiorenza Ravagnin. Most of the collection, including 12 Rosalbas, was acquired by Giovanni Pietro Minelli on behalf of August III.
Lit.: Magrini 1998; Tormen 2009, p. 243f; Henning 2009, p. 282

Joseph REGENSTEIN (1889-1957), Chicago industrialist, whose fortune was made in the paper, plastics and chemicals industries, and his wife, née Helen Asher (1896-1982), established the philanthropic foundation which donated an important collection of drawings to The Art Institute of Chicago.
Lit.: McCullagh 2000

Dr Laurent REHFOUS (1890-1970), Geneva. Trained as a botanist, from 1930 he devoted himself to art as an expert and antiquaire, rue de la Corraterie. He held pastels by Huber, Liotard and Petitot in the 1930s.

Charles Christian REISEN (London 1679-1725), seal and gem engraver, director of Kneller's academy, son of a Norwegian who settled in London in 1666. A sale of the "very curious collection of pictures, medals, seals, stones, prints, drawings and other valuable curiosities of that eminent artist Mr Charles-Christian Reisen" included a number of old master drawings, as well as one lot with four heads in crayons.

Jacques-Louis-Étienne de REISET (1771-1835), régent de la Banque de France, had a number of children, among whom were several notable collectors. Gustave-Armand-Henri, comte de Reiset (1821-1905), ministre plénipotentiaire, writer about XVIIIe figures, owned several pastels. His brother Frédéric Reiset (1815-1890) was conservateur in the Louvre, first of drawings, then paintings, before becoming Directeur des musée nationaux in 1874. He sold a large collection of pictures to the duc d'Aumale (q.v.). Of two brother, Jacques (1811-1868), receveur de finances, also owned a La Tour (auto), while Jules de Reiset (1818-1896) was a député and author; a sister Colette married baron Étienne Martin de Beurnonville (q.v.). Jacques-Louis-Étienne's younger brother, Antoine, vicomte de Reiset (1775-1836), was a soldier; his son Antoine-Justin-Henry (1815-1869) inherited the title of vicomte de Reiset, which passed to his son Tony-Henry-Auguste (1858-1925), historien, homme de lettres.
Jacques de Reiset; vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, 29-30.IV.1870:
Lot 39: La Tour, auto
Gustave, comte de Reiset, ministre; vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, Baudoin, 30.I.-3.II.1922:
Lot 1: Boucher, éc. de., Mme de Pompadour; Sené, Lot 29: jeune fille; Lot 30: garçonnet;
Other pastels: La Tour, Mme de Pompadour [=?Boucher]; Éc. fr., comtesse de Provence

Two sons of the banker Albert REITLINGER and his wife Emma Brunner became important collectors. Henry Scipio Reitlinger (1885-1950), a mining engineer, was both a collector and scholar of old master drawings. He established a trust which operated the Reitlinger Bequest Museum between 1951 and 1987; parts of the collection, including French satirical prints, Japanese woodcuts, ceramics etc., were given to the Fitzwilliam Museum in 1991. Other works from Reitlinger's personal collection were sold at Sotheby's. Gerald Reitlinger (1900-1978), artist, writer and art collector, published an extensive study of the prices of works of art over two centuries. He donated his important collection of ceramics to the Ashmolean, and his gift included a pastel by Vispré (Farr).
Lit.: Oxford DNB (Gerald)
Pastels in Fitzwilliam Museum: Russell, woman; cry of London; English sch., Grey; woman
Other pastels: Lawrence, man; Russell, ballad girl; B. Vallant, femme; W. Vallant, femme; English sch., man; lady

REMOISSENET, marchand d'estampes.
Paris, Regnault, 7 prairial an XI [6-11.VI.1803]:
Hall, jeune fille

Pierre REMY ( -1797), Paris art dealer and auctioneer. The son of maître peintre-doreur Louis Remy, he was reçu by the Académie de Saint-Luc in 1749. Between 1755 and 1791 he conducted more than 130 sales, and acted also as valuer and adviser to a number of collectors.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

Ernest Herbert RENTON (1848–1921), London dealer in furtniture, curios and pictures, of 26b King Street, St James's from at least 1893. He lent a number of pastels to the Paris 1911 exhibition. He also had pasels by Carriera, Cotes, Gardner, Hamilton, Hoare, Humphry, Russell. In 1921 the business was purchased by Cecil Partridge.

Major-General James Malcolm Leslie RENTON (1898-1972), CB, DSO, OBE, British Army officer; collector of several drawings by Downman.

Paul Julius Baron von REUTER, né Israel Beer Josephat (1816-1899), founder of the Reuters news agency. He left Germany after the 1848 revolution and took British citizenship in 1857. His title was conferred by the Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha in 1871.
Vente p.m., London, Christie's, 1.VII.1899:
Lot 105: La Tour [Coypel], marquise de Lamure
Other pastels: Russell, Persian Sibyl

Sir Joshua REYNOLDS (1723-1792). Starting seriously around 1752, Reynolds formed one of the largest and most important art collections of its day. He visited Paris to attend the Crozat de Thiers sale in 1771. The collection was particularly rich in figurative drawings, which Reynolds viewed as an important working aid, and the Italian masters of the 16th and 17th centuries were well represented. Reynolds owned sheets with coloured chalk or pastel by artists from Barocci to Lely. Some 6000 old master drawings were included in the sales between 1794 and 1798, as well as more than 400 paintings. These sales took place in 1795, at a period when prices for eighteenth century portraits were very depressed. A further sale took place 16-26.V.1821 after the death of his niece, Mary Palmer, Countess of Thomond, where the mythological paintings attracted much higher prices than the portraits.
Dictionary, artists; Reynolds 2005
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 11-14.III., put back to 13-17.III.1795:
Rosalba {CARRIERA]
Lot 32: Two heads in crayons, elegant [£7/17/-; Dr Stevens]
Lot 35: Two, the portraits of Marco and Sebastian Ricci, in crayons [£6; Clarke]
Lot 61: A Frame with Fifteen Elegant Subjects and Portraits, small, in crayons [£21/10/-; Timothy Collopy]
London, Phillips, 26.V.1798:
Lot 1946: Ashfield, Cromwell
Other pastels: Bassano, figure

REY-SPITZER. Possibly the architect Adolphe-Augustin Rey-Spitzer; owned a pair of pastel inconnues in 1904, over-ambitiously given to La Tour [Éc. fr.].

John RHODES (1814–1898), of Potternewton House, Leeds: a stockbroker, he retired in 1881 and became a patron and collector. He owned a Liotard pastel, then thought to be a portrait of Lady Hawke by John Russell, as well as another Russell, of John Green, founder of the Leeds Pottery.

James Henri RICAU (1916-1993), from New Orleans; lived in Greek Revival house on Hudson River; collector of mainly nineteenth-century American paintings and sculpture, much of it now in the Chrysler Museum of Art in Norfolk, Virginia. He owned a drawing by Wright of Derby.

Seymour de RICCI (1881-1942): art historian, born in England but raised in Paris by his mother of Italian origin, educated at the Sorbonne. He took French citizenship in 1901. He initially studied antiquities, Egyptology and bibliography, later turning to mediaeval and rennaissance manucripts. In 1929 he published a catalogue of the musée Cognacq-Jay. He seems to have dealt, or acted as agent, for a number of collectors. A number of sheets from his own collection were sold at Drouot, 10.VI.2009.
Lit.: dictionaryofarthistorians.org; Oxford DNB; Gazette Drouot, 19.VI.2009, p. 67

Le chevalier RICHARD de Lédans [Lédan] ( -1816), lieutenant-général d'infanterie, gouverneur des pages de Madame, best known for the collection of Carmontelle portraits which he assembled after the artist's death; they passed to Pierre de La Mésangère (1761-1831), were acquired at acution by Major Gordon Duff and then sold through Colnaghi to the duc d'Aumale (q.v.). His posthumous sale also included a few pastels.
Paris, Benou, 3-18.XII.1816:
Lot 520 Coypel, auto; Duhamel, auto; Gautier-Dagoty, Delaverdi; La Tour, duc de Bourgogne; Lot 525: La Tour, Dom Calmet; Lot 546: La Tour, auto; Lot ?: Regnault, Mlle Lacour

Jonathan RICHARDSON Jr (c.1665-1745), artist and collector.
Dictionary, artists
Pastels: Bassano, figure

Jules-Charles-Auguste Kiesgen, baron de RICHTER (1859-1909), society figure and sportsman, collector of miniatures and donor of a pastel by Cherfils to the Comédie-Française. He married Helena Louisa Koska (1866-1941) and their son Charles became a novelist.

Professor Philip RIEFF (1923-2006), sociologist and cultural critic, & his wife, Alison Douglas Knox (1933-2011), lawyer, Philadelphia, owned three pastels by Gardner and a fine Russell whihc were included in their estate sale, Philadelphia, Freeman Fine Arts, 22.VI.2008.

Hyacinthe RIGAUD (1659–1743), peintre. Two pastels appeared in his posthumous inventory of 6.III.1744:
351. Item un petit tableau au Pastel représentant une teste faite aux deux crayons dans sa bordure dorée avec un verre au-dedans numéro quatre vingt quatorze, prisé trois livres;
403. Item un tableau une teste de femme pastel coeffée de fleurs dans sa bordure dorée avec une glace devant numéroté cent quarante cinq, prisé la somme de trente livres.
The latter may be the femme blonde given to the artist by Carriera mentioned in a letter to her by Mariette, 26.XI.1722.

Antoine RIVALZ (1667-1735) and his son Jean-Pierre, chevalier Rivalz (1718-1785), artists and collectors in Toulouse.
Dictionary, artists

Christophe-Paul, marquis de ROBIEN (1698-1764), président à mortier au parlement de Bretagne, collector of antiquities, natural history specimens and drawings.
Lit.: Paris 1972; Gauthier Aubert, "From Crozat to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Rennes: the origins of the drawings collection of the marquis de Robien", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007
Pastels: F. Lemoyne, St François

Sir John Charles ROBINSON (1824-1913), curator at the V&A. A number of drawings, including a coloured chalk drawing by Lely (Greenhill), were presented to the British Museum by his executors in 1925; others entered the Museum through the purchase in 1895 of the collection of John Malcolm of Poltalloch (1805-1893) from his son Colonel John Wingfield Malcolm.

Mme RODOCANACHI (fl.1933-62): several members of this Greek family were art collectors.
Pastels: Perronneau, Mlle Pinchinat

Jean-Alphonse ROËHN (1799-1864), fils, peintre, pupil of Regnault and Gros.
Vente p.m., Paris, 13-14.III.1865:
Lot 21: La Tour, abbé

Alexandre-Louis ROËTTIERS DE MONTALEAU (1748-1808), directeur de la Monnaie, author and freemason; he acquired a Rosalba at the Desmarets sale in 1797.

Charles ROGERS (1711-1784), FRS, FSA, collector, who acquired many of the sheets in Gabburri's collection. A large collection of prints was also disposed of by Thomas Philipe over 20 days from 18.III.1799.
Lit.: Lugt 624; Turner 1993
Sale p.m., London, Warwick Street, Thomas Philipe, 15-24.IV.1799
Pastels: Conca, self-portrait

Frederick H. ROHLFS (1904-1983), lawyer and philanthropist, and his wife Marguerite ( -1995); her estate sale was for the benefit of Brown University. She also bequeathed Sharples portraits (Mr & Mrs John Adams) to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Lillian ROJTMAN BERKMAN ( -2001) and her first husband, Marc B. Rojtman ( -1967), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, president of the American Tractor Corporation, established The Rojtman Foundation in 1956, which made substantial donations to Marquette University and the Haggerty Museum of Art. Mrs Berkman furnished her house on East 64th Street with a large collection of old master paintings, mostly purchased in the 1950s and 1960s from The Central Galleries, a New York dealer; a number of the attributions have not survived. The Rojtman Medieval Sculpture Gallery was donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, in 1964, and statues by Canova were donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the NGA, Washington.
Estate of Lillian Rojtman Berkman: New York, Sotheby's, 28.I.2005
Lot 627: pnt. a/r Fragonard pstl; Lot 734: Mengs, Hoffmann

Louis ROLLAND D'AUBREUIL (1687-1750), receveur général des finances de Montauban 1713-18, fermier général 1726-32. An enthusiast for Rosalba, whom he visited in Venice, he sold his Printemps to the comte de Morville who was impatient for the delivery of his own commission.

Abraham Simon Wolf ROSENBACH (1876-1952), American bibliophile, collector and dealer; founded the Rosenbach Museum & Library in his native Philadelphia. The firm supplied a pastel copy of Duplessis's portrait of Franklin to the Huntington.

Einsatzstab Reichsleiter ROSENBERG ("ERR"). A number of pastels were among the collections seized by the Nazis from Jewish collections in Paris and elsewhere during the war. Some of these were destined for Hitler's Führermuseum (q.v.); others for the personal collections of other German leaders. Sorting places included the Louvre and Jeu de Paume in Paris, Neuschwanstein in Germany and the Lager Peter repository in Altaussee, Austria. The task of recuperation is not complete. The ERR card index is available on microfilm from the US Government's National Archives and Records Administration ("NARA"), while the Deutsches historiches Museum hosts online databases of the pictures assembled for the Führermuseum (v. Hitler) and those recuperated through the Munich Central Collecting Point ("CCP") on behalf of the Bundesamt für zentrale Dienste und offene Vermögensfragen ("BADV") and other responsible institutions. A database of the objects collected mainly from French Jewish families assembled at the Jeu de Paume is also online, at www.errproject.org.

Henry ROSENHEIM, banker in Paris, chairman of the Anglo-French Matabeleland and East Rand mining companies, owned a La Tour autoportrait in 1928. He also owned a Gainsborough painting.

Lessing J. ROSENWALD (1891-1979), of Jenkintown, Philadelphia, businessman and collector, heir to the Sears-Roebuck retailing fortune. He was a bibliophile and chess enthusiast as well as a collector of paintings, drawings and more than 20,000 prints, now in the National Gallery of Art, Washington.

Mme Alexandre ROSLIN, née Marie-Suzanne Giroust (1734-1772), pastellist.
Dictionary, artist
Lit.: Lundberg 1957
Vente succession, Écouen, Quériot, 8.VI.1890:
Lot 7: Mme Roslin, sa fille
Paris, Drouot, 1.VII.1920

Auguste-Louis, marquis de ROSSEL DE CERCY (1736-1804), naval captain and marine painter.
Paris, Jean Gabriel Blanc, François Léandre Regnault Delalande, 21-22.VII.1803:
Lot 6: [Anon.]: Cornellie en pleurs, Tableau peint à l'huile; et un Chien peint au pastel et sous verre [14 frs 10; Datte]

Jean ROSSIGNOL (1908-1984), businessman and collector, particularly of French XVIIIe furniture. His sale, 21 years after his death, produced some €12.5 million.
Paris, Hôtel Dassault, Artcurial, 13.XII.2005:
Pastels: Boze, Louis XVI; La Tour, Dumont le romain

Claude Dickason ROTCH (1878-1961) of Albany and The Elms, Park Road, Teddington, Middlesex, inventor, scholar, dog breeder and art collector, born in Waterloo, Lancashire, the son of a barrister of Scottish and American origin; his great uncle was Benjamin Rotch, MP. He commenced his career as a rubber grower in Ceylon; on his return to England he served as a director of the London Asiatic and other rubber companies (in 1927 he made a patent application for a type of rubber paving block). He was also a freemason and author of studies on the history of masonry. As an art collector, his interests ranged from furniture and silver to old master paintings. He made major donations to the Fitzwilliam Museum (1942), to Trinity Hall, Cambridge (where he matriculated in 1898), the National Gallery (1962) and to the V&A (1957-63). When, in 1952, the British government appealed for works of art for Government buildings abroad, Rotch gave six works which are now in the Government Art Collection, including two pastels by John Russell.
Lit.: R. W. Symonds, "Mr. C. D. Rotch's collection of furniture", Country life, 7.VI.1924, pp. 937-39; John Morgan Bullard, The Rotches, New Bedford, 1947
Pastels: Cotes, man 1750; man in blue coat; lady; Hamilton, Carr; Monck; Hoare, Chesterfield; Miss Gower; Luti, man; Read, Duchess of Rutland; Russell, Eidingtoun; Everett; Gregory; ; Anne Thornton; Wells; barrister; men (2); Smith, man; The tryst; Italian sch., man

Gustave ROTHAN (1822-1890), from Alsace, ministre plénipotentiaire in Berlin, historian and art collector.
Paris, Georges Petit, 29-31.V.1890:
Lot 133: Coypel, [??] Adrienne Lecouvreur

Frédéric Rodolphe, comte de ROTHENBOURG (1710-1751), ambassadeur à Berlin, instrumental in Friedrich der Große's acquisitions of French art.
Lit.: H. Börsch-Supan, "Friedrich Rudolf, comte de Rothenbourg", L'Œil, .XII.1969, pp. 12-19; Chardin 1979

The extended dynsaty established by the Frankfurt banker Mayer Amschel ROTHSCHILD (1744-1812) is probably both the most numerous and the best known family of art collectors. Of the various branches, that founded in France by James de Rothschild (1792-1868) is particularly significant. His daughter Charlotte, la baronne Nathaniel (1825-1899), painter and pupil of Nélie Jacquemart, was also a collector; her grandson Henry (1872-1946) and his son Philippe organised the 1929 Chardin exhibition; Henry wrote a monograph on the artist under the pseudonym of André Pascal. His Chardin autoportrait was sold in 1966, while his La Tour Duval de l'Épinoy, for which he had paid a record price at the Doucet sale in 1912 (to protect it from the vibrations of buses in the Faubourg Saint-Honoré he went to the lengths of building a new home in the avenue du Bois), is now the glory of the Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon. Charlotte's nephew Édouard (1868-1949) owned the celebrated Greuze pastel study for L'Heureuse Mère (now in the NGA, Washington). Her brother Edmond de Rothschild (1845-1934) bequeathed to the Louvre his collection of some 40,000 prints and 3000 drawings; he lent a La Tour duc de Bourgogne to the Cent pastels exhibition (Paris 1908a), while a Liotard (Mariette de Bassompierre) is now in Geneva. Other parts of his collections were inherited by his son James A. de Rothschild and are now at Waddesdon, which he inherited from Miss Alice (1847-1922) of the Viennese branch. Her brother Ferdinand had moved to England and constructed Waddesdon (v. Collections; the pastel holdings range from Gardner to Grimod de La Réynière). Alfons (1878-1942) and Eugène (1884-1976), Vienna, owned a group of six pastels of the Imperial family by Pierre Bernard in 1946; Eugène also owned Labille-Guiard's Mme Mitoire. James A.'s brother Maurice (1881-1957) was among those whose collections were subject to Nazi seizure during the war, including La Tour's président de Rieux now in the Getty (others were Boucher, Le Départ; Carriera, jeune fille; Fragonard, femme; Raeburn [Hodges], Mr & Mrs Patterson; La Tour, Animé, marquise de Rumilly; Russell, his nephew; Mme Roslin's autoportrait; he also lent a La Tour Mme de Pompadour to the Cent pastels exhibition). After the war Maurice and his only son Edouard Alphonse (1926-1997) lived in Geneva. Maurice had inherited the fortune of the childless Adolph (1823-1900), from the Naples branch, who also owned a Rosalba (Ceres). From the English branch, Mayer Amschel (1818-1874) built Mentmore, which passed to his son-in-law Lord Rosebery (Ducreux, auto; Russell, Col. Thornton) and was offered to the nation before the notorious sale in 1977.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Donateurs 1989; Niall Ferguson, The world's banker. the history of the house of Rothschild, London, 1998; Michael Hall, ed., "Bric-a-brac: a Rothschild's memoir of collecting", Apollo, .VII.-.VIII.2007

Henri ROUART (1833-1912), civil engineer and director of a metallurgical business in Paris; he was also active as an artist, exhibiting at the official salons 1868-72 and then with the Impressionists, with whom he was particularly associated through his school friend Degas. A large collection was sold after his death.
Paris, Galerie Manzi Joyant, 9-11.XII.1912; 16-18.XII.1912:
Lot 146: Éc. fr., a/r, La Tour, auto; Lot 147: Éc. fr., jeune femme; Lot 296: Vigée [?La Tour], inconnu
Paris, Drouot, 21-22.IV.1913

Marc-Antoine ROUGIER (1813-1873), de l'Académie de Lyon, négociant en soieries à Lyon, and art collector. His extensive collections of furniture, porcelain, objets d'art etc. were maintained intact by his widow, née Anne-Louise Donat (1824-1900), and eventaully sold in Paris, Georges Petit, Chevallier, Mannheim, 3-4.V.1904. It included a Perronneau inconnu.

M. "de ROUSSEL, fermier général", probably Jacques Roussel ( -1768), father of Jacques-Jérémie Roussel de La Celle et Roquencourt (1712-1776), fermier général 1736-67 and the subject, with his wife, of pastels by La Tour.
Vente p.m., Paris, Glomy & Buldet, 13-22.III.1769:
Lot 220: Oudry, Un Paysage agréable, avec des animaux peints au pastel, par J.B. Oudri, sous glace [78 livres]
Lot 221: Boucher, Neuf Têtes de femmes de figures gracieuses, dont huit pastel; savoir, quatre de M. Boucher, sous glace, les quatre autres dans sa maniere, & une peinte à l'huile, par Bachelier, représente une Jeune Fille étudiant de la Musique: elles seront détaillées à la vente. [74 livres]

ROUX, collector, Tours. Philippe Burty wrote in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, XIII, .X.1862, p. 379, "Le cabinet de M. Roux est un des plus intéressants que je connaisse; un goût éclairé, une patience intelligente et d'heureux hasards ont présidé à sa formation....Des verreries allemandes,..., des pastels de Péronneau, des médaillons de Nini...; tels sont les principaux attraits de cette collection." One of those strokes of luck was the purchase of five Perronneau pastels from the artist's last descendent, in Nazelles, c.1850.
Paris, 17-20.II.1868:
Perronneau, Lot 480, inconnue, 1748 [Fr470; Mame]; femme endormie [Fr265; Mame]; 2 jeunes garçons [Fr 127, Fr 128; Mannheim]; jeune femme [Fr70; Piogey]

Sir George RUSSELL, 4th Bt (1828-1898), of Swallowfield, married Constance ( -1925), daughter of Lord Arthur Lennox and Adelaide Constance Campbell; she wrote about Swallowfield and its occupants (1901). Inspired by her interest in mineralogy, her son Sir Arthur, 6th Bt (1878-1964), formed an important collection of minerals. Lady Russell owned a group of pastels of members of her mother's family; these descended to Sir Arthur's widow Marjorie before some appeared in a sale in 1972.
London, Christie's, 6.VI.1972:
Lot 10?: Liotard, Lady Coventry; Cotes: Lots 105, 106, Gunning; Lot 107, Mrs Travers
Other pastels: Cotes, Mrs Travers; Hamilton (Argyll) and Read (Ancaster; Campbell)

John RUSSELL (1745-1806), pastellist. His posthumous sale included a number of his own pastels (not listed below).
Dictionary, artists
London, Christie's, 14.II.1807
London, Christie's, 25.III.1807:
Lot 89: Carriera, The Judgement of Paris, in 4 pictures, m/u [£3]

Johannes Catharinus de RUYTER DE WILDT (1877-1950), chemical engineer, member of a family of Dutch naval officers; an anonymous Dutch pastel (Parker) is now in the Rijksmuseum.

Dr Tony RYAN (1936-2007), of Lyons Demesne, Co. Kildare, founder of Ryanair and Guinness Peat Aviation, philanthropist. His collections, of which part were sold in London, Christie's, 14.VII.2011, included 7 pastels, among them the important pastels by H. D. Hamilton, Dawkins; Hill and pastels by or attributed to William Hamilton, Knapton, Pond and English and German schools.

S

The SABIN Galleries date back to the business established by Joseph Sabin in Oxford in 1848; branches were subsequently established in Philadelphia and New York, as well as in London (172 New Bond Street for some years). The firm dealt in rare books as wells as paintings and prints. Joseph's son Frank T. Sabin ( -1915) was succeeded in turn by Frank M. Sabin and by further generations.

Paul J. SACHS (1878-1965), professor of fine arts at Harvard, associate director of the Fogg Art Museum, collector of drawings.

The SACKVILLE GALLERY, established by Max Rothschild (1875– ), with R. R. M. Sée (q.v.) until 1912 but continued by Rothschild thereafter. Under the former's direction, they exhibited several English pastels in the Paris 1911 exhibition (Alefounder, 2 pstls). The gallery also had pastels by Russell etc.

Nicolò SAGREDO (1606-1676), Ventian ambassador in Rome and doge 1675-76, was responsible for starting the family's important collections; he owned several pastels by Bassano. Many of the sheets were bound into the so-called Sagredo-Borghese album which seems to have passed to Nicolò's brother Stefano and then to Sefano's son Zaccaria Sagredo (1653-1729). Zaccaria made a large number of additions, and his collection numbered some 2000 drawings and paintings, among them a Rosalba head as well as pastels by Bassano, Boltraffio and Caliari (he acquired the Caliari family collection). His wife Cecilia sold the collection c.1743, and it seems to have been dispersed during the 19th century. A large group was acquired by a collector in Lyon c.1919. A number of sheets have come onto the art market since the early 1990s.
Lit.: Haskell 1963; Pietro Scarpa, "A Venetian seventeenth-century collection of old master drawings", in Walter Strauss & Tracie Felker, eds., Drawings defined, New York, 1987, pp. 383ff

Daniel SAINT (1778-1847), miniaturist, pastellist.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, 4.V.1846:
La Tour: Lot 33, Mlle Sallé; Lot 34: homme; Lot 35, inconnue

Paul-Hippolyte de Beauvilliers, duc de SAINT-AIGNAN (1684-1776).
Dictionary, genealogy
Paris, Florentin, Le Brun, 17.VI.1776:
Lot 114 [part]: Un portrait de femme peinte au pastel par la Rose-Alba, hauteur vingt-deux pouces, largeur seize pouces [499 livres 19 sols]
Lot 163 [incorrectly as 161 in the catalogue]: Augustin, Le Portrait de cet Artiste peint par lui-même au pastel, en Italie, hauteur vingt-deux pouces, largeur seize pouces [15 livres]
Lot 312: Cinq Desseins & Pastels, faits par Mesdames de France [24 livres]

Louis-Philippe Rousselin de Corbeau, vicomte de SAINT-ALBIN (1822-1879), librarian to Empress Eugénie; scholar and collector. The family lived in the rue vieille du Temple, and Philippe inherited from his father, founder of the Constitutionnel (rumoured to have been the natural son of the duc d'Orléans, adopted by an army officer), the papers and portraits associated with the Revolution collected by Barras (some of which are now in the musée Carnavalet). He donated a sanguine drawing by Gabriel de Saint-Aubin after Coypel's Adrienne Lecouvreur to the Comédie-Française in 1849. His sister and heir was Mme Achille Jubinal, herself an amateur pastellist (a copy after Liotard from 1840 is known). A number of pastels were in the Jubinal de Saint-Albin collection (and had passed to her daughter Mme George Duruy by 1923). Two pastels thought to be by La Tour were donated to the musée de Bagnères-de-Bigorre in 1864. A collection of curiosties, scientific instruments etc. was sold at auction in Paris, 18.II.1960.
Dictionary, genealogy, Corbeau
Lit.: Sara Yorke Stevenson, Maximilian in Mexico, 1897; Dreyfus 1905; Donateurs 1989
Pastels: Boucher, 2 jeunes filles; Mérelle, ses enfants; La Tour [Éc. fr.], ??Le Riche de La Pouplinière; chevalier; Perronneau, comtesse de Corbeau de Saint-Albin; Éc. fr., Rousselin de Saint-Albin

Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of ST ALBANS (1740-1802): in addition to family portraits, he acquired a Rosalba in the Dalton sale and several (which were sold soon after) at that of his brother-in-law, the Earl of Bessborough (q.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy, Beauclerk
London, Christie's, 27.III.1802:
Rosalba [CARRIERA], Lot 67: A woman with children playing [18 gns, b/i]; Lot 68: Portrait of a lady [£6/16/-]
Other pastels: Carriera, lady in the character of Ceres

Augustin de SAINT-AUBIN (1736-1807), draughtsman and engraver.
Dictionary, artists
Paris, 10 rue des Prouvaires, Claude-René Debonnaire & Guillaume-Jean Thuret, François-Léandre Regnault Delalande, 4-9.IV.1808:
Lot 13: [?F.-A. Vincent or ?Anon.]: Onze [14] Tableaux, Sujets et Etudes de têtes d'hommes et de Bacchantes, Paysages, etc. Plus, une Tête de femme peinte en pastel (elle est sous-verre) [divided; the last Fr9, Duval]

Saint-Clair, v. Lintlaër

Saint-Julien, v. Baillet

Charles-Paul-Jean-Baptiste de Bourgevin de Vialart de SAINT-MORYS (1743-1795), soldier, conseiller au parlement, and amateur engraver. A sale took place in 1786 including a number of drawings with pastel (see below). His collection of XVIe-XVIIIe Italian, French and Netherlandish drawings was seized when he emigrated during the Revolution, and is now in the Louvre; it includes pastels by Lafosse (jeune femme), Nanteuil (Talon), W. Vaillant (magistrat) and Vouet (homme). He may also have owned a sheet by Jean I Dubois.
Lit.: Françoise Arquié-Bruley & al., La Collection Saint-Morys au cabinet des dessins du musée du Louvre, Paris, 1987; Lise Bicart-Sée, "Charles-Paul-Jean-Baptiste de Bourgevin Vialart de Saint-Morys and his drawings", Master drawings, xlv/1, 2007
Paris, hôtel de Bullion, Paillet, Milliotti, Boileau, 6-23.II.1786:
Morceaux a gouache et au pastel, sous verres.
168. L'Enlévement d'Europe, forme octogone, par Piétro Bianhi. H. 6 pouc.. L. 9. [58 livres; Joseph-Alexandre Lebrun]
171. Un Paysage & Vue de Riviere, avec figures & bestiaux, peints au pastel, par F. B. Oudry. H. 19 pouc. L. 25. [12 livres]
172. Le Mariage de Sainte Catherine, sujet peint au pastel, d'après Pietro da Cortenne. H. 16 pouc. L. 12. [23 livres; Jacques Langlier]
348. [Boucher]. Deux jeunes Filles, dont une tient un lapin sur son bras, & une vieille femme lui montrant une bourse d'o elle vient de tirer quelque pieces d'or. Ce dessin est fait aux trois crayons & légérement colorié au pastel, de 12 p. de large, sur 15 p. 3 lig. de haut
355. [Boucher]. L'Amour vu par le dos, dessiné aux trois crayons & légérement colorié au pastel sur papier gris; de 8 p. & demi de large, sur 11 p. 10 lig. de haut
361. [Boucher]. Un Paysage avec un moulin à eau & des Blanchisseuses qui étendent du linge; fait au pastel sur papier bleu: de 16 p. & demi de large, sur 11 p. de haut.
365. [Boucher]. Vénus & l'Amour, dessinés aux trois crayons, & légérement touchés au pastel sur papier gris; de 12 p. & demi de large, sur 16 p. de haut.
367. [Boucher]. Deux Nayades couchées, ayant chacune un vase d'où jaillit de l'eau: & une jeune Nymphe avec deux Amours. Ces deux Dessins sont aux trois crayons, légérement coloriés au pastel sur papier gris; de 14 p. & demi de large, sur 10 p. 9 lig. de haut.
679. …autres Sujets…dessinés au Pastel. [part]

Jean-Claude Richard, abbé de SAINT-NON (1727-1791): artist, patron and collector.
Dictionary, artists; genealogy Richard
Lit.: Grove 1996
Paris, Paillet, 2.V.1792 & seq.:
Tableaux à l'huile & au pastel [Lots 39-48], par M. de St-Non, d'après Boucher, Robert, Fragonard, &c. &c.
Lot 39: Un Tableau ovale, peint au pastel, ainsi que les suivans; il représente un portrait de jeune femme ajustée d'un mantelet noir.
Lot 40: Un Sujet allégorique au Dessin, & pour pendant un Repos de Vénus. Ces deux morceaux, d'après Boucher, sont dans des cadres noirs.
Lot 41: Cinq Têtes de fantaisie, d'après Boucher, Fragonard & Greuze.
Lot 42: Deux Bustes de femmes, l'une occupé à écrire, l'autre lisant une lettre.
Lot 43: Deux autres Bustes; l'un représente un Vieillard, l'autre un Espagnol.
Lot 44: Une belle Femme tenant des fleurs, copie très soignée, d'après Rosa Alba.
Lot 45: Portrait d'une jeune femme qui tient un oiseau sur le doigt.
Lot 46: Deux Têtes de fantaisie, d'après Boucher.
Lot 47: Un Buste de femme, d'après Greuze.
Lot 48: Le Portrait de Francklin, d'après Duplessis.

Marie-Joseph-Emmanuel de Guignard, vicomte de SAINT-PRIEST (1732-1794), conseiller en la cour des Aides de Montpellier, intendant du Languedoc 1764, président de la Société des Beaux-Arts de Montpellier, of which both he and his father were benefactors. A great many of the exhibits in the Société's exhibition in 1779 were lent by Saint-Priest, although it is unclear which were in pastel - perhaps the portrait of the lender and two other items by Rabillon.

Saint-Saphorin, v. Mestral

Jacques SALMANOWITZ (1884-1966), originally from Latvia, moved to Romania before settling in Geneva where in 1919 he established the Swiss branch of the Société générale de surveillance, a cargo inspection business. He was succeeded by his son Grégoire. A considerable number of pastels by Liotard (and one by Guillibaud) have passed through several generations of this family.

William SALOMON (1852-1919), American banker and philanthropist. Together with his wfe, Helen Forbes Lewis of Ross-shire, Scotland, he amassed a superb collection of renaissance and rococo treasures in their home at 1020 Fifth Avenue; an album of photographs was privately printed in 1912, but the house was demolished after his death, and the collection sold at auction. Most of the pastels seem to have had dubious attributions.
Lit.: Gimpel 1963
New York, American Art Association, 4-9.IV.1923:
Lot 371: La Tour [Coypel], inconnue; Lot 373: Nattier [Rotari], Louise-Marie Gouthier; Lot 374: Nattier, jeune fille; Lot 375: Coypel [Anon.], jeune fille aux perles; Lot 389: La Tour attr. [Anon], Mlle Chastagner de Lagrange

Cardinale Duca Alamanno SALVIATI (1669-1733), from a Florentine family that number five cardinals. He studied in Pisa and travelled widely in Europe. In 1690 he was elected to the Accademia della Crusca and was active in literary and linguistic studies. In 1707 he was nuncio to France. He was made a cardinal in 1730.
Inv., Rome, 17.IV.1749
Pastels: Balestra, Abramo

Jacques-François-Joseph SALY (1717-1776), chevalier de Saint-Michel, sculpteur du roi; he worked in France, Italy and Denmark. There is a portrait by Jens Juel.
Vente p.m., Paris, Domain, Joullain fils, 14-18.VI.1776:
Lot 22: Une étude précieusement faite au pastel, de l'Enfant Jesus & Saint Jean, faisant partie d'un tableau de la Saint Jean, faisant partie d'un tableau de la Sainte Famille par Raphaël, qui est au Palais Royal, & dont l'estampe par N. de Larmessin est gravée dans le Cabinet Crozat. Cette étude est peinte par A. Coypel, & sous glace [37 livres]
Lot 23: Une tête de Christ & une autre tête de Saint Sébastien, au pastel, par le même [18 livres 15 sols]
Lot 24: L'Amour menaçant, tableau de forme ovale, par C. Coypel. Il a été gravé par J. Daullé. Hauteur 14 pouces, largeur 11 pouces 6 lig. Bordure dorée & verre [36 livres 1 sol]
Lot 25: Deux têtes de femmes d'un beau caractère, par le même [9 livres 1 sol]
Lot 31: Joseph accusé par la femme de Putiphar. Dessin mélé d'un peu de pastel par C. Coypel, sous glace [52 livres; De Gourville]

Jules SAMBON, numismatist and dealer in Paris; his son Arthur (1867-1947) became president of the Chambre des experts d'arts de Paris, and acted for J. P. Morgan and Gulbenkian. Arthur founded the journal Le Musée which appeared between 1904 and 1909. His sale included antiquities, Persian illuminations, sculpture, bronzes, ceramics and marbles of all ages and schools. The Sambons owned pastels by Roslin acquired in the period 1905-23. Jules Sambon's collection of theatrical items was the main source for the Louvre exhibition Paris 1908c, and was to form the corner-stone of the museum at La Scala, Milan when it opened in 1913.
(JS): Paris, Drouot, 1-3.V.1911:
Lot 1030: Labille-Guiard, Le Kain
(AS): Paris, Georges Petit, 25-28.V.1914:
Lot 218: Liotard [Roslin], von Fries
Other pastels: Carriera; Poleni, La Tour, Brémontier; Éc. fr., Goldoni

Samuel, v. Bearsted

Victorien SARDOU (1831-1908), playwright. Trained as a doctor, he was passionately interested in the theatre, and wrote a number of comedies and historical dramas, interpreted by actresses such as Réjane and Sarah Bernhardt. Fédora (1882) and Tosca (1887) were both turned into operas. He was admitted to the Académie française in 1877. He married the daughter of M. Soulié, conservateur du musée de Versailles. He assembled a collection of works of art relating to the theatre.
Lit.: Lugt 2262, 2263; the 1909 sale catalogue has an introduction by G. Lenôtre and Georges Cain
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Lair-Dubreil, Baudoin, 27.IV.1909:
Lot 55: Boucher, Vénus et l'Amour
Lot 57: Boze [Mme Filleul], portrait présumé de Madame Royale
Lot 78: Hoin, portrait présumé d'Hortense Delannoy
Lot 141: Wallerant Vaillant, Duchesse de Longueville
Lot 157: Éc. fr. XVIIIe, La Visite à l'atelier
Lot 158: Éc. fr. XVIIIe, Les Rendez-vous

L'abate SARTORI: the subject of a portrait by Carriera. According to a notice issued from Venice, 26.XII.1788 (but apparently overlooked until now), he "would wish to dispose of" a number of pictures by Rosalba and by "her excellent pupil Felicita Sartori (afterwards Hoffmann)". It is thought that Felicità was his sister, but there is some confusion with Giambattista Sartori, who married Lucietta Pellegrini (another abate Giambattista Sartori, much later, was Canova's half-brother). This is compounded by the inclusion of two small portraits (miniatures?) by Felicità Sartori of "a young sister of Felicita" and of "abate Sartori, brother of Felicita", which would appear to correspond with the Rosalba pendants of Giambattista and Lucietta.
Lit.: Sastres 1789, pp. 63ff
Di mano di Rosalba Carriera.
Abozzo d'una Madonna col Bambino, alto un piede, e mezzo; a pastello.
Un ovatino-Ritratto della Duchessa di Modena, opera eccellente, a pastello.
Ritrattino di Felicita Sartori, quando era giovinetta.
Stampina, incisa in rame da Felicita, di une Madonna, coperta con colori a pastello da Rosalba.
Ovatino d'una giovine in miniatura.
Da mano di Felicita Sartori, prima che passasse alla Corte di Sassonia.
Donna rappresentante la stagion d'inverno.
Ritratto bellissimo di Milord Walpole, in abito di maschera.
Tre ovatini-ritratti dell'Imperatrice Amalia, e delle due Arciduchesse, Maria Teresa, e Marianna, ancor giovinette.
Ritrattino d' un Cavalire.
Detto d'una Dama.
Donna giovine, che sembra la stagion dell'estate.
Ritrattino d'una giovane, sorella di Felicita.
Detto dell'Abate Sartori fratello di detta Felicita, ancor giovinetto.
Quadretto, alto un piede, rappresentante une Sibilla, copiato ad olio dall' originale in pastello di Rosalba.
Ovato, più d'un piede, con quindici mezze figurette, rapresentanti, fra le altre, le Muse, dipinte a olio dagli originali in grande a pastello di Rosalba.
Una Madonna a carbon nero, alta un piede.

SAUVAGE, peintre.
Paris, Chariot, 6.XII.1808 & seq.

A. SAVARD: possibly the composer Augustin Savard (1861-1942).
Pastels: La Tour, Frère Fiacre; Valade, Mme Fontaine de Cramayel

William H. SCHAB Gallery, New York: their 30th anniversary exhibition, in 1969, was devoted to 18th century pastel and gouache drawings.

Ary SCHEFFER (1795-1858), peintre.
Pastels: La Tour, sa mère; acteur

Baron Basile de SCHLICHTING (1857-1914), born in St Petersburg, counsellor of state to the Tsar. He moved to Paris around 1900. He bequeathed his collection to the Louvre, including 68 paintings, 125 drawings and 47 fine miniatures on ivory.
Lit.: Lugt 1886; Donateurs 1989; Jean-Richard in Bordeaux 1995
Pastels: Nattier, jeune fille

Reichsgraf Johann Matthias von der SCHULENBURG (1661-1747), Feldmarschall, soldier in the Venetian service, and art collector. He commissioned an oil copy by Antonio Guardi after Rosalba's portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. It seems the Chechelsperg acquired a number of Barocci pastels from him.

Robert SCHUMANN or Schuhmann (1869–1951), married Alice-Marie Lehmann (1876–1946), daughter of the collector Albert Lehmann (q.v.).
Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, 7.XII.1934:
Lot 100: Perronneau, homme; Lot ?: Boucher, ?Mme Baudouin

Herr SCHWALBE (. Hamburg c.1766)
Dictionary, artists

SCHWEITZER Gallery, New York, art dealer

Louis-Auguste, baron de SCHWITTER (1805-1889), portraitist and amateur, Paris, collector of drawings and prints. The only entry in the Dictionary is of a coloured chalk drawing by Aubert.
Lit.: Lugt 1768

James SCHWOB D'HÉRICOURT (1874–1939), industrialist, with interests in wool manufacture and in the Mumm champagne house, closely related by marriage to capitaine Alfred Dreyfus. A Jewish community was formed on his property in the canton of Héricourt (Haute-Saône) in 1906. During World War II, some of his pictures were seized from his family or destroyed by the Germans.
Pastels: La Tour, Mlle Ferrand

Lieut.-Col. Alexander Malcolm SCOTT (1896-1975), of Inkpen, Berkshire, an officer in the Scots Guards, was commandant of Camp Z (Mytchett Place), where Rudolf Hess was imprisoned. in 1941. He was Gold Staff Officer, Buckingham Palace. In 1975 his residual bequest to the National Art Collections Fund included a number of pastels which were assigned to museums in Bristol, Kendal and Enfield.
Pastels: Gardner, Miss Denby; Mr & Mrs Henchman; Mrs Tollemache; man; lady; Hamilton, pendants

James SCOULER (1741-1812), miniaturist.
Dictionary, artists
London, Hutchins, Wells, Fisher, 10-11.IV.1797:
Framed and glazed - Rosalba [CARRIERA]
Lot 4: Two portraits of ladies, plate glass
Lot 6: Two heads in crayons
Lot 8: The portrait of a lady, plate glass
Lot 9: A ditto, ditto
Lot 13: A head of Diana, plate glass
Lot 14: A ditto

Götz Burkhard Graf von SECKENDORFF (1842-1910), soldier, diplomat and artist. Son of Theodor von Seckendorff, Prussian minister in London; he was appointed Oberhofmeister to Kaiserin Friedrich, whom he accompanied on her travels after the Kaiser's death. His watercolours are represented in the Royal Collection in Windsor.
Lit.: Hildegard Reinhardt, in Victoria von Preußen 1840-1901 in Berlin 2001. Cat. K. Müller & F. Rothe, pp. 232-91
Pastels: Perronneau, homme

Charles SEDELMEYER (1837-1925), born in Vienna (where he remained until 1867), of 6 rue de La Rochefoucauld, Paris, one of the most important pre-war dealers; his clients included Pierpont Morgan and the Kanns. His enormous collection was dispersed in seven sales in Paris and Vienna in 1907. Conforming with, and perhaps forming, the taste of the day, he held pastels by Boucher, Carriera, La Tour and Vigée Le Brun as well as Russell and Hamilton. Around 1860, while still in Vienna, he married Theresia Brunner (c.1838–1907) (possibly related to Charles Brunner, q.v.). Among their daughters, Emma married the dealer Eugène Fischhof; Caroline married the collector Dr Paul Mersch (qq.v.); while Emilie married the sculptor Stanislas Lamy.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Robert René Meyer-SÉE (1883– ), art expert, author of a monograph on English pastels and of studies on Masquerier, Chinnery and Romney. The son of a wine merchant, he came to England in 1902. In 1905 was described as a motor salesman on his marriage certificate. His wife, who was later painted by Severini (a portrait for which a pastel study was made), inherited a number of pastels of members of the Sibley-Braithwaite family. After working as manager for Martin Henry Colnaghi, Sée joined Max Rothschild at the Sackville Gallery c.1909. The firm arranged the exhibition of English pastellists in Paris in 1911, and dealt in works by Gardner and similar artists. In 1912 he left to open the Marlborough Galleries with Gilbert, vicomte de Rorthays and Sam Nyburg at 34 Duke Street, St James. He was serving as an officer in the French army in 1915 when he gave evidence in the trial of an insurance claim involving suspicion of fraud. He was later employed by Xavier Haas to catalogue his collection of Romney drawings.
Lit.: Barbara Pezzini, "The 1912 Futurist exhibition at the Sackville Gallery...", Burlington magazine, CLV, .vii.2013, pp. 475ff

Count Antoine SEILERN (1901-1978), of 58 Princes Gate, art historian and collector. His extensive collection of old master paintings and drawings was donated anonymously to the Courtauld Institute, the National Gallery and the British Museum (which received a Luttrell pastel in 1946).

Jacques SELIGMANN (1858-1923) was the son of a German flour merchant. He moved to France early and worked for the auctioneer Paul Chevallier at the Hôtel Drouot, and then for Charles Mannheim. In 1880 he set up independently from premises in the rue des Mathurins, moving c.1900 to the place Vendôme. A split with his brother Arnold (1860-1935) in 1912 resulted in the creation of two firms, Arnold Seligmann & Cie remaining in the place Vendôme, while J. Seligmann & Cie conducted business from the palais de Sagan; a New York branch was opened in 1913. Jacques's elder son Germain Seligman [sic] (1893-1978) continued the business, while André (1898-1945) established his own gallery on the Faubourg Saint-Honoré. A number of the firm's pictures were seized by the ERR during the war, among them pastels by Lenoir, Masquerier (2), Russell (2), Vigée, Vigée Le Brun (attributed), and Willison.
Lit.: Germain Seligman, Merchants of art: 1880-1960, New York, 1961; Germain Seligman, Oh! Fickle taste, New York, 1952; John Richardson, ed., The collection of Germain Seligman, New York, 1979; Donateurs 1989

Marcellin-François-Zacharie de SELLE ( -1759), trésorier général de la Marine.
Vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 19-28.II.1761, Lot 38: Valade; Lot 42: Audran.

Jean de SÉNAC ( –1783), fermier général 1761–80, lecteur du cabinet du roi, son of the premier médecin du roi, brother of Gabriel Sénac de Meilhan (1736-1803), maître des requêtes 1764, lecteur du dauphin 1763, intendant de Hainaut 1775, fermier général. Jean de Sénac owned houses in the rue Bergère and at Villiers.
Vente p.m., Paris Alexandre, 3.XII.1783 & seq.:
Lot 18: La Folie pare la Décrépitude des ajustemens de la Jeunesse ; au pastel par C. Coypel. Ce Tableau a été gravé par Surugue [55 livres; Valade]
Lot 20: Des Femmes au Bain, dans un Paysage; charmante composition au pastel, signé Boucher
Lot 21: Le Fleuve Scamandre surprenant une jeune Fille au Bain ; au pastel par le même [Boucher]. Ce Sujet a été gravé par J. Daullé.
Lot 32: Deux jolies Femms à demi-nues & vues à mi-corps ; l'une joue du Tambour de Basque & l'autre est représentée en Nayage. Ces Morceaux sont peints au pastel par Vigée [51 livres 1]
Lot 56: [Boucher] Une jolie Tête de Femme, vue de profil : elle est peinte au pastel [15 livres 1; Joullain pour Tersan]

Monsignor Lodovico SERGARDI (1660-1726), collector, writer under the pseudonym Quinto Settano. His nephew, abate Lattanzio Sergardi (1695- ), compiled a list of the pictures from his inventory which he wished to retain, which included the Barocci sheet.
Lit.: Susan M. Dixon, Between the real and the ideal: The Accademia degli Arcadi and its garden in eighteenth-century Rome, Delaware, 2006, p. 125
Inv., Rome, 8.I.1727
Pastels: Barocci, tre puttini

Giuseppe I Sforza Cesarini Savelli, duca di SFORZA CESARINI (1705-1744), Neapolitan ambassador to the Holy See. His posthumous inventory shows 15 "pastels" by Carlo Maratti.
Dictionary, genealogy, Sforza

John SHEEPSHANKS (1787-1863), of Rutland Gate, London, son of a wealthy cloth manufacturer at Leeds, formed a collection of some 600 pictures which he presented to the nation in 1857. His nephew, the Rev. Thomas Sheepshanks (1819-1913), of Park Place, Harrogate, 1894, owned Russell pastels of members of his family, as well as of a St Giles songstress.
Lit.: Gentleman's magazine, .XI.1863, p. 664; Bryan 1905

René SIBILAT (c.1865–1947), Paris, administrateur directeur de la Banque Worms & Cie, president of the Chambre des Assureurs maritime de France, bibliophile. He was the nephew of Émile Straus (q.v.), second husband of Bizet's widow Geneviève (1845-1926), model for the duchesse de Guermantes. Sibilat's collection of some 800 first editions of modern fiction, many dedicated to Mme Straus, was presented to the Bibliothèque nationale in 1949 by his widow Magda.
Lit.: Mina Curtiss, Other people's letters: in search of Proust, 2005
Pastels: Perronneau, M. & Mme Michel de Grilleau

Philippe SICHEL (1839/40-1899), art dealer; handled pastels by Carriera, Ducreux, La Tour, Vivien and Éc. fr.
Paris, Georges Petit, 22-28.VI.1899:

Augustin-François, baron de SILVESTRE (1762-1851), de l'Institut, bibliothécaire du cabinet du roi, son of Jacques-Augustin de Silvestre (q.v.). His collection of over 100 paintings and 250 drawings was sold in 1851.
Dictionary, genealogy
Vente p.m., Paris, 4-6.XII.1851, postponed to 11-13.XII.1851:
Lot 233: La Tour, dame âgée; Lot 234: Anon., Mme Louise, abbesse des Carmélites

Jacques-Augustin de SILVESTRE (1719-1809), maître à dessiner des Enfants de France, engraver, great-nephew of Louis de Silvestre (q.v.); father of baron de Silvestre (q.v.). An active art collector, he owned some 16 Chardins.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Regnault-Delalande, Catalogue raisonné d'objets d'arts du cabinet de feu M. de Silvestre, Paris, 1810
Vente p.m., Paris, 28.II.- 25.III.1811:
Pastels: Chardin, auto; & Mme Chardin [R&T 194, 198]; Hallé; Oudry, études de divers animaux
ALLEGRI, dit LE CORRÉGE
Lot 161: Une Tête de jeune Homme vu de trois-quarts, coiffé de cheveux blonds. Ce morceau, au pastel, a quelqeu rapport avec la tête de l'Amour qui pince de la harpe, dans le tableau du sujet de Léda, peinte par le Corrège. H. 13 p., L. 9 p. 6 l. On trouve dans cette étude la grace expressive et le charme ordinaire aux ouvrages de ce maître. Elle provient du cabinet de Tallard, no. 238.
COYPEL (Antoine)
Lot 297 [part]: Trente-huit esquisses exécutés à l'essence, au pastel ou dessinés à la sanguine et aux crayons noir et blanc.
Lot 300: Deux Etudes de têtes de vieillards; une est en pastel.
COYPEL (Charles)
Lot 301: Vingt-un Sujets et Etudes de figures etc...plusieurs au pastel.
COYPEL (Noel-Nicolas) [Charles]
Lot 304: Le Portrait de l'Ambassadeur turc, venu en France peu après l'avénement de Louis XV au trône; et celui du fils de cette Excellence, qui fut dans la suite ambassadeur près du même prince. Morceaux en pastel.
LE BRUN (Charles)
Lot 378 part: Etude de tête de femme peinte au pastel.
NATOIRE
Lot 429 part: Etude de tête peinte au pastel, sous verre.
PATEL
Lot 456: Seize Paysages ornées de ruines,...; deux légèrement coloriés au pastel.
and numerous drawings with touches of pastel by Barocci and various masters

Louis de SILVESTRE (1675-1760), history painter; he rose to become directeur of the Académie royale before moving to Dresden where he was appointed premier peintre. Although not himself a pastellist, both his wife and daughter (qq.v.) were.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: R.-A. Weigert, "Documents inédits sur Louis de Silvestre (1675-1760) suivis du catalogue de son œuvre", Archives de l'art français, xvii, 1932, pp. 362-488

Norton SIMON (1907-1993), industrialist and philanthropist, maintained a private collection of drawings in addition to the works now in the eponymous museum (v. Collections)

Nikolai SINEBRYCHOFF (1789–1848), of Russian origin, settled in Helsinki in the early 19th century and made a fortune from the brewing and distilling monopolies he acquired in 1819 and 1822. His grandson Paul Sinebrychoff (1859-1917) continued to run the brewery, but also shared a passion for collecting art with his wife, the actress Fanny Grahn (1862-1921). The collection, comprising Swedish, Dutch and Flemish portraits and miniatures, silver and porcelain, was given to the state in 1921 (two years after the Prohibition Act was passed in Finland) together with their home, in a park in central Helsinki.
Pastels: v. Collections, Helsinki

Le marquis de SINETY (fl. 1957), château de Misy.
Pastels: Frédou, duc de Bourgogne; Nanteuil, Marolles

Isaac Merritt SINGER (1811-1875), founder of the Singer sewing machine company. Among his 22 children from various marriages and liaisons were Isabelle-Blanche, duchesse Decazes (q.v.), mother of Mrs Daisy Fellowes (q.v.) and Winnaretta Singer, princesse Edmond de Polignac (q.v.). His widow Isabella Eugenie Boyer (1841-1904) subsequently married the duc de Camposelice and Paul Sohège (q.v.).

Jean-Claude Gaspard de SIREUL (c.1720/30-1781), valet de chambre du roi, collector, particularly associated with Boucher whose works he collected with a "passion violente…aux depens de sa propre aisance".
Lit.: Grove 1996
Vente p.m., Paris, 3.XII.1781:
Boucher pastels:
Lot 45: Le Portrait de Mme de Pompadour, vue de trois-quarts. Elle est représntée coiffée en cheveux, et la gorge à demi découverte [200 livres; Boileau fils]
Lot 46. Le Portrait de Mademoiselle ***, vu de face, coiffée en cheveux et vêtue d'une robe bleue. Hauteur 14 pouces, largeur 12 pouces. [21 livres 1 sol; Charlier]
Lot 47: Le Portrait de Madame de *** en petit et vu de face. Elle est représentée coiffée en cheveux et en habit de Bergère, ayant le bras droit passé dans une corbeille de fleurs. Le fond du tableau offre un paysage…. La plupart des Amateurs n'ignorent pas que ce fur un homage de l'amité de M. Boucher pour M. de Sireul. Hauteur 14 pouces, largeur 12 pouces
Lot 49: Deux jolis dessins…dans l'un on voit une jeune paysanne portant un panier d'une main, et tenant de l'autre un petit garnçon qui fait voler un oiseau au bout d'un fil et suivi d'un autre enfant; l'autre représent un jeune fille portant un enfant dans ses bras et suivie d'un autre qui marche près d'elle, 10 p ½ par 6 p. ½ [180 livres; Dulac]
Lot 62: Un dessin précieux…représentant une jeune fille de profil, les cheveux tressés et ornés de fleurs, colorié au pastel sur papier bleu, 10 p. x 8 p. [48 livres 1 sol; Robert]
Lot 64: Buste d'une jeune fille, coiffée en cheveux et la gorge nu, colorié au pastel sur papier bleu, 9 p. x 8 p. [22 livres 1 sol; Paillet]
Lot 158. [Un dessin colorié], représentant un buste de femme, vue de face, ayant l'épaule et la gorge découvertes, les cheveux tressés avec un ruban bleu [19 livres 1 sol; Paillet]
Fragonard, 2 pastels

Jan SIX (1618-1700), mayor of Amsterdam, art collector and patron of Rembrandt. Many members of this family were collectors or art historians. Lucretia Johanna van Winter (1785-1845), married to Hendrik Six van Hillegom, was also a collector; she is the subject of a pastel by Tischbein now in the Six Foundation, Amsterdam. Other pastels owned by members of the family included pendants by Hodges (Pieter ter Borch & wife).
Lit.: Priem 1997, pp. 103-196

Sir Hans SLOANE, Bt (1660-1753), physician and collector; his collection formed the nucleus of that of the British Museum. He owned Faithorne's pastel of John Ray.

Joseph SMITH (1682-1770), British consul in Venice, collector of pictures, books, coins etc., and patron of the arts. Smith lived in Venice from 1700, where he initially joined the bankers Thomas and Samuel Williams, becoming senior partner in 1720. Smith was finally appointed Consul in 1744 (remaining in office until 1760). His enormous collections of books and pictures were bought by George III: the books now form part of the British Library, while the pictures are now in the Royal Collection. However it seems that some items were retained, and there is a particularly large discrepancy between the 38 pieces by Rosalba listed in a manuscript inventory by Smith around 1762 with a view to sale to George III and the six now in the Royal Collection, several of which were acquired from other sources (only one Rosalba was included in the posthumous sale organised by Christie's, 16-17.V.1776). Among those ceded was the pastel of John Law acquired by Walpole. Smith also commissioned pastels by Nazzari of each of the artists he patronised: Smith was instrumental in bringing Zuccarelli to London, Visintini redesigned the façade of Smith's Palazzo Balbi, and worked with Giandomenico Tiepolo at the Villa Valmarana in 1757. Visintini also engraved 38 vedute by Canaletto, an artist for whom Smith was agent.
Lit.: Frances Vivian, Il Console Smith mercante e collezionista, Vicenza, 1971; J. G. Links, Canaletto, Oxford, 1982; London 1993b; Ingamells 1997; Oxford DNB; Llewellyn 2009

Jean-Baptiste SLODTZ ( -1759), Paris art dealer and restorer, partner of Pierre Remy, described also as peintre du duc d'Orléans. Among the works he restored was a pastel by Carriera.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Wildenstein 1966

John SMIBERT (Edinburgh 1688 - 1751), portraitist in oils; active in America. His estate inventory included, apart from his own works, "6 figures in pastills".
Lit.: Notebooks of John Smibert, Boston, 1969; Shelley 2002b

John Wentworth SMITH (1871–1967), of 36 Wilbury Road, Hove, member of the London stock exchange, making his fortune in shipping and coal: his collection of Russells was acquired from prestigious dealers such as Wertheimer. A number of sales took place after his death; his estate was valued at £229,943.
London, Christie's, 14.XII.1928 :
Lot 64: Gardner, Mrs Hale; Lot 65: Russell, Miss Darby; Lot 66: Mrs Sarah White; Lot 67: Bonar children; Lot 68: Lace makers; Lot 69: Love songs and matches; Lot 70: Persian Sibyl

Dudley SNELGROVE (1906-1992), FSA, expert on watercolours.
London, Sotheby's, 19.XI.1992:
Luttrell, Lot 165: boy & girl of the Evelyn family; Lot 168: Mortimer & sister; Lot 171: Jeffreys; Lot 284: Smith, man

Paul SOHÈGE, violinist, in 1893 became fourth husband of Isabella Eugenie Boyer (1841-1904), widow of Issac M. Singer (q.v.) and the duc de Camposelice. He owned several canvases by Boilly, and was the subject of a portrait by Benjamin-Contant exhibited in the 1898 salon.
Paris, Drouot, Bernier, Sortais, 1.IV.1909:
Lot 23: Ansiome, homme; Lot 26: Perronneau, ?Louis Journu; Lot 27: Vigée Le Brun [M. V. Lemoine], fillette
Other pastels: Perronneau, Puente-Fuerte

Henri-Augustin SOLEIROL (1792-1860), chef de bataillon du génie, biographer of Molière. He assembled a "Galerie théatrâle", consisting of 755 prints and 641 drawings and miniatures of drawings and prints, sold in Paris (1-4.XII.1862, 30.XI.-3.XII.1864). Some of these, including several "pastels du temps" (Desangles, Labille-Guiard, Carle Vanloo, Éc. fr.), were reproduced in engravings by Frédéric Hillemacher in de Manne 1861. His brother Joseph Francois Soleirol (1781-1863) formed a large botanical collection.
Vente p.m., Paris, Delbergue, 29.IV.-2.V.1861:
Lot 563: La Tour, Richer de Rhodes; Lot 578, Van Loo, Le Kain[ auto]

SOPHIA DOROTHEA von Hannover (1687-1757), Königin von Preußen as wife of Friedrich Wilhelm I., left some 806 pictures in Schloß Monbijou and Berliner Schloß. Her posthumous inventory (27.II.-3.IV.1758) contained 19 pastels, mostly anonymous; four seem to be by Lundberg.
Lit.: Börsch-Supan 1994

Claude-Léger SORBET (c.1716–p.1789), of Itteville, chevalier de Saint-Michel 1773, chirurgien-major des mousquetaires gris; he retired in 1775 with a pension of 3344 livres, which he was still drawing in 1789. He was a friend of Pigalle, and Moitte engraved his portrait by Cochin.
Lit.: Jean-René Gaborit, "A propos de la première oeuvre connue de Jean-Baptiste Pigalle", Jahrbuch der berliner Museen, XXIX/XXX, 1987/88, pp. 235-39
Paris, Chariot, Remy, 1.IV.1776 & seq.
BOUCHER
Lot 46: Une Femme tenant un papier de musique; elle est vue presque de face; des fleurs ornent sa tête: ce beau Buste est peint au pastel, 16 p. 6 x 13 p. 3
Le Propriétaire les tient directement des mains de feu M. Boucher aux Nos suiv. 215, 216, 217, 218 & 219.
Lot 218: La Voluptueuse & la Dormeuse, buste en pastel sous verre, 15 p. x 11 p.
Lot 219: Deux autres bustes de femme, dont une tient un perroquet.

SORIN DE BONNE: family associated with the pastellist Mme Filleul (q.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy

Georges SORTAIS, expert and dealer; his opinion on Leonardo's La Belle Ferronnière led to the celebrated defamation case against Duveen.
Paris, Drouot, Desvouges, Baudoin, 22.V.1925:
Lot 35: Carriera, Deux Poésies; Lot 36: Carriera, La Paix et la Justice; Lot 15: Ducreux, Du Moustier; Lot 34: Perronneau, [??]Duclos

SOUCHAY, de Lyon.
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 4-14.I.1775:
Lot 7: Un buste de femme coëffé & vêtue dans le costume Vénitien: ce Tableau au pastel par Mademoiselle Rosalba, est d'une touche fondue admirablement: il port 11 pouces de haut, sur 9 pouces 6 lignes de large, sous glace
Lot 8: Deux paysages d'une aimable couleur, peints au pastel par M. Pillement. 12 pouces de haut, sur 16 pouces 6 lignes de large

Jacques-Germain SOUFFLOT (1713-1780), architecte du roi.
Vente p.m., Paris, Le Brun, 20.XI.1780:
Pastels: Loir, 2 bustes de femmes

Mlle Marie-Maximilienne SOUILHAGON DE BRUET, from an old family of parlementaires. Legacy to the musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux in 1877.
Pastels: Éc. fr., Valdec; inconnu; 2 inconnues

Henri-Joseph SOUQUES (1806-1876), conseiller à la cour d'appel d'Orléans; bequest to the musée des Beaux-Arts, 1876.
Lit.: Klinka-Ballesteros 2005
Pastels: Perronneau, Mme Fuet

Greve Gustav Adolf SPARRE (1746-1794), collector. His fortune was derived from the Swedish East India Company, and enabled him to build one of the most important Swedish art collections (rich in Dutch painting but also including family portraits and pastels by Lundberg), originally housed at Göteborg but later moved to Kulla Gunnarstorp until sold in 1837 to the Wachtmeister family, slot Vanås.
Lit.: I. Hasselgren, Konstsamlaren Gustav Adolf Sparre 1746-1794. Hans studieresa våning och konstsanling i Göteborg, Göteborg, 1974; Chardin 1979; Grove 1979

Maximilian Freiherr SPECK VON STERNBURG (1776-1856), wool merchant, agriculturalist and art collector. His collections, acquired by the Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig in 1996, included two Pillement landscapes in addition to paintings, prints and drawings from Cima to Christian David Friedrich.

James Breckinridge SPEED, prominent Louisville businessman and philanthropist. His widow Hattie Bishop Speed ( -1942) founded the Speed Art Museum in 1925 in his memory. Mrs Berry Stoll, née Alice Speed, their granddaughter (best known as the victim of a sensational kidnapping in 1934), left more than $50 million to the museum in 1996.
Pastels: v. Collections, Louisville, The Speed Art Museum, 1996

Johan Conrad SPENGLER (1767-1839), curator of the Danish royal kunstkammer. He formed a large collection of old master drawings, many sold at auction in 1839, a number of which now form part of the Statens Museum for Kunst. Among these are pastels by Barocci and Juel.
Lit.: Lugt 1434

Francesco Carlo SPINELLI, principe di Tarsia (1668-1732), collector.
Inv., Naples, .III.1732
Pastels: Reni, Madonna

George SPIRIDON, a Syrian art collector based in Rome from c.1830. His niece, contessa Gallotti, also had an important collection of Italian painting. George's son, Ludovic de B. Spiridon (1859- ), acted as a dealer, importing art into the United States. He consigned a Labille-Guiard pastel autoportrait for sale in London in 1907.

Walter A. STAEHELIN, Bern, expert on Chinese export porcelain.
Pastels: Pillement, paysage

Johann STAIGER (1765-1808), pastellist and collector.
Dictionary, artists

STANISLAW II. AUGUST, król Polski 1764-95 (1732-1798): avid art collector. Before his abdication Desenfans and Bourgeois (qq.v.) assembled for him the collection of old master paintings which is now at Dulwich. Réau's inventory contains more than 30 pastels by Louis Marteau as well as works by Kucharski, Mme Gault de Saint-Germain and Perronneau (Biron). He also owned a pastel by P. J. Bardou.
Dictionary, genealogy, Polska
Lit.: Louis Réau, "Catalogue des œuvres d'art français du roi de Pologne Stanislas-Auguste", Archives de l'art français, XVII, 1932, pp. 227-248; Mánkowski 1932

Mrs Carl STERN, née Anne Bigelow Rosen (1917-2009), daughter of the collector Walter Tower Rosen and Lucie Bigelow Dodge; she married two musicians and was a lifelong supporter of the arts.
Sale, Thomaston, Maine, 7-8.XI.2009
Lot 210: Carriera, Diana

Edgar ou Edgard-Salomon STERN (1854-1937), banker and collector, 20 avenue Montaigne; his wife was Marguerite Fould (1866–1956). He acquired several pictures from the Goncourt sale in 1897 and was also a lender to the Goncourt exhibition in 1933 as well as to the Brussels exhibition of 1912.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Saint-Marceaux 2007

Jacques-Léon STERN (1882-1949), politician, député des Basses-Alpes to 1936, ministre de la Marine in 1933, banker, racehorse owner and art collector. He owned a hôtel particulier in the Champs-Elysées and was married to Simone de Leusse. He emigrated to New York in 1940 where he died 9 years later.
Sale p.m., New York, Parke Bernet, 3-4.XI.1950
Lot 49: Perronneau, marquise d'Anglure
Other pastels: Perronneau, Chassaing de Beauséjour; Valade, comtesse de Sénozan

Stern, v.q. Michelham

Henry or Henri Julius STETTINER (1842–p.1913), antiquaire, of 27, rue de Choiseul (1871), 29 Chaussée-d'Antin (1885). He advertised that he had a house in London "où il vend les choses anglaises achetées à Paris". This may have been 24 Cranbourn Street, where, according to an advertisement in The Times, 1872, "amateurs and collectors will find his extensive collections of fine old funiture, clocks, candelabra, bronzes, Sèvres, Dresden...and other Porcelains, the whole of which will be offered at such prices as to ensure a ready sale." A few years later he moved to his father-in-law's house at at 14 Wimpole Street – Stettiner married Gertrude, daughter of Frederick Davis, in 1875, but was living at 14 rue Halévy, Paris, when two sons were born in London (1876, 1877). He was recorded in the 1881 census at the Hotel Dieudonné, 11 Ryder Street where his town of birth was given as "Koenigsberg" with the words "British subject" added. The second son, Oscar Stettiner (1877–1948), continued the business, latterly from 18 avenue Matignon. Stettiner acquired pastels by Cotes, Ducreux, Gardner, La Tour, Lawrence and Vigée in sales from 1911. Among his clients were Sir Richard Wallace, Ernest Cognacq and Anatole France, to whom he showed two charming pastels by Nattier.
Lit.: Doreen Berger, The Jewish Victorian, 1999; Régine de Plinval de Guillebon, "Un amateur de céramique à Paris: Lady Schreiber", Revue de la Société des amis du musée national de céramique, 14, 2005, pp. 68ff

Dr STEVENS.
London, 3-5.III.1796 [part]
Lot 371: A female head, Rosalba, highly finished [Framed and Glazed] [£2/12/-; Cole]

St George St George, né Usher, Baron ST GEORGE of Hatley St George (1715-1775), sheriff of Roscommon, MP. "A great collector of pictures", he started the collection which was subsequently at Carton (q.v.), and included pastels by Carriera and Nogari presumably collected in Italy where a Carriera portrait of him must have been made. Thias has been confused with the second pastel of him, also recorded at Carton, now attributed to Pond. Ingamells does not list an early enough trip to Italy, but we know he was out of the kingdom in the 1740s from a dispute over land at Eyre Connaught, and his son was born in Paris in 1755.

Lady STRACHEY, née Jane Maria Grant (1840-1928), authoress; married Lieut.-Gen. Sir Richard Strachey; mother of Lytton Strachey. She acquired a collection of some 63 Gardner pastels from Lord Carlingford (q.v.); they were dispersed at Christie's on 17.VII.1911.

Casimir I. STRALEM (1886-1932), of 14 East 82nd Street, New York, partner in the banking firm of Hallgarten & Company; Edith, Mrs Stralem was the daughter of his partner, Sigmund Neustadt; their son was Donald S. Stralem (1903-1976), New York. His wife, Jean Ickelheimer (1908-1994), philanthropist and art collector (owning works by Picasso, Matisse, Degas and Renoir), was a granddaughter of the banker Philip Lehman.
London, Christie's, 13.XII.1984:
Lot 158: Jacques-André Portail [Boucher], jeune femme; Lot 181: Rosalba, femme au perroquet; Rosalba, L'Été

Tony Banks, Lord STRATFORD (1943-2006), English politician; his collection of political portraits and cartoons included three pastels of Charles James Fox.
London, Bonhams, 3.V.2007:
Lot 30: S. Cotes, Fox; Lot 38: Smith, Fox; Lot 81: S. Cotes, Fox

Émile STRAUS (1884-1929), lawyer, second husband of Georges Bizet's widow, née Geneviève Halévy (1849-1926), known as a model for Proust's duchesse de Guermantes. His nephew was René Sibilat (q.v.).
Pastels: La Tour, Voltaire; [?Perronneau, M. & Mme Michel de Grilleau]

Isidor STRAUS (1845-1912) founded the Macy's department store business with his brother. He was killed with his wife on the Titanic. Two of their seven children were collectors. Herbert Nathan Straus (1881-1933), youngest of the Straus brothers, and his wife, née Therese Kuhn (1884-1977), were collectors of French drawings, some of which are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Four dozen French drawings, including works by Boucher, Fragonard and Saint-Aubin, were donated to the Fogg Art Museum in 1978 (Herbert was at Harvard), along with ten sculptures. Jesse Isidor Straus (1872-1936) was US ambassador to France 1933-36. His widow, née Irma S. Nathan (1876-1970), kept the collection of French drawings, complemented by French XVIIIe furniture, boiseries and objets d'art, in her Park Avenue apartment.
Lit.: Seligman 1961
(Irma Straus): New York, Parke-Bernet, 21.X.1970:
Lot 19: La Tour, Mme de Lafrète
Lot 26: a/r Boucher, jeune femme
Other pastels: Nanteuil, Perrault

Jules STRAUSS (1861-1943), born in Frankfurt, Parisian banker and collector. He was renowned for his collections of impressionist paintings (sold in Paris, 3.V.1902 and 15.XII.1932) and of furniture (sales p.m., 27.V.1949 and 7.iII.1961), and he donated a large number of frames to the Louvre. In 1912 he bought the La Tour pendants of Belle-Isle at the Doucet sale for Louis Hirsch. He also owned Perronneau's Puente-Fuerte and a copy of La Tour's Louis XV.
Paris, Charpentier, 27.V.1949
Lots 7, 8: Lenoir, inconnus

Barthold SUERMONDT (1818-1887), German industrialist, banker and art collector. He endowed the Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum in Aachen. He owned a possible autoportrait by Vigée Le Brun.

Ronald Ernest SUMMERFIELD (1915-1989), antiques dealer in Cheltenham who amasssed a very large collection of objects.
London, Christie's, 27-28.X.1989: prints, watercolours etc.; 2.XI.1989: pictures.
London, Christie's, 5.XII.1989:
Lot 62: Liotard, jeune femme

Alfred SÜSSMANN ( -1921), banker, 64 avenue Malakoff. His sale included a wide range of furniture, pictures, objets d'art etc.
Paris, Petit, 18-19.V.1922:
Lot 50: Russell, Cavendish sisters

George Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of SUTHERLAND (1786-1861), v. Lenoir.

Birger SVENONIUS (1870-1952), Stockholm, lawyer and collector. He published a monograph on Roslin.
Berlin, Wertheim, 30.IV.1930:
Lot 109: Mme Roslin, Peill
Other pastels: Frey, Marie Leszczynska

Sylvestre, v. Silvestre

Anthony Langley SWYMMER or Swimmer (c.1724–1760), MP, of Longwood House, Hampshire, from a family of Jamaican planters, travelled to Paris and Rome, where he and his wife, née Arabella Astley (c.1719–1785), moved in Jacobite circles. They sat for portraits by Katherine Read and (in oil) by Mengs, and commissioned two lost pastels by him.

Owen SWINEY [Sweeny, Sweney, Swiny, McSwiney, McSwiny etc.] (1676-1754), impresario, of Irish origin. He departed from London in 1713 when his theatre at the Haymarket was in debt, and travelled in Italy and France for around 20 years, visiting Paris, Amsterdam, Leiden, Vienna, Bologna, Padua and Rome as well as Venice, the city with which he was most closely associated. He acted as agent for Rosalba Carriera and her English clients (among them, the Duke of Richmond) from about 1721 for the rest of his life, both in Italy and back in London.
Lit.: Sani 1985; Ingamells 1997; Llewellyn 2009
London, Langford, Great Piazza, Covent Garden, 28.II.-1.III.1755:
CARRIERA
Day one, 28.II.1755:
Lot 53: A head of Lord Boyne, in Crayons, 3 qrs
Lot 54: Ditto of Mr Barnard
Lot 55: Ditto of the Earl of Radnor
Day two, 1.III.1755:
Lot 53: A head of the Earl of Huntingdon, in Crayons, 3 qrs
Lot 54: Ditto of Mr Wynn
Lot 55: Ditto of Mr Chambers
Lot 56: Ditto of Mr Graham
P. OCHTS [Oets]
28. A Calm, in Crayons
A storm, it's Companion

William SYKES (c.1659–1724), painter and picture dealer, at Two Golden Balls in Portugal Row, Linconln's Inn Fields. He was a member of the Virtuosi of St Luke. "Mr SYKES's extraordinary collection of original and other pictures" was sold at auction in .II.1724 (not in Lugt, but a photocopy is in the Frick). It included several crayons:
Lot 141: Flatman the Poet, in Crayons by Greenhill [JG as a monogram]
Lot 305: Our Saviour's Head in Crayons, Goltzious
Lot 579: 4 in Crayons

T

Louis TABOURIER (1860–1897), expert, 53 avenue Montaigne.
Vente p.m., Paris, 20-22.VI.1898:
Pastels: Vigée Le Brun, sa fille

Richard, 5th Baron TALBOT DE MALAHIDE (1846-1921) of Malahide Castle, near Dublin: a large collection of Hamilton pastels was recorded in 1912, mostly family portraits.
Dictionary, genealogy, Talbot

Marie-Joseph d'Hostun, comte de Tallard, 2e duc d'Hostun, dit de TALLARD (1684-1755). A soldier, he was promoted to the Saint-Esprit four years before the death of his father, the maréchal de Tallard, in 1728. His wealth allowed him to assemble a spectacular collection of old master pictures from sales such as those of Verrue and Crozat. Carriera was almost the only contemporary artist he included.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Simon Jervis, "Mariette's annotated copies of the Tallard and Jullienne sale catalogues", Burlington magazine, cxxxi/1037, .VIII.1989, pp. 559-61; Grove 1996
Vente p.m.: Paris, Grignard, Remy, 22.III.-13.V.1756:
Rosalba CARRIERA
Lot 117: Deux Tableaux des plus précieux de cette Fille célebre, peints au pastel; chacun desquels est composé d'un grouppe de deux Figures de femmes en demi-corps, qui caractérisées par des attributs convenables au sujet, représentent dans le premier Tableau la Paix & la Justice, & dans le second les deux poésies; celle qui chante les louanges de Dieu, & celle qui ne connoît que les plaisirs & les jeux. Cette dernière est courronné de fleurs, & la tête de sa Compagne est environnée d'étoiles. Ces deux morceaux sont sous des glaces, ils viennent du Cabinet de M. Pasquier. Ils avoient été apportés en France par M. le Cardinal de Polignac. Il seroit difficile de trouver deux plus beaux pastels que ceux que nous annonçons. Ils ont cela de singulier, que ce sont des compositions, & que les autres pastels du même auteur ne consistent pour la plupart qu'en une seule tête. Les talents supérieurs de Mlle. Rosalba, dans la peinture au pastel, sont universellement reconnus. L'on trouve dans ses ouvrages le gracieux de la composition, joint à une touche spirituelle, & à un coloris seducteur. Notre Académie Roiale se trouve infiniment flattée de compter au nombre de ses Membres cette excellente Artiste. [1800 [ou] 2800 livres; Silvestre pour Mme la Dauphine]
Lot 204: Six Tableaux, qui seront divisés à la Vente; savoir, cinq Portraits des Dames de France, tant à l'huile qu'au pastel, couverts de glaces, dont un sans bordure; la premiere Fille de M. le Dauphin, peinte à l'huile: M. le Duc de Bourgogne, d'après M. Natier: un Portrait de Louis XIV à Cheval; & une Femme dans le Bain [392 livres]
Antonio Allegri, dit le Corrêge.
Lot 238: Une Tête au pastel, qui a quelque rapport avec delle de l'Amour qui joue de la Lyre tans le fameux Tableau de Leda, qui fut vendu il y a quelque tems à la vente de feu M. Pasquier.
Lot 399: {Le Padouan] Quatre Portraits, dont deux au pastel [30 livres 1; Glomy pour Silvestre].
Lot 456: Daniel Dumoustier, Deux très beaux Portraits de Vieillards au pastel [100 livres; Glomy pour M. Silvestre]
Lot 466: Deux Pastels fort bien touchés dans la maniere de Teniers par M. Aubert, l'un représente une vieille Femme, & l'autre un Vieillard [17 livres; Basan; Bazan rachettés pr de Vence 24 livres]
Lot 497: Frederic Baroche d'Urbin, Une belle tête au Pastel fort bien conservée [23 livres 19 sols; Glomy pour M. Silvestre]
Lot 498: Frederic Baroche d'Urbin, Quatre têtes au Pastel, du Baroche et de son Ecole [19 livres; Remy/?Silvestre]
Lot 658: Jacques del Ponte, dit le Bassan. Deux Desseins, dont un légerement touché au pastel, est une Etude pour une Adoration des Bergers [10 livres 1 sol avec les lots 659 & 660; Remy]

Mrs Elizabeth M. TAYLOR: gave large groups of sketches by William Artuad to the British Museum and Nottingham Castle in 1972/73. Possibly related to the artist Richard Taylor (fl. 1872-1901), whose copy of one of the Artaud drawings was also included.

E. TENCÉ.
Paris, Lechat, Pillet, 27.IV.1882:
Lot 32: La Tour, inconnu

Greve Carl Gustaf TESSIN (1695-1770), celebrated connoisseur, Swedish ambassador in Paris 1739-42, with his wife, née Ulrika Lovisa Sparre (1711-1768). In 1741 Tessin sent the pictures he had bought in Paris back to Stockholm; the list is reprinted below. Some (marked LU) were sold to Lovisa Ulrika (collection catalogued by C. W. von Düben; a pastel landscape sent as a gift to Tessin by Oudry in 1747 also seems to have ended up with Adolf Fredrik). The estate inventory conducted in 1770 at Åkerö is also reproduced, listing separately collected pictures and family portraits. Much of the collection was dispersed at public sales, at Åkerö, 4-16.II.1771 or at Stockholm, Académie des Arts libéraux, 1786, the catalogue for which is also set out below. Tessin's support for Lundberg was critical in establishing that artist's position in Paris. Their relationship remained close after Tessin returned to Sweden, with Lundberg following a few years later. Lundberg made innumerable portraits of Tessin, his wife and members of their family.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Lespinasse 1911, p. 319-37; Granberg 1930; Chardin 1979; Chatelus 1991, pp. 178, 287f; Grove 1996
Catalogue général de tous les objets qui ont été expédiés à Stockholm de Paris, .VIII.1741.
Pastels: Ballot no. 10
9. Une tête de femme, peinte par Boucher, cadre doré et glace [156 livres]
Ballot no. 12
24. Portrait de la Princesse de Rohan, au Pastel, copié d'après La Tour, cadre doré et glace [350 livres]
Vendu à la vente publique de 1786:
25. Portrait au pastel de ma belle-sœur Augusta, en Marchande de Marmotte, par Lundberg, cadre doré et glace [480 livres]
Ballot no. 13
33. Portrait de Carle Sparre. Pastel, glace et cadre [33 livres]
46. Portrait du dauphin, au pastel, cadre doré et glace [60 livres]
Ballot no. 18
80. Portrait de madame Boucher, au pastel, glace et cadre [150 livres]
Ballot no. 25
83. Vénus qui tient un pigeon, peint au pastel par Lundberg, glace et cadre [556 livres]
84. Portrait de Mlle Clermont au pastel, glace et cadre doré [250 livres]
85. Mlle Du Fresne, qui tient un chien, au pastel, glace et cadre doré [60 livres]
Vente succession, Åkerö, 4-16.II.1771:
Des portraits à l'huile:
Buste d'un abbé français, de grandeur naturelle, qui appuie sa tête sur une main et baisse les yeux. Peint sur carton par Charles Coypel et découpé.
Des portraits dessinés:
5 bustes de filles Wingåker, en divers costumes, originaux, peint par M. l'Intendant de cour Lundberg. 21 ½ p.h., 12 p. l., cadre doré et glace.
Utdrag ur bouppteckningen på åkerö efter greve Karl Gustav Tessin. [estate inventory, Åkerö, 1770]
Målningar i pastell. Dlr k.m.
1 st. Quvinnohufvud med rödgula hår, lutande åt vänster, af Boucher 24
1 Mycket vackert fruntimmers hufvud med pärlor och blåa band 30
Mademoiselle Therese, Sal. fru Grefvinnans kammarjungfru i Paris, hufvud måladt af hofintendenten Lundeberg 30
La Princese de Comti, bröstbild i röd drägt med svart krage kring halsen, måladt af hofintendenten Lundeberg 150
Mademoiselle de Sens, bröstbild i hvit skiftande drägt med blekrödt garmandt, måladt af hofintendenten Lundeberg 150
Venus med en dufve i famnen, copierad af hofintendenten Lundeberg 180
Mademoiselle Kelhorn, sedermera fru Werner, i hvit Bagnolette, måladt af hofintendenten Lundeberg 190
Grevvinnan Brionne, född prinsessa af Montauban Rohan, grönaktig klädning med rödt garmandt, måladt af Roslin i Paris 200
Famille Portraiter i Pastell
Framledne Fru Grefvinnan och Ricksrådinnan Tessin i spestmössa oeh svart hufva samt svart sammetskappa, bröstbild, original, måladt af hofintendenten Lundeberg.
Framledne Hans Excellens grefve Tessins Portrait i full rådsdrägt, måladt af dito.
Framledne Hans Excellences bröstbild i violett sidentygsråck, med guldbroderi af preusiska orden, hållande ett paper i handen, måladt af dito.
Grefve Nils Bielke, senator i Rom, bröstbild i rödt garmandt met mössa på hufvudet, original af Rosalba.
Fru Grefvinnan Wrede Sparres eller August Törnflychtes bröstbild i Savoyarde, hållande en ask met ett murmeldjur, målad af hofintendenten Lundeberg.
1 st. med bemälda fru grefvinna, half bröstbild, äfven förfärdigad af Lundeberg.
Fru grefvinnan Adlerfelt, född Ulrica Sophia Sparre, mer än bröstbild, målad en Muse de la peinture, med en pensel och paillet i handen, år 1756 af hofintendenten Lundeberg, original.
Grefve Sigge Axelsson Wrede Sparre, målad af förenämnde mästare.
Catalogue d'une collection de tableaux et portraits, tant à l'huile, qu'au pastel, en miniature et en émail…vente le [8] du mois de [may] 1786 & seq., dans la grande sale d'assemblée de l'Académie Royale de peinture et de sculpture à Stockholm.
Tableaux.
2. Demie figure de femme nue, collant un pigeon blanc contre son sein, peinte au paste par Lundberg, d'après Rosalba et sous sa direction.
Portraits tant à l'hule qu'au pastel.
2. Le Roi Adolphe Frederic. Buste au pastel, peint par Lundberg, lorsque S.M. n'était que Prince successeur au trône.
3. Luise Ulrique, Princesse Royale de Suède. Buste en profil, peint au pastel par Lundberg.
6. La même [Princesse de Rohan Soubise], en mantelet de velours bleu. Demie figure peinte au pastel par La Tour.
15. Feu M:r Le Comte Nicolas de Bielcke, sénateur de Rome. Portrait à mi-corps, en robe de chambre et bonnet, peint au pastel par Rosalba à Venise en 1736.

Pierre TESTARD (1697-1778), art dealer in Paris, active in first half 18th century.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

Richard THALMANN, banker, and his wife, née Lucie Emma Heilbronn (1875-1947). The Thalmann collection was seized during the war but recuperated.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Pastels: Bornet, dame; Greuze, femme; Labille-Guiard, vicomtesse de Gand; La Tour, Pommyer

Eugene Victor THAW, connoisseur, collector and art dealer since the 1950s. His distinguished collection of 300 European master drawings was presented to the Morgan Library in 1993. His philanthropy has also extended to native American art, presented to the Fenimore Museum in Cooperstown, and he has also donated works to the Frick, the NGA, Washington and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Amtmand Magnus THEISTES (1725-1791), traveller.
Copenhagen, 19.III.1792:
Skilderier i Vand, Pastel, og Oliefarve:
Lot 1: [Anon.]: Kong Christian den 6te og Dronning Sophie Magdalene

Marcel THÉVENIN, ?historien, directeur, École des hautes-études.
Paris, Drouot, 28.IV.1906:
Coypel [Lundberg], jeune femme; Mme Roslin; Lundberg

Adolphe-Narcisse, comte THIBAUDEAU (1795-1856) was a collector of paintings, drawings and prints. During his lifetime his collection enjoyed a high reputation as it had been assembled at great expense - the drawings alone had cost over Fr150,000; but his sale was a great disappointment, the 831 lots achieving less than Fr30,000, many items selling for less than Fr10. His illegitimate son Alphonse Wyatt Thibaudeau (c.1840-c.1892) was an art historian and dealer in Paris and London (18 Green Street, St Martin's Place). His interests included pictures of all kinds. In 1889 he fled to America to escape his creditors. A B. Vaillant pastel in the British Museum was acqured from him.
(Comte T.): Vente p.m., dessins, Paris, Le Blanc, 20-25.IV.1857:
Carriera, auto [Fr301]

The cabinet of Charles-Lucien, 2e baron THIBON (1796-1875), son of a regent of the Banque de France, is described in some detail in the Annuaire des artistes et des amateurs, 1861; rich in sculpture and painting, it included a Boucher pastel reclining woman. His sale p.m. took place at Drouot, 9-12.II.1875.

Jean-Baptiste THOMAS DE PANGE, sgr du marquisat de Pange (1717-1780), grand-bailli d'epée de la ville de Metz, trésorier des guerres et de l'ordre de Saint-Louis
Vente p.m., Paris, rue des Saints-Peres, Florentin, Boileau, 5.III.1781 & seq.
Lot 65. Vivien. Le Portrait, fort comme nature, d'un Abbé, vu presque de face, & plus qu'à mi-corps. Il est peint au pastel, & d'une vérité & d'une couleur admirables. H. 2 p. 6, l. 2 p. Monté sous glace.
Lot 66. J. B. Greuze. Un Tableau peint au pastel, & représentant duex jeunes Filles vues presque jusqu'à mi-corps; elles sont vêtues & coiffés agréablement & simplement, & l'une d'elles a la tête appuyé sur l'épaule de l'autre. Ce petit Morceau est plein de grace & de finesse. L'expression & les caracteres de têtes sont on ne peut pas plus intéressans. H. 17 po., l. 13 po. Monté sous glace. [440 livres; Boileau]
Lot 70. Anon. Un Tableau Paysage, au pastel, qui paroît imité d'après M. Vernet; il est orné de figures de femmes nues, qui se mettent au bain & en sortent. Monté sous glace. H. 1 p., l. 15 po. [56 livres 19]
Lot 71. Douze Tableaux, pastels communs, représentant des figures de Femmes. Ils sont tous de forme ovale & montés sous clace & de même mesure. H 15 po., l. 12 po. Ils seront vendus par couple [47 livres 19]

Baron Gui, Guy de or Guido THOMITZ (c.1862–p.1912), of 190 boulevard Pereire, then 21 rue Cambon, Paris, of Italian origin, collector and client of Duveen.
Pastels: Frey, Beringhen

Théophile Bürger, dit THORÉ (1807-1869), art critic and collector.
Lit.: F. Haskell, Rediscoveries in art, London, 1976; Chardin 1979

Rev. Robert John THORNTON (c.1768-1837), MD. Dr Thornton's Illustrations of the sexual system of Linnæus, 1799; was exhibited 1804 and finally sold by lottery in 1811. The illustrations included four pastels by Russell (Shaw; Thornton; Frontispiece; the nocturnal Cereus).

Otto Tagesen lensgreve THOTT (1703–1785), ridder af Elefantordenen, Danish statesman, biblophile (he owned some 138,000 at his death) and art collector, owned some 30 mythological and religious pastels by Georg Mathias Fuchs.

Mme Paul THUREAU-DANGIN, née Anne-Louise Henriquel-Dupont (1853-1928), wife of the historian Paul Thureau-Dangin (1837-1913), secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie française, and daughter of the engraver and friend of Ingres. She donated a pastel by Nanteuil to the Louvre. The Labille-Guiard acquired at the Garreta sale may have belonged to her son, the assyriologist François Thureau-Dangin (1872-1944).
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; Saint-Marceaux 2007
Pastels: Labille-Guiard, Guibert; Nanteuil, Dorieu

James Augustine Harvey THURSBY-PELHAM (1869-1947), of Cound Hall, Shropshire and 55 Cadogan Gardens, London, an expert on early English furniture. He also collected portraits of aristocratic subjects before and after the First World War, many acquired from the dealers Pawsey & Payne. Twenty pastels (and a number of watercolours by Downman and others) from this collection (passing via his daughter Emily, Mrs Guy Argles) were sold at Christie's, London, 7.XI.1995 and a further group were sold on 28.XI.2000 (the Hamilton portrait of the Marquess of Downshire was the highlight, reaching £377,750). Mrs Argles sold three pastels (as well as 18 Downman portraits, not listed below) in 1947.
London, Sotheby's, 19.XI.1947:
Carriera, Norreys Bertie; Cotes, Mrs Powis; Dorothea Tucker
London, Christie's, 7.XI.1995 (with biographical note):
Ashfield: Lot 39: Stuart; Lot 40: Sir J. & Lady Oxenden; Lot 41: Beale; Lot 42: Luttrell, Baker; Ch. Beale, attr.: Lot 43: Temple; Lot 44, North; English sch.: Lot 45, boy; Lot 46: Camden; Lot 47: Russell, child; Lot 48: a/r Hamilton, Mrs La Touche; Lot 49: Hamilton, Canova; Gardner: Lot 50: Parker; Lot 51, ?Burke; Lot 52, Smith; Lots 53-56, 58, 59: Downman, watercolours; J. R. Smith: Lot 57: Mrs Parkyns; Lot 60: Fox; Lot 61:, Burdett; Lot 67: Tischbein, lady; Lot 69: J. R. Smith, lady; Lot 70: Beauclerk, boy
London, Christie's, 28.XI.2000:
Lot 2: Hamilton, Downshire; Gardner: Lot 17: Mrs Sheridan; Lot 18: Lady Talbot; Lot 19: Lady Williams-Wynn; Lot 20: girl
Other pastels: Gardner, Mrs Eliott & daughters; Shaftesbury children; Hoare, man

Baron Hans Heinrich THYSSEN-BORNEMISZA (1921-2002), industrialist and art collector. Most of the (more than 1000) paintings, formerly known as the Sammlung Schloß Rohoncz and held at the Villa Favorita, Lugano, are now in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid. The collection originally included pastels by Carriera and Troost.
Lit.: Heinemann 1930; Heinemann 1969

Jan Willem Reinier TILANUS (1823-1914), professor of surgery at the University of Amsterdam, married Johanna Victoire Liotard, great-granddaughter of the artist, who inherited most of the Liotard family collection in 1873, with the exception of 16 works bequeathed to the Rijksmuseum. A few Liotards were included in the large sale in 1934.
Lit.: R&L
Amsterdam, 24.X.1934 & seq.

Friherre Daniel TILAS (1712–1772), governor, geneaologist, scientist, geologist and collector, member of the Swedish academy of sciences, commandeur de l'Ordre de l'Etoile polaire. He owned a pastel exposed to Fischer's method of fixing for a trial over 15 years.
Lit.: Fischer 1770

Eugène TONDU.
Vente p.m., Paris, Pillet, Febvre, 24-26.IV.1865:
Lot 127: Fragonard, La Fête à Rambouillet

Pierre-Henri TONDU-LEBRUN (1754-1793), ministre des affaires étrangères.
Pastel: La Tour, auto

Jeronimus TONNEMAN (1687-1750), collector. In addition to his own portrait, he owned a number of pastels by Troost. The sale of his collection, which included some crayons among the more than 2000 lots, took place in Amsterdam from 21.X.1754 and was extensively advertised in the London press.

Arthur TOOTH & Sons, London art delers, 5–6 Haymarket from 1866, 175 New Bond Street from 1906, 155 New Bond Street after 1909. Charles Tooth, a framer and gilder, established the business in 1842; his son Arthur (1828–1900) ran the business dealing mainly in nineteenth century paintings and prints. It remained active until the 1970s, and in the early twentieth century had branches in New York and Paris.

M. TOURNELLE [Fournelle or Cournelle in Lugt].
Paris, Joullain, 14.X.1776 & seq.
Lot 46: [Anon.]: Plusieurs tableaux en pastel & en mignature; Lot 118: Chantreau, Six compositions & études, au pastel & à l'encre de la Chine, 3 livres 1 sol avec le lot 119; Lot 201: Natoire, Tête de femme, au pastel, 8 livres 3 sols avec le lot 202; Joullain

TOURNIER.
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 14-21.IV.1773:
Lot 72: Frederic Baroche d'Urbin, La Visitation de la Vierge & une belle tête d'Ange, au pastel

Charles TOWNLEY or Towneley (1737-1805), antiquarian, art collector, Dilettanti. Of Jacobite origin, Townley (who adopted an earlier spelling of his family name than that used by other members of his family) was educated in Douai and was in Paris until 1758, and travelled several further times to France and Italy. Several pastels of Prince Charles (Hamilton, La Tour) were at Towneley Hall.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Ingamells 1997

Charles TOWNLEY (1746-c.1800), little-known painter and engraver, recorded in Italy 1773-76, where he borrowed money from his namesake. An engraving of Cunningham's portrait of Friedrich August Herzog zu Braunschweig-Öls suggests that he may have lived in Berlin when he lent the Hainchelin pastel to the Berlin salon.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997
Pastels: Hainchelin, Baumann

Édouard, 5e duc de TRÉVISE (1883-1946) inherited the title (created for maréchal Mortier in 1807) from the 4e duc in 1912; the 1917 posthumous sale was that of his aunt, widow of the 3e duc, née Marie Adèle Emma Le Coat de Kerveguen, while the La Tour pastel descended from his great aunt, Nancy de La Tour-Maubourg (q.v.).
Vente p.m., Paris, Mauger, 7.V.1917:
Lot 26: Prud'hon, Joséphine
London, 9.VII.1936:
Lot 116: La Tour, Jolyot de Crébillon
Paris, Charpentier, 19.V.1938:
Lots 39, 40: Nanteuil, hommes

Charles Aloysius Barnewall, 18th Baron TRIMELSTOWN (1861-1937), of Turvey House, County Dublin, and Trimelstown Castle, County Meath. His ancestor Nicholas Barnewall, 14th Lord Trimlestown (1726-1813) lived in Toulouse, and his daughter was a pastellist (v. Dictionary, s.v. Barnewall).
London, 2.II.1907:
Lot 151: La Tour, tête d'acteur

The Liotard pastel of François TRONCHIN (1704-1798) alludes to his collection by a Rembrandt on the easel. In addition to numerous family portraits by artists from Liotard and La Tour to Juel, various generations have owned pastels by Liotard and Carriera.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 287f
Catalogue des tableaux du cabinet de M. Tronchin, conseiller d'Etat à Genève, Geneva, 1765:
[p. 13]: Rosalba Carriera
Flore en chemise le sein & le bras droit découverts; elle tient des fleurs sur une draperie bleuë. Pastel 8 pouces 10 lignes de hauteur, 6 pouces 10 lignes de largeur.
[pp. 50–51]: J. Etienne Liottard.
Mon portrait. La figure assise sur une chaise de canne devant une table de bois des Indes chargée d'instrumens de mathématiques, de papiers de musique, d'un livre relié en veau. A côté est, sur un chevalet, un tableau de Rembrandt représentant une femme couchée: on en voit la bordure pendue dans le cabinet. Il est peint au pastel sur velin en 1757. 14 pouces de hauteur, 17 pouces de largeur.
Le portrait de M. ... Elle est en frilleuse, assise, les mains dans un manchon de plumes couleur de feu; en mantelet de satin blanc bordé de martre; la cappe mise sur la tête; il est noué d'un ruban couleur de feu; la jupe est de satin blanc des Indes à fleurs; les manchettes brodées. De grandeur naturelle. Il est peint au pastel sur velin en 1758. 26 pouces de hauteur, 20 pouces 9 lignes de largeur.
Un portrait de femme. C'est une Mlle. De la Croix, jeune & belle personne, vuë de profil; les cheveux tressés & rattachés sur la tête avec un ruban bleu. Elle a sur les épaules une draperie de satin bleu qu'elle tient d'une main sur son sein. Peint au pastel. 17 pouces 2 lignes de hauteur, 13 pouces 10 lignes de largeur.

Louis-François TROUARD (1729-1794), architect and collector.
Lit.: Chardin 1979
Paris, Chariot, Paillet, 22-27.II.1779:
Lot 1: Rosalba Carriera, Deux belles Têtes, peintes au pastel: l'une paroît considérer un chien, l'autre est vue de profil, hauteur 12 pouces, largeur 9 [300 livres]

Jean-François de TROY (1679-1752), artist and collector.
Dictionary, artists
Vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 9.IV.-5.V.1764:
Rosalba Carriera
Lot 26: Un Tableau des plus parfait de cette illustre Fille, peint au pastel, représentant une femme à mi-corps, coeffée en cheveux & couronnée de laurier, le bras droit est nud; elle tourne le feuillet d'un livre: ce morceau, qui est sous glace, vingt quatre pouces de haut sur dix neuf de large
Barocci
Lot 344: Une Tête en pastel, par Frederic Baroche d'Urbin
Deshays
Lot 503: Le Portrait de Louis XV peint au pastel, il est vu presque à mi-corps & en cuirasse, sous glace, vingt quatre pouces de haut sur dix neuf pouces six lignes
Lot 504: Le Portrait de Madame la premiere Dauphine, peint aussi au pastel, sous glace, & de même grandeur

Jean-Charles-Philibert TRUDAINE DE MONTINGY (1733-1777), directeur des Ponts et Chaussées, chimiste, mécène.
Dictionary, genealogy
Paris, 20-24.XII.1777:
Lot 33: Boucher, [La Voluptueuse & La Dormeuse], 15 p. x 12p., sur vélin

Brigadier Charles Edward TRYON-WILSON, né Tryon (1909-2001), DSO, of Dalham Tower, Cumbria.
London, Sotheby's, 4.VII.2002:
Lot 107: Read, Fitzroy children
Other pastels: Gardner, Lady Bromley; Wilson

Percy Moore TURNER (1877–1950), English dealer in Paris 1906–19 and then London, owner of the Independent Gallery, Grafton Street. He co-authored Stories of French artists with C. H. Collins Baker. in 1933 he was made an officier de la Légion d'honneur. He supplied Impressionist pictures to Samuel Courtauld, and old master and other pictures to numerous museums in Britain and France. The name Turner as a purchaser in auction records in the 1940–50 period probably refers to him; some of these were bought for Cailleux. He handled pastels by Barocci, Boucher, Bréhan, Cotes, Hien; Labille-Guiard, La Tour and Russell.
Lit.: Donateurs

Mrs Alec TWEEDIE, née Ethel Brilliana Harley (1860-1940), artist, traveller, sportswoman and writer; daughter of Dr George Harley, physician. Her home at Devonshire House, Mayfair was filled with treasures and mementoes of her extensive travels.
Mackworth, Hansons, 10.VI.2009:
Lot 500: Scouler, pendants

Le comte Alfred TYSZKIEWICZ (1882-1930). Various members of this Lithuanian family were collectors; the Egyptian collections of count Michal (1828-1897) are of particular importance.
Paris, Georges Petit, 12.XII.1922:
Russell, Lot 7: Mrs Jackson; Lot 8: Miss Russell

Mme G. de T....
Bordeaux, Duval, 22-23.IV.1915:
Lots 118, 119: La Tour, inconnus

U

Professor Dr. Emerich ULLMANN (1861-1937), Vienna, pioneer in renal transplantation
Lit.: L. Grünstein, Die Bildnisminiatur und Ihre Meister: Die Sammlung Prof. Dr. Emerich Ullmann, Wien, 1925

V

Christiaan Everhard VAILLANT (1746-1829), tax collector in Amsterdam and directeur der Nederlandsche huishoudelijke Maatschappij te Haarlem: acquired a Rosalba autoportrait at the Choiseul-Praslin sale in 1793.

Léandre VAILLAT (1878-1952), art historian, co-author of works on pastels with Ratouis de Limay (q.v.).

Jean VALADE (1710-1787), pastellist and art dealer.
Dictionary, artists
Inv. p.m., 17.XII.1787
Carriera[??], ??Bordoni; Coypel, Jésus

Mme la baronne VALDELOMÁR; presumably related to the comtesse Valdelomar whose p.m. sale took place in Berlin, Heilbron, 17.IV.1913, and included a copy of Perronneau's jeune fille au chat. The baronne is probably Julia Scholtz von Hermensdorff y Baquera (1865–), who married, in Málaga in 1888, Julio Valdelomar y Fábregues, III. Barón de Fuente de Quinto (1862–1892), poeta y abogado.
Vente p.m., Lucerne, Fischer, 31.VII.1923:
Lot 32: Vigée [?Filleul], homme; Lot 33: Vigée [?Lenoir], dame; Lot 37: Perronneau, femme

Cardinale Silvio VALENTI GONZAGA (1690-1756): papal nuncio in Brussels and Madrid ander Clement XI, secretary of state to Benedict XIV. His support for the arts led to the foundation of the Pinacoteca Capitolina and the reopening of the Accademia di San Luca; his protégé Subleyras painted his portrait. The cardinal's important personal collections of over 800 paintings and large numbers of drawings, books and objets d'art were established in the Villa Paolina in Rome where they appear in a celebrated painting by Giovanni Paolo Panini in 1749; in it Rosalba's Continents can be seen. The collection was inventoried in 1760 after the Cardinal's death, and included a number of pastels. His nephew, Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, sold the collection at auction in Amsterdam (Hendrik de Leth, Hendrik de Winter, 18.V.1763; 28.IX.1763).
Lit.: Olsen 1951; Pietrangeli 1961; Mantua 2005:
Inventory p.m., Villa Paolina, 1760 (an earlier inventory took place in 1756, with values):
N. 130. Quadro di palmi 1., once 4. per altezza, e palmi 10., once 1. per larghezza, rappresntante la Testa di S. Caterina, dipinto in Pastello da Sua Maestà Elisabetta Regina di Spagna. [30 scudi]
177. Quadro di palmi 1. per altezza, e once 10. per larghezza, rappresentante il ritratto del Pittore, Andrea Sacchi, a pastello, dipinto del medesimo. [20 scudi]
180. Quadro di palmi 1. once 8. per altezza, e palmi 1., once 3. per larghezza, rappresntante ritratto dell'E.mo Cardinale Valenti, a pastello. [50 scudi]
421–422. Quadri di palmi 2. per altezza, e palmi 1., e mezzo per larghezza, rappresentanti Ritratti dei Figli del Re Giacomo Stuardo, in Pastello, di M. Lionardo [?Liotard]. [20 scudi]
266–267. Quadri di palmi 2. per altezza, e palmi 1., e mezzo per larghezza, rappresentante Ritratti, uno di Monsieur Subleras, e l'altro della Moglie, in Pastello. [30 scudi]
438–441. Quadri di palmi 2., once 8. per altezza, e palmi 1., e mezzo per larghezza, rappresentanti le quattro parti del Mondo, in pastello, di Rosalba Carrara. [80 scudi]
442–443. Altre due Quadri, alti di palmi 1., e mezzo, rappresentanti il Salvatore, e la Madonna, con cornice nera, filettata d'oro, dipinto a pastello da Rosalba. [24 scudi]
724. Quadro di palmi 5., once 4. per alto, e palmi 4., e mezzo per traverso, rappresentante il Ritratto di Papa Clemente VII, col Macchiavello,copia di Tiziano, dipinta a pastello dal Betti. [50 scudi]
742. Quadro per traverso, largo palmi 6., once 6., alto palmi 5., once 2., disegno in pastello, fatto, e disegnato dal Baroccio. [50 scudi]

Jean-Pierre-Émile VALLET (1834-1899), peintre, conservateur du musée de Bordeaux.
Paris, Chevallier, 25.I.1884:
Lot 48: éc. de La Tour, femme
Bordeaux, Duguit, Barancou, 17-19.V.1899:
Fragonard, femme; Éc. fr., étude

VALLET & al.
Paris, Chariot, Joullain, 7.IV.1774:
Tableaux au pastel, à gouache, & en miniature
Lot 55: Le Buste du Roi d'après M. le Moine; il est peint en grisaille au pastel, hauteur 19 pouces, largeur 14 pouces [6 livres 1 sol]
Lot 56: Un Portrait de Femme; elle tient un masque [3 livres 11 sols]
Lot 57: Le Portrait d'une Dame qui se passe un anneau au doigt. [6 livres 11 sols]
Lot 68: Deux Têtes de jeunes Filles, vues de profil; elles sont dessinées au crayon noir & blanc mêlé d'un peu de pastel, par M. Grillet [14 livres 19 sols]

John James VALLOTTON (1755–1828), of Clifton House, Old Brompton, a fashionable haberdasher with premises in Jermyn Street selling imported fancy dress from France. He acquired a number of John Russell pastels at the sale on 14.II.1807. He died in 1828, apparently (according to PRO documents) leaving an estate of £76,000, but was listed as a bakrupt in 1831. His son Howell Leny Vallotton (1795-1858), a fancy warehouseman, of 6 Hyde Park Gate, was responsible for developing a large part of Kensington, buying up land from 1824 on; the development was put on hold when his father became bankrupt, and only resumed in 1841. The pastels were with his daughter Eliza (1818-1902), of 4 Essex Villas, Campden Hill, in 1894.

Noël VALOIS (1855-1915), de l'Institut, collectionneur. A great-grandson of Hubert Drouais's granddaughter, Mme Valois, née Lutton, he was also related to the Hallé family through his mother, a granddaughter of baron Jean-Noël Hallé. In addition to some drawings by Hubert Drouais, he owned a Tête de femme by Hallé; the Perronneau pastel of Hubert Drouais; and the magnificent La Tour of Mme Restout.
Dictionary, genealogies, Drouais; Hallé

Cornelius VANDERBILT (1794-1877) built the shipping and railroad businesses tht established the fortune of this New York family. His grandson William Kissam Vanderbilt, Jr (1849-1920) was a founder of the Jockey Club in 1894, and later established the Haras du Quesnay near Deauville. His daughter Consuelo (1877-1964) married the Duke of Marlborough. The lender of a La Tour pastel (dame) to an exhibition of the Colony Club in New York in 1907 was no doubt his second wife Anne Harriman (1861–1940), founder member of this social club for ladies and a noted philanthropist.

Benjamin VAN DER GUCHT (1753-1794), artist and collector.
Dictionary, artists
London, Christie's, 11-12.III.1796:
Lot 2: Two of the seasons in crayons by ditto [Old V.D. Gucht], after [Rosalba] [£2/12/-; Ammigoni?]

Jean-Baptiste VAN LOO (1684-1745), peintre, some of whose picture collection appeared in the posthumous sale of his son Louis-Michel (1707-1771).
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Chardin 1979
(LMvL): Vente p.m., Paris, 24.XII.1772

Gérard VAN SPAENDONCK (1746-1822), peintre.
Vente p.m., Paris, Coutelier, 15.VII.1822:
Lot 36: La Tour, Watelet

Jean-Antoine VASSAL DE SAINT-HUBERT (1741-1782) owned pastels by Chardin, Mme Fragonard and Rosalba. In his 1774 sale, which achieved a total of 92,149 livres, paintings of all schools were represented, including some 64 of the finest Dutch pictures as well as the most modern French artists. Several subsequent sales (1779, 1783) included large numbers of drawings. He lived in the rue Vivienne in 1774.
Dictionary, genealogy
Lit.: Durand 1996, p. 535
Paris, Remy, 17-21.I.1774:
Lot 128: Koasqui, Polonois [Kucharski]: Le portrait de M***. pastel, hauteur 22 pouces 6 lignes, largeur 17 pouces, ovale
Paris, Remy, 29.III.-13.IV.1779:
Rosalba Carriera
Lot 249: Le portrait d'une Angloise aimable, vue de trois quarts, & ayant des fleurs dans ses cheveux; elle est vêtue d'une robe d'écarlate, garnie d'hermine, qu'elle soutient avec sa main droite; ce morceau est précieux, tant par la fraîcheur des teintes, que par sa conservation, pastel, vingt et un pouces de haut sur seize pouces six lignes [580?/1101? livres; J. Desmarets]
Lot 250: Buste de Femme, tenant des fruits, peint aussi par Carriera, pastel, dix sept pouces de haut sur treize pouces de large [200?/280? livres]
Copies par Mme Filleul d'après Rosalba:
Lot 261: Une Femme en demi-figure, caressant un lapin blanc [120 livres 1 sol]
Lot 262: Autre tête de femme. [79 livres]
Paris, 24.IV.1783:
Lot 99: Carriera; Lot 100, Boucher, buste de femme vue en face, portant de sa main droite une draperie, un bouquet orne ses cheveux, 22 pouces sur 17 pouces ovale; Lot 101: Chardin, homme à la toque; Lot 102: goût de Fragonard, Buste de jeune femme orné d'une fraise, 11 pouces 9 sur 8; Lot 103: Greuze, femme en chemise, 14 pouces 3 sur 11 pouces 6; Lot 104: deux bustes de femme, 14 pouces sur 11 pouces 3; Lot 105: Pillement, 2 pstls; Lot 106: goût de Greuze; Lot 107: buste de femme; Lot 174: Lépicié, Buste de fille, vue presque de face, elle a sur la tête une espèce de voile, dessin aux trois crayons

Charles-Joseph VATEL (1816-1885): trained as a lawyer, he became interested in the French Revolution and wrote numerous pieces about Charlotte Corday. His donations to the Louvre (now in the château de Versailles) and the musée Lambinet in 1883 included several pastels of Revolutionary figures.
Pastels: Boze; Bounieu; Brard; Brou; Langlois; Éc. fr.

Joseph-Hyacinthe-François-de-Paule de Rigaud, comte de VAUDREUIL (1740-1817), patron and collector. Many of his pictures were acquired under the influence of Le Brun, with whose wife he was also closely allied. Financial pressures forced the sale through Le Brun of his main collection (24-25.XI.1784); many of these northern paintings are now in the Louvre. Calonne's fall led to his exile three years later, and the sale of his remaining collection. Thiéry's description of the hôtel in 1787 mentions Vigéee Le Brun pastels, of Vénus liant les ailes de l'Amour, a Femme vue par le dos, probably the artist's mother, and "divers portraits, tant en pastel qu'à l'huile".
Dictionary, genealogy, Rigaud
Lit.: Grove 1996; Thiéry 1787, II, pp. 548
Paris, Le Brun, 26.XI.1787 & seq.

Arthur Georges VEIL-PICARD (1854-1944), of 63 rue de Courcelles, banker and "le premier amateur de Paris" according to Gimpel 1963. He inherited a fortune created by his grandfather Aaron and father Adolphe from a fabric business in Besançon; with his brother Edmond Charles (1856-1947) he diversified in the drinks business, buying Pernod in 1888. He was much involved in horse racing as well as in his collection of XVIIIe drawings, paintings and miniatures. Boldini portrayed him in pastel in 1887. Some of his collection was seized by the ERR but restituted in 1946. His collection remains within the family. Several miniatures and drawings were sold in 2010. Among the pastels are important works by La Tour and Perronneau as well as works by Boucher, Prud'hon, Mme Roslin and Russell.
Lit.: Paris, Christie's, 23.VI.2010 sale cat., pp. 58-59
Pastels: Boucher, Mme Baudouin; Carmontelle; La Tour, Rouillé de l'Etaing; M. & Mme Roussel de Courcy; Schmidt; marquise de Sesmaisons; Watelet; inconnue; Perronneau, M. et Mme Boyer; Boyer enfant; Mme Roslin, Mme Robert; Russell, Mrs Currie; Emily de Visme; Anon., Pierre Boyer

Claude-Alexandre de Villeneuve, comte de VENCE (1703-1760), lieutenant-général des armées du roi, commandant à la Rochelle, colonel du régiment royal-Corse, collector; subject of portraits by Bernard and Vialy.
Dictionary, genealogy, Villeneuve
Vente p.m., Paris, Remy, 9-17.II.1761:
Lot 176: Coypel, jeune asiatique [21 livres 2 sols; Basan]

Nicolas VÉNEVAULT (1697-1775), miniaturist.
Paris, rue Saint-Thomas du Louvre, Hubert, 26.III.1776

The firm of VERDÉ-DELISLE & Cie was celebrated for its lace-manufacture, resulting in the Légion d'honneur for its founder Paul Joseph (1829-1879), grandson of the painter Alexis-Nicolas Pérignon (1785-1882). Gaston Verdé-Delisle (1862-1928) and his wife, née Antoinette du Buit (1873-1962), owned a préparation for La Tour's Mme de Mondonville in 1908-28. Two La Tour préparations were with Jean in 1928.

Louis-Gabriel de Véri-Raionard, marquis de VÉRI (1722-1785).
Lit.: Rosenberg & Bailey, Burlington magazine, .IV.2001
Paris, Boileau, Paillet, 12-14.XII.1785

An untraced Mme VERMAU-VERNON is recorded among the purchasers at the Doucet sale in 1912, including a Perronneau, inconnue, 1749 (which R. E. D. 1912 reports as having been purchased by Edmond Veil-Picard) as well as a picture by Fragonard which is reported as being bought by Watel-Dehaynin.

Docteur Louis-Désiré VÉRON (1798–1867), doctor, author, publisher and director of the Paris Opéra 1831–35. Only 22 of the 84 pictures sold at this sale belonged to Véron, but they included the two magnificent La Tour pastels; the remainder were sold by Henri Didier (q.v.), who purchased Véron's complete collection for Fr85,000 several months before the sale on condition that he could auction them under Véron's name. A sale of sculpture took place a few days later.
Lit.: Joseph d'Arçay, La salle à manger du docteur Véron, Paris, 1868; Pierre Defer, Catalogue général des ventes...
Paris, Drouot, 17-18.III.1858:
La Tour (Antoine de) [sic]
Lot 75: Mme Grimod de la Reynière [Fr2650]
Lot 76: Mlle Sallé [Fr1550]

Signora VERONICA: a group of 4 pastels by Rosalba, including her own portrait, was apparently acquired by August III. from her in 1750, according to correspondence between Minelli and Brühl. They may now be in Dresden.
Lit.: Henning 2009, p. 283

Mrs Robert Newlin VERPLANCK, née Katherine Brinckerhoff (1857-1944), married 1876: donation to Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1941.
Dictionary, genealogy, s.n. Crommelin
Lit.: Joseph Downs, "The Verplanck room", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, xxxv/12, .XII.1940, pp. 234-36
Pastels: Anspach, Crommelin

La comtesse de VERRUE, née Jeanne-Baptiste-Geneviève d'Albert de Luynes (1670-1736), famous connoisseur of Dutch and Flemish art, and a noted bibliophile, with a library of over 18,000 volumes; mistress of Vittorio Amedeo II, duca di Savoia, who allowed her to keep many of her pictures after she fled from Turin.
Dictionary, genealogy, Albert de Luynes
Lit.: Rambaud 1971, II, pp. 890ff, inv. p.m.; Barbara Scott, "The comtesse de Verrue", Apollo, .I.1973; Constance Rubini, "Les collections de la comtesse de Verrue", in Dijon 2001, pp. 132ff; Ziskin 2012

Dirk VERSTEEGH (1751-1822), de l'Institut royal néerlandais; his posthumous sale, Amsterdam, chez Mme veuve C. S. Roos, de Vries & al., 3.xi.1823, included two pastels, but not it seems the pastel portrait of the colelctor by Andriessen (q.v.):
p. 20, no. 12. La tête d'une femme, en pastel, pad [le Sueur]
p. 68, no. 13. La tête d'un vieillard chantant, en pastel, par le Moni, d'après Jordaens.

George VERTUE (1684-1756), engraver, antiquary and art historian. He made some 500 portrait engravings. He joined Kneller's academy in 1711, and was appointed engraver to the Society of Antiquaries in 1717. He recorded his researches on the development of art in Britain from about 1713. His notebooks (acquired by Horace Walpole, and used as the primary source for much of Walpole's Anecdotes) were published by the Walople Society, 1929-52; they are in some respects parallel to Mariette's Abécédario. Vertue owned Faithorne's pastel of Milton.

Henri VEVER (1854-1943), bijoutier-joaillier, from Metz, based in Paris from 1871; collector of prints and drawings.
Lit.: Lugt 2491 bis
Pastels: La Tour, La Poulinière

Mme H. VIAN, possibly widow of the bronzier Henri Vian (1860-1905).
Vente p.m., Paris, Drouot salle 1, 18.XII.1919:
Lot 36: Ch. Coypel, attr., homme

Alfred Henry VICKERY ( -1868), died in Arsonval, France: bequeathed the Russell petite fille aux cerises to the Louvre.

Jean-Joseph VIDAL (1789–1867), premier violon de la Chapelle de Charles X.
Vente p.m., Paris, 3-5.II.1868:
Lots 138, 139: La Tour, inconnus

La vicomtesse VIGIER, née Madeleine Double de Saint-Lambert (1869-1970), best known as a racehorse owner, niece of Jean Prat, of the Noilly-Prat family and the château d'Avignon. She married vicomte René Vigier (1859-1931). Her collections of old master paintings, miniatures, drawings, watercolours, gouaches and pastels were sold after her death by Mes Rheims, Bondu, Laurin, at Drouot on 30.IV.1970 and at the Palais Galliera, 23.VI.1970; the latter included a Liotard, Lord Ponsonby, and a Perronneau, Lorimier, previously in the Coty collection.

Mathieu-Guillaume-Thérèse VILLENAVE (1762-1846), lawyer, bibliophile and collector, who lived at 82, rue de Vaugirard; his son Théodore and daughter Mélanie Waldor (1796-1871), writer, were friends of Alexandre Dumas père (q.v.) who relates the story of Villenave's La Tour pastel of an unnamed lady.

Citoyen VILLERS, amateur painter and collector. According to Regnault's preface, feu Villers was an "artiste d'une célébrité connu. Émule contemporain des peintres de notre École; camarade d'études et ami. Sa fin fut malheureuse et précipitée."
Vente p.m., Paris, Blanc, Regnault, 2.XII.1795:
Lot 30: Deux Têtes de Femmes, Etudes librement peintes en pastels, par Hall. [5500 frs]

Marie-Joseph-Frédéric VILLOT (1809-1875), engraver, conservateur de la peinture au musée du Louvre 1848-61, best known as a friend of Delacroix, who portrayed Villot c.1832 (Prague, National Gallery). He published an article on Hall in 1867.
Lit.: "Delacroix et Villot, le roman d'une amitié", Musée national Eugène-Delacroix, 8.IV.-20.VII.1998
Paris, Delbergue, Vignères, 16-18.V.1859:
Lot 115: Fragonard, L'amour de l'or
Paris, Pillet, Laneuville, 25.I.1864

François-André VINCENT (1746-1816), peintre.
Dictionary, artist
Vente p.m., en son domicile, Paris, 1 rue de Seine, 17-19.X.1816:
Portraits au pastel par feue Mme Guyard, femme Vincent
Lot 53: Le portrait de Monsieur, maintenant Louis XVIII; Lot 54: Mme Victoire; Lot 55: Mme Adélaïde; Lot 56: Mme Élisabeth; Lot 57: Vien, peintre; Lot 58: Deux autres portraits de femmes

Madeleine-Julie-Julienne VINCENT DE SAINT-VINCENT.
Paris, Bonnefons, 13.X.1815:
Lot 32: [Anon.] Deux pastels, une tête & deux gravures et un Christ [7 frs 55]

Jules-Henri-Michel VIOLETTE (1809-1880), chimiste, commissaire des poudres et salpêtres, de la Société des sciences, de l'agriculture et des arts de Lille, adjoint au maire de Lille. He bequeathed two pastels of the actor Carlin and his wife (Glain, Éc. fr.) to the musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille in 1880. A M. Violette, curé de Notre-Dame de Saint-Quentin, owned the La Tour auto (now in the Norton-Simon Museum) before Boitelle (a.1866).

Peter VISCHER-SARASIN (1753-1823), dealer and collector of prints and drawings, Basel. Much of his collection was inherited by his son Peter Vischer-Passavant (1779-1851).
Lit.: Lugt 2115
Pastels: Pillement, paysage

Joseph Raphaël, baron VITTA (1860-1942), patron of contemporary artists from Rodin to Besnard and of Jules Chéret in particular, and benefactor of a number of French museums. He also owned an important violin by Guarneri, now in the Library of Congress.
Paris, Ader, Schoedler, 15.III.1935, tableaux modernes
Pastels: La Tour (2); Lenoir

Bartolomeo VITTURI, of San Vitale, Venice: the inventory of his goods made by his daughter and heir Cornelia in 1776 included "quadri a pastella della Rosalba come sergue: ritratto di uomo con paruca cornice bianca; ritratto più piccolo di donna cinta d'alloro; simile di donna con capelli neri; simile più piccolo con cornice rossa, e parta dorata; simile con cornice nera; due simile di donne che guardano della stessa parte con cornice nera; detto con cornice nera."
Lit.: Tormen 2009, p. 244

Auguste VITU (1823-1891), theatre critic of Le Figaro.
Paris, 30.XI.1891
Paris, 4.XII.1891

VOGÜÉ: A distinguished family including a number of historians and writers, as well as art collectors. The family own the château de Vaux-le-Vicomte. Melchior, marquis de Vogüé (1829-1916), de l'Académie française, was an historian and archaeologist; his son, Louis, marquis de Vogüé (1868-1948), owned a version of La Tour, Perrinet de Jars. A cousin, Eugène-Melchior, vicomte de Vogüé (1848-1910), de l'Académie française, had a Nattier. A Labille-Guiard (princesse de La Trémoïlle) descended within her family to comte A. de Vogüé in 1973, possibly Adalbert, Louis's brother. An anonymous sale in 2008 had several pastels of members of this family.
Lit.: Rieder 2000
(EMvtedeV): vente p.m., Paris, Drouot, 27.VI.1910:
Lot 5: Nattier, princesse de Beauvau
Paris, Drouot, PIASA, 25.VI.2008:
Lot 10: Éc. fr., Mme de Vogüé; Lot 21: M.-V. Lemoine [Kucharski], vicomtesse de Béranger

François-Marie Arouet, dit VOLTAIRE (1694-1778): among the philosophe's pictures now at Ferney (v. Collections) were several pastels. He himself is the subject of a vast iconography, including notably several pastels by La Tour. He also wrote about some very minor pastellists who portrayed him at Ferney (Barat; de Wyl, qq.v.).
Dictionary, genealogy

Pierre-François-Vincent, vicomte de VOOGHT or Voogt, grand-bailli de Bruges since 1756, hereditary knight of the Empire. His posthumous sale, conducted by the painter Jan Garemijn in Bruges, 22-23.V.1782, included some 19 anonymous pastels, mostly relgious, animal or still-life.

W

Rt Hon. Laurence Ambrose WALDRON [(1853-1923), MP, stockbroker and art collector, of Marino, Ballybrack, Dublin. Strickland 1912 reports three Hamilton pastels in his collection.

William Frederick, 9th Earl WALDEGRAVE (1851–1930) sold a group of pastels in London, Christie's, 18.VII.1924, owing to his having given up his town residence.
French sch., Lot 97: Marquise de Prie; Lot 98: Marie Antoinette; Lot 99: 1st Earl Waldegrave [Lundberg];
Lot 100: Liotard, Lady Mary Faulkner;

François-Hippolyte WALFERDIN (1795-1880), île Saint-Louis, Paris, physicist, inventor of several thermometers, and editor of Diderot (whose bust by Houdon he bequeathed to the Louvre). He was one of the very first collectors of Fragonard, owning 79 of his pictures, not counting miniatures, almost 200 drawings, pastels and engravings.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989
Paris, 18.V.1860:
Lot 53: Deshays, Jeune fille; Lot 54: Ducreux, Mlle Maillard
Paris, Drouot, Escribe, 12-16.IV.1880:
Fragonard: Lot 346, Sophie; Lot 347, Le Premier Baiser; Lot 348, jeune paysanne; Lot 351, Mlle Olivier
Greuze, auto

Sir Richard WALLACE, Bt (1818-1890), art collector, illegtimate son of 4th Marquess of Hertford (q.v.). His widow (∞ 1871), née Julie-Amélie-Charlotte Castelnau (1819-1897), inherited the collection; at her death, the pictures at Hertford House were bequeathed to the nation (and now form the Wallace Collection), while the remaining collections, including those in the rue Laffitte, passed to John Murray Scott (q.v.). There were no pastels were in the first group, and only a handful in the second.
Lit.: Duffy & Hedley 2004
(RW): Paris, Pouchet, Mannheim, 26-28.II.1857.
London, Christie's, 16.VI.1900:
Lot 78: Russell, Mrs Eidingtoun
Other pastels: Labille-Guiard, femme; C. Van Loo, dame

Thomas William WALLER (1844–1910), of Waller & Son, brewers in Bradford, English collector of pictures and books, who resided at 10 Westbourne Street, London. His will was probated for £174,043. His posthumous sale in 1910 included a number of Russells, a "Perronneau" (in fact a copy after Rosalba), another Rosalba, a Wright and other unattributed English and French pastels.
Lit.: Lugt 2472
London, Christie's, 10.VI.1910, Lot 78–90

Walpole, v. Orford

William Thompson WALTERS (1819-1894), railway tycoon, and his son Henry (1848-1931), founders of the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. Henry acquired a Masqerier pastel of Mme Tallien in 1922. The 1941 sale by Henry's widow, née Sarah Jones included French furniture, sculpture, taperstries, Sèvres, oriental art as well as picutres by Boucher, Fragonard and Greuze.
Lit.: William R. Johnston, William and Henry Walters: the reticent collectors, Baltimore, 1999
New York, Parke-Bernet, 30.IV.-3.V.1941:
Lot 1202: Russell, Miss Russell

Adolph WARNECK, dealer; E. Warneck was a dealer in antiquities, bronzes, objets d'art etc. His widow's sale in 1905 contained a number of pastels.
Paris, Bonnefons, 10-11.IV.1849
Lot 137, 138: La Tour, inconnus
Mme E. Warneck: vente p.m., Paris, Chevalier, 3-4 & 10-11.V.1905:
La Tour, Lot 111: Brémontier; Lot 112: Mlle Fel; Lot 113: Perronneau, femme; Carriera, Lot 114: femme; Lot 115: homme; Lot 116: Poleni; Lot 117: Troost, justice; Lot 118: Vigée, Daubenton; Lot 119: Vigée Le Brun, sa fille; English sch., Lot 120/121: man; woman
Vienna, Schidlof, 11.IV.1924: miniatures
Paris, Georges Petit, 27-28.V.1926, Tableaux anciens et modernes, including many Dutch pictures

The WATEL-DEHAYNIN family originated from the marriage of Albert Watel and the daughter of the railway magnate Albert Dehaynin (1841-1908). Albert Watel-Dehaynin was président of a number of industrial concerns, including the Cie des Entrepôts et Magasins de Paris and the Cie française de gaz etc., and in 1914, his fortune was estimated at Fr800 million. The hôtel at 2 rue de la Faisanderie was decorated by Luc-Olivier Merson. His son Louis Watel-Dehaynin married Antoinette-Céleste Lasson (1890-1960) in 1911. They were active collectors, buying Fragonards and other pictures expensively at the Doucet and other fashionable sales. They owned pastels by La Tour, M. & Mme Cassanéa de Mondonville.

Claude-Henri WATELET (1718-1786), de l'Académie française, receveur général des finances d'Orléans, author and amateur artist and engraver. As an habitué of Mme Geoffrin's salon, and at his own country house near Paris, Le Moulin-Joli, he mixed with the leading Enlightenment figures. He contributed on art to the Encyclopédie, and attempted a Dictionnaire des beaux-arts, finished by Levesque. He travelled widely, and was a member of the academies in Berlin, Cortona and Bologna, of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence, as well as an honorary member of the l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. He collected avidly, particularly the works of his contemporaries, and engravings by Rembrandt were particularly well represented. La Tour exhibited his portrait in the Salon de 1753.
Lit.: Grove 1996
Paris, Paillet, 23.V.1780 & seq.
Vente p.m., Paris, Hayot, Paillet, 12.VI.1786 & seq.
Lot 56: Rosalba. Deux têtes au pastel. L'une représente une belle femme vue en buste & de trois quarts, l'autre représente un jeune garçon. Ces deux Morceaux de caractère & de la plus parfaite conservation, étoient considérée par M. Watelet comme deux études du meilleur choix. [361 livres; Paillet]
Lot 57: Ch. Natoire. Deux Tableaux au pastel par ce maître, d'après Rosalba ; ils représentent des figures de femmes très-agréables, dont l'une tient une lyre, & l'autre tient une couronne de laurier. [192 livres; Galland]
Lot 58: Cinq études de têtes de vieillards, pastel sur papier bleu, par Pierre
Lot 59: Greuze. Le Buste d'une jeune fille, étude au Pastel, spirituellement touchée & faite au premier coup. [120 livres 1; Dulac]
Lot 207: Cinq têtes de femmes & vieillards à barbe, au pastel, par le même [Pierre] [13 livres]

WEBBE.
Vente p.m., Paris, 13-14.IV.1849:
Lot 172: La Tour, auto; Lot 181: La Tour, inconnue

M. de WEBER.
Paris, 14-16.III.1844:
Lot 159: La Tour, garçon

John Kellerman WEDDERBURN (1818-1891), of 41 Cadogan Place, London.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 3.VI.1892:
Lot 44: La Tour, inconnue

André WEIL: Galerie André Weil, Paris, mounted exhibitions of Carmontelle (1933), Hoin (1934) and eighteenth century gouaches (1936). The two pastels came from the Winterfield sale in 1936.
Paris, Galliera, 26.III.1963:
Lot 13: La Tour [Allais], ??Mme Le Riche de La Pouplinière
Other pastels: Perronneau, Dame en robe bleue avec un serviteur noir

Francis Augustin WELLESLEY (1865–1935), of independent means, living in London and Westfield Common, Woking: collector specialising in silhouette, plumbago and coloured chalk drawings and miniatures; donated 6 drawings to the British Museum and a pastel to the NPG. His collection was dispersed in numerous London sales between 1914 and 1925. The circumstances of the Sotheby's sale are described in a letter of 29.V.1920 reprinted by Ingamells 2009b. Wellesley also grew orchids.
Lit.: Horace Hart, One hundred silhouette portraits selected from the collection of Francis Wellesley, 1912; G. C. Williamson, "Mr Francis Wellesley's collection of miniatures and drawings", Connoisseur, LII/206, 1918; Ingamells 2009b, p. 98
Pastels: F.-H. Drouais, Marie-Antoinette; Faithorne, man; Gardner, Henderson; Edward Gibson, self; Hoskins, Henrietta Maria; Humphry, Upcott; Lawrence, Stell; Miss Steel; Natoire, boy; Perronneau, boy; Prud'hon, Mme Bougeart; Russell, Lady Hill; Mr & Mrs Medley; The coquette; Saunders, Clementina Walkinshaw; French sch., boy

Wentworth, v. Smith

Samson WERTHEIMER (1811-1892), born in Bavaria, set up a furniture business initially in Greek Street, London. His two sons continued as collectors and dealers. Charles John Wertheimer (1842-1911), of Norfolk Street, Park Lane, collected china, objets d'art and pictures, a number of which were stolen in 1907. His large group of English pastels included four sold by Christie's in 1912, with the remainder presumably inherited by his brother Asher Wertheimer (1844-1918), who had taken control of their father's business at 158 New Bond Street. At his posthumous sale in 1920, the £861 fetched by three Russells were consistent with the "marked depreciations" noted by the Connoisseur. A group of pastels, including works by Rosalba, Russell, La Tour and Glain, was sold after the death of Emile Wertheimer (1873–1953), an American-born cinema owner of 2 Redington Gardens; his relationship is unclear. Some of their pastels descended to Mrs Conway, née Joan Cicely Young (1898-1995), widow of Asher Wertheimer's son Conway Joseph Conway (1881-1953), barrister, of Turville Court, Henley-on-Thames, before the 2000 sale; one was presented to the Ashmolean Museum, to which Mrs Conway had donated rococo silver in 1959.
Lit.: Gimpel 1963; Sargent exh. cat. 1998, ed. Elaine Kilmurray & Richard Ormond
(CJW): London, Christie's, 10.V.1912:
Cotes, lady; Russell, three pastels
(AW): London, Christie's, 18.VI.1920:
Carriera, Horace Walpole; Russell, three pastels
London, 14.XII.1928:
Russell, numerous pastels
(EW): London, Sotheby's, 20.V.1953:
Carriera, Enrichetta; inconnue; Russell, Persian Sibyl; La Tour, prince; Glain, inconnue
(Mrs JC): London, Sotheby's, 22.III.2000:
Lot 86: Russell, Faden; Lot 87: Onslow; Lot 88: Shaw; Lot 89: Dupuis; Lot 90: ?Maria Russell; Lot 92, 93: B. & G. Sydenham; Lot 94: Johnson; Lot 95: man 1794; Lot 96: Read, Miss Beatson; Lot 97: Cotes, man
Other pastels: Boucher, jeune fille; Carriera, Robert Walpole; Cotes, Lady Bridges; Lady of Phipps family; Hamilton, Downshire; Hoare, E. Walpole; Lawrence, Mrs Boucherette; Countess of Suffolk; Liotard, Mlles Lavergne; Read, Sarah Cotes; Russell, Mrs Best; Countess of Carlisle; Lady H. E. Cavendish; Misses Earle; Mrs Earle; Garnett family (6); Mr & Mrs Medley; Mrs Raikes; Mrs Robinson; Sarah White; Withers; jeune berger; Persian Sibyl; market girl with pigs 1794; ballad girl; fillette (2); deux fillettes; jeune femme et enfant; Sixc, dame

W. WHEELER & Son, London art dealer c.1958.
Pastels: Belle, dame

Frederick Anthony WHITE (1842-1933), director of an Australian property company, of 120 Queen's Gate, donated a Ducreux autoportrait to the Louvre through the NACF.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Jeffery Ludlam Barton WHITEHEAD (1831-1915), of Southwood, Bickley, Hampshire, 1894; The Mayes, East Grinstead, Sussex 1915, stockbroker and collector. His will was probated at £12,486.
Sale p.m., London, Christie's, 6.VIII.1915:
ANON. Lot 49: 2 ladies [11 gns; Hughes]; Lot 50: 2 ladies [7 gns; Renton]; Lot 54: Mrs Abington [4 1/2 gns; Lister]
Lot 51: R. Cosway, Maria Cosway [15 gns; Partridge]
COTES. Lot 52: lady 1756 [95 gns; Stettiner]; Lot 53: Lady O'Neile [26 gns; Martin]
RUSSELL. Lot 55: boy [8 gns; Renton]; [??Russell; French sch.] Lot 56: man in armour [5 gns; Renton]
Lot 57: Sharples, Washington [15 gns; Schroeder]
Other pastels: Russell, Duchess of Devonshire; Sheridan; Mrs Siddons; officers (2); girl with cherries; filial affection

Forsyth WICKES (1876-1965). His extensive collection of French art was bequeathed to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, where it was installed following the decorative schemes of his own homes - in Paris, rue Weber; the château de Courtmoulins; Tuxedo Park in New York, and Starbord House, Rhode Island - where pictures, furniture and porcelain were intermingled. He had a particular taste for pastels, of which he owned a dozen (v. Collections, Boston, MFA for a list).
Lit.: Donateurs 1989

Joseph Early WIDENER (1871-1943), Philadelphia, inherited a fortune from his father derived from provisioning the army during the American civil war. Joseph was a racing enthusiast and a collector of furniture, sculpture, books and drawings; benefactor of the National Gallery of Art.

Nathan WILDENSTEIN (1851-1934), a tailor, left his native Alsace around 1870 and moved to Paris, where, in 1875, he opened a shop dealing in contemporary French paintings. By 1900 the business had broadened into one of the leading European dealers in old master pictures. Galleries were opened in New York in 1903, London in 1925 and subsequently in Tokyo and Buenos Aires. One of many donations was a pastel by Russell for the charitable auction in .IV.1917. Nathan's son Georges (1892-1963), art historian and connoisseur, established an important library and photographic archive, and published the catalogue raisonné of La Tour (1928). Georges's son Daniel (1917-2001) became chairman of the firm in 1968. He published catalogues on Monet and Renoir and revised and expanded catalogues on Chardin and Fragonard. His son Guy took over the business in 1990. The firm has handled a number of the most important French XVIIIe pastels, including La Tour's président de Rieux.
Lit.: New York 2005

Johann Georg WILLE (1715-1808), the German engraver from Königsberg, settled in Paris early and was taught by Largillierre; he was agréé 1755; reçu 1761. Far more than an engraver, Wille was at the centre of the Paris art world, cultivating the friendship of artist and critics, and facilitating the interchange of ideas between France and Germany and elsewhere. He was also a collector and dealer. Wille bought a couple of pastels in 1761, apparently by Rigaud and Valade. A pastel by Heilmann appeared in his sale of 6-11.XII.1784.

George Charles WILLIAMSON (1858-1942), art historian and collector. The son of a cabinet-maker and upholsterer in Guildford (David Williamson, of William Williamson & Son), he was himself a member of the family firm until 1900. He was a specialist in miniatures (cataloguing J. P. Morgan's collection) and wrote numerous books on pastellists, miniaturists and painters, principally of the English school; he was also a bibliophile and collector of drawings and coins. Williamson lived at Burgh House, Hampstead (where he commissioned Gertrude Jekyll to design the garden; it is now a museum) from 1906 to 1924 before returning to Guildford, where he lived at Mount Manor House. He was fellow of numerous learned societies. In some of his publications he is shown as a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, and the degrees of Ph.D., D. Litt. and Litt.D. variously appeared after his name in publications after 1891. A Catalogue of the works of art belonging to Dr G. C. Williamson was privately printed in 1909, with a supplement in 1911; of the 329 works listed (mostly drawings and miniatures) only one was a pastel before 1800 (Labille-Guiard, self-portrait).
London, Sotheby's, 31.I.1945
Pastels: Faithorne, Sturt

John Waterloo WILSON (1815-1883), English collector and dealer, who was born in Brussels and lived in The Netherlands for over 30 years. He assembled a collection of Dutch (Vermeer, Frans Hals etc.), English and French pictures, most of which he bequeathed to the City of Brussels. An exhibition took place at the Galerie du Cercle artistique et littéraire, in 1873, accompanied by a lavish catalogue. The closing sale from his galerie in the avenue Hoche numbered some 199 works. He was dealer to Alphonse de Rothschild.
Lit.: Donateurs 1989; John Waterloo Wilson. Hommage au mécène, cat. exh., Bruxelles, Musée du costume et de la dentelle, 1995-96
Paris, 3 avenue Hoche, 14-16.III.1881:
La Tour, Philippe; Lot 20: Perronneau, Bastard

Levin Yardly WINDER (1787–1836), Virginia; acquired a group of pastels by Sharples when Felix, the artist's son, defaulted on a loan. His nephew was Nathaniel James Winder (1794–1844), whose son Dr Richard Bayley Winter (1828–1894) sold the group to a Baltimore merchant, Murray Harrison c.1865.

Henry WINTERFELD (1901–1990), German writer of children's fiction under the pseudonym Manfred Michael, emigrated from Germany to Austria and France where he was interned in 1939 before emigrating to the USA in 1940. He was in Nice at the time of the 1936 sale.
London, Sotheby's, 9.XII.1936:
Lot 96: La Tour [Allais], Mme Le Riche; Lot 97: Lawrence, man; Lot 103: Perronneau, Mme Rancourt; Lot 104: Perronneau, dame en bleu avec serviteur

Grenville Lindall WINTHROP (1864-1943) donated his collection of mainly nineteenth-century art to the Fogg Art Museum in 1943. It had been formed under the influence of Paul J. Sachs and of the New York dealer Martin Birnbaum (q.v.). A travelling exhibition of highlights was in London, National Gallery, 2003. Several pre-1800 pastels were included in the Fogg donation, as well as some later pastiches or copies (after Bernard, Carriera, Vigée etc.). His second cousin Clara Bowdoin Winthrop (1876-1969) was also an art collector and philanthropist; she owned several pastels by Sharples, bequeathed to the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Pastels: Chardin, Bachelier; Copley, Mrs Scollay; Dunlap, Coggeshall; La Tour, Garnier d'Isle; Jullienne; Russell, George IV

Sir Robert Clermont WITT (1872-1952), of 32 Portman Square, lawyer and collector of old master drawings which he left to the Courtauld Institute (v. Collections) in 1952, together with his vast collection of reproductions of pictures.
Pastels: Boze; Hamilton; Hickey, Cosway; Jervas; Lawrence; Russell; E. Sharples; J. R. Smith

Frantz WITTOUCK (1855-1914), a Belgian sugar refiner, lent pastels by Gainsborough (Queen Charlotte) and Peters (Mrs Hadden-Brown) to the Paris 1911 exhibition. His brother and co-proprietor Paul Wittouck (1851-1917) lent a pair of Russells (Mr & Mrs Wilson) to the same exhibition, which descended to E. Wittouck before a 1985 sale.

Samuel WOODBURN (1785-1853), of 184 Piccadilly, major expert and dealer in old master drawings in the 19th century; among his clients was the banker Thomas Dimsdale.

Ian WOODNER (1903-1990), architect and real estate developer. Born in New York, he was educated at the universities of Minnesota and Harvard, and lived for many years in Minneapolis. He became interested in old master drawings in the 1950s. His collection, amounting to more than 1000 sheets, was inherited by his daughters Dian and Andrea, who have loaned or donated 145 works to the NGA, Washington.
Lit.: Washington 1995

Lionel Simon WORMSER HARRIS (1861-1940), of 4 Upper Grosvenor Street, stock jobber, son of an Irish financier appointed Lord Mayor of Dublin; bequeathed two Russell pastels (Lawrence; Artifice) to the Tate.

Sir James WRIGHT, Bt (1717–1804), of Woodford, diplomat and art collector, bequeathed to the Royal Academy, in 1796, the Cotes portrait of Dr Bromfield, "for the instruction of students…having observed how much crayon painting is fallen off in what he sees at the Exhibitions". It had been bequeathed to him by the sitter (he may have known Bromfield's son in Padua). As he had been British Resident in Venice it seems probable that he owned work by Rosalba. A sale was held after his death by Christie's, 8–9.VI.1804, but contained no pastel.

Charles (1895-1986) and Jayne WRIGHTSMAN, major benefactors of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Lit.: Fahy 2005; Stourton 2007
Pastels: Liotard, Lady Coventry; Perronneau, Journu

George Washington WURTS (1843-1928), US Secretary of Legation at Florence and Rome 1862-82, chargé d'affaires in Russia 1884-89, and his wife, née Henriette Tower (1858-1933): their collection, including a number of pastels, was bequeathed to the Italian state in 1933, and is now in the Palazzo di Venezia (v. Collections).

Andrew WYLD (1949–2011), specialist in British drawings and watercolours of the Golden Age, dealing as W/S Fine Art. The stock was sold at Christie's in London on 10.VII.2012 and South Kensington, 18.VII.2012 and included pastels by François Barry and H. D. Hamilton.

Dr Michael WYNNE (1937-2003): Irish art historian, keeper and research curator of the National Gallery of Ireland.
Dublin, James Adam, 28.IX.2005:
Lot 35: Frye, man; Lot 95: Lawranson, lady

XY

Louis-Alexandre, dit le comte d'YVON, inspecteur du Garde-Meuble de la couronne, and his wife, Mary Anne ( –1892), of 20 rue de la Chaise, Paris, later 68 Boulevard de Courcelles, collectors of old master paintings, drawings, tapestries, objets d'art. D'Yvon published a study De la décadence des arts d'ornementation in 1861. The d'Yvon collection appears in Galignani's New Paris guide for 1862 as a private museum, visible by application in writing; the tapestries in the grand salon alone were worth 100,000 francs. Mme d'Yvon's origins were obscure, but certain facts can be gleaned from the sensational law case which reached the cour de cassation in 1874. The comtesse had previously been married, to a Mr Samuel Smith; after his death, she married d'Yvon, a man of "artistic tastes", in 1842. The case concerns the daughter from her previous marriage whom she disowned to avoid paying her an annuity; and although the comtesse lost all her appeals in 1874, she again disowned her daughter in her will, leading to another case after her death against the comtesse's nominated heir, Henir Challier de Grandchamps, a newspaper proprietor, again won by the daughter, Mme de Trégomain. The comtesse's collections were sold after her death in two sales in 1892. An earlier sale took place in Paris, 27-28.I.1881, which included a Perronneau, bailli de Suffren.

Emilie YZNAGA (recte Iznaga y Clement) (1864–1944), sister of Consuelo, Duchess of Manchester (1858-1909), daughters of Don Antonio Yznaga del Valle of Cuba (whose fortune came from sugar) and Ravenswood, Louisiana. Her date of birth appears as 1864 in her US passport applications, although the earlier date of 1855 appears in some sources. Her apartment at 142 bis rue de Grenelle was the subject of a series of paintings by Jean Béraud, two of which (Paris, mAD) show a Perronneau pastel (Journu). She owned an oil Ducreux autoportait in 1935 (which was also subsequently owned by her cousin, the comtesse Alain Costa de Beauregard, née Isnaga q.v.), and presented a number of French paintings to the National Gallery, London (8, among them the Nattier portrait of Manon Balletti, given in 1937 subject to a life interest), the Tate, the musée Carnavalet and musée des Arts décoratifs (including five Pillement oils). Many of the paintings were inherited from her sister.

Z

Serge Mikhailovitch ZARINE, consul-général de Russie, commandeur de Sainte-Anne, 38 rue Boissière, Paris: his collection included furniture, porcelain, objets d'art as well as pictures.
Paris, Drouot, Boudin, Dubourg, Lair-Dubreuil, 5.XII.1917:
Lot 21: Jacques-André Portail [Boucher], jeune femme
Lot 23: Vivien, auto

La comtesse ZOUBOV, née Rosario Julia Schiffner de Larrechea (1892–1984) inherited a fortune derived from sugar and property. In 1922 she married a Russian count; their daughter Tatiana died in 1957. The Fondation Zoubov was established in her memory. The Zoubov collection, in Geneva, includes two pastels by Pougin de Saint-Aubin.
Lit.: Elsig 2012