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Dictionary of pastellists before 1800

INVENTORS, WRITERS AND SUPPLIERS

This index lists a number of inventors, manufacturers, vendors and authors who have been involved in technical aspects of the art of pastel, including authors of the most important early treatises and some critics who have been particularly influential. Research in this area is still in progress. No attempt is made systematically to list all framemakers and artists' suppliers; rather this list includes only those specifically known to have been connected with pastel (but not just related techniques such as encaustic painting or pastel-manner engraving); the purpose is to direct users to other sources of further information. For British suppliers, Jacob Simon's websites on British framemakers, artists' suppliers and restorers at npg.org.uk is excellent; for pastel techniques generally, Burns 2007 is a good recent summary with a useful bibliography of the now very extensive secondary literature. Numerous pastellists were themselves technical innovators and pioneers, and a good deal of information appears in the artists section of the Dictionary which is not repeated here; reference should be made to the articles where cited.

John ADAIR, framemaker, 47 Brewer Street, London. Frame for pastel by Lawrence, 1794.
Lit.: Gilbert 1996, p. 62

Le sieur ADAM (fl. Rouen 1787), "Peintre, Doreur & Marchand d'estampes sur le port, vis-à-vis le pont", advertised in the Journal de Rouen, 19.IX.1787, p. 6, various prints, frames etc., adding "Il met les estampes, dessins & pastels sous verre, nétoie & détache celles qui auroient souffert par l'humidité."

Mlle ALEXANDRE (fl. Paris 1779) offered a secret method of fixing pastels.
Dictionary, artists

Francesco ALGAROTTI (1712–1754), the celebrated patron and collector, travelled and wrote extensively on art, from 1742 advising Friedrich August II. on the Dresden picture collection which included numerous pastels by Rosalba (who also portrayed Algarotti's sister). He himself was the subject of a superb pastel by Liotard. Although he is not normally thought of as an artist, a box of pastels sent to him in Parma by the abbé de Saint-Non (q.v.) on his return to Paris suggests that he may have been an amateur pastellist.

J. ALLEN, bookseller in Hereford, offered artists' materials including soft crayons in sets, "as cheap as in London", in an advertisement in the Hereford journal, 15.xii.1785.

ALLWOOD & MURRAY, framemakers in Ipswich, who had the pastellist Peter Romney imprisoned for debt in 1774.

Charles-Claude de Flahaut de La Billarderie, comte d'ANGIVILLER (1730-1810), directeur des bâtiments du Roi.

An anonymous Arts companion, or A new assistant for the ingenious was published by I. Jackson in Dublin in 1749; it contains extensive advice on the manufacture and use of crayons.

The anonymous Étrennes de Minerve, aux artistes: Encyclopédie economique ou Alexis moderne, Paris, 1772, contained a recipe for fixing pastels.

Giovanni Battista ARMENINI (c.1525-1609), author of De' veri precetti della pittura, Ravenna, 1587, in which composition of drawing sticks is discussed.
Lit.: Kosek 1998, p. 2, n.15; Grove art online

Giovanni Maria ASTORI, socio onorario dell' Accademia Veneta di pittura, published Della pittura colle cera all'encausto in 1786, containing a formula for encaustic painting. According to the review in L'Esprit des journaux, .IX.1786, p. 152, his "eau de cire" could also be used to fix pastel.

Étienne AVRIL (1748–1791), Paris framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 23.xi.1774; brother of Pierre and Jean-Denis Avril.
Lit.: Vial 1912–22; Harden 1998

Jean-Jacques BACHELIER (1724-1806), artist and experimenter in pastel techniques.
Dictionary, artists

Filippo BALDINUCCI (1625-1697), collector, art historian and author; mixed pigments with gum and candied sugar, and described a porte-crayon.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Burns 2007, p. 25

Robert BARKER (1739–1806), an itinerant painter, was awarded a patent (no. 1612) on 19.VI.1787 for panoramic apparatus called La nature à coup-d'œil, "for displaying views of nature at large, by oil-painting, fresco, water-clours, crayons or other mode of painting or drawing."

John BARROW ( –1774), mathematics teacher and writer. His Dictionarium polygraphicum (1735) contains a lengthy article on the manufacture of crayons, citing the methods of "Mr Brown", presumably Alexander Browne, as well as of "Valyant" (Vaillant) (qq.v.).
Lit.: Oxford DNB

Le sieur J. BARTHELEMY, Libraire du Gouvernement & de l'Intendance, au Port-au-Prince, in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 21.II.1788 (p. 88), offered "pastels encadrés". In .XII.1790 he offered boxes of colours newly received from Paris, including of "Pastel fin".

Pierre-François BASAN (1723–1797), Paris expert, auctioneer, engraver and print publisher, rue Saint-Martin, A la Justice.
Lit.: Pierre Casselle, "Pierre-François Basan", Paris et Ile de France: Mémoires, XXXIII, 1982, pp. 99-185; Marandet 2003a

BEAUMONT (fl. Paris 1748-60), sculpteur et doreur in Paris, framed Perronneau's portraits of the prince d'Ardore. He also worked for Nattie and the Bâtiments du roi.
Lit.: D'Arnoult 2007

Les demoiselles BEAUVAIS "préviennent le public qu'elles ont trouvé un secret pour fixer le pastel sans altérer la beauté et la vivacité des couleurs." They were probably the Mlles Beauvais, marchands d'estampes, rue Saint-Jacques, presumably daughters of the engraver Nicolas Dauphin de Beauvais (1687-1763) and sisters of the engraver Jacques-Philippe, prix de Rome, 1767.
Lit.: Avant-Coureur, cited Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Bénézit

Thomas BECKWITH (1731-1786), artist, inventor of crayon pencils.
Dictionary, artists

Michel BELOT, 3, rue de l'Arbre-sec, Paris, painter, dealer, marchand de couleurs, fabricant de vernis, mentioned by Chaperon 1788, p. 161 and the Almanach du commerce for 1803–25. His daughter Louise-Elisabeth, aged 24, became the second wife of Martin Drölling in 1785; Drölling's fine oil portrait of his father-in-law is at Orléans. Mme Belot was still supplying artists' materials, including canvases, from this address well into the 19th century.
Lit.: Jal 1872, pp. 507f

Claude BERNIÈRE de Saint-Martin, contrôleur général des ponts et chaussées, de l'Académie de Caen, château du Boële à Glos-la-Ferrière. In 1774 at Saint-Gobain he constructed an alcohol-filled glass lens of enormous dimensions. He wrote to La Tour on 12.v.1764, with a version published in the Mercure, .VI.1764 (pp. 158ff), describing the various problems with finding suitable glass for pastels. That made with Spanish soda was dark and greenish, while flint glass was weak, unless supplied in thick sheets; Bohemian glass from Saint-Quirin was excellent apart from its annoying undulations, which he proposed either to straighten with his machine or to supply with a deliberate, regular bulge.

Jean Elie BERTRAND, in his Descriptions des arts et métiers, 1775, III, p. 355–56, paragraph 61, offers a discussion of the relative merits of vellum or paper for pastel, noting that Rosalba and La Tou always used paper, while Boucher and Liotard prefer vellum.

Adolphe BEUGNIET (1820–p.1880), dealer, opened shop at 10 rue Laffitte in 1848, where he showed works by Delacroix and, in the 1880s, Degas: label on frame of anon. pastel, marquis de Brunoy

Guillaume BIROCHON (fl. The Hague 1696-1726), pastellist and picture restorer.
Dictionary, artists

Roby BISHOP (1738–1792), stationer, of Great Newport Street, Long Acre "has made it his buiness to provide himself with paper made on purpose for Crayon-Painting, drawing, &c. where the Student may be supplied with the best sort of paper for his purpose." He was succeeded by his son (by his wife, née Elizabeth Pearce) Samuel (who went bakrupt in 1793 and 1802).
Lit.: Russell 1777, p. 21n.; Exeter working papers at bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk; F. T. Cansick, Collection of...epitaphs, 1869

Louis-Marie BLANQUART DE SEPTFONTAINES (1751–1830), "un gentilhomme de l'Ardrésis", he was born in Calais and appointed échevin in 1783. A friend of Buffon, he contributed an article on "L'Art de composer les pastels" to volume VI of Panckcoucke's Encyclopédie méthodique which appeared in 1789, and is considerably more extensive than the article in Diderot & d'Alembert's version.

Thomas-Vincent BLIGNY (fl. Paris 1762), "peintre-doreur, cour du Manège, aux Tuileries…tient Magasin…de jolies Têtes de Femmes en Pastels & Mignatures" according to his trade card. These were destroyed in a fire of 1762. He had reopened by 1765, selling "toutes sortes de portraits en pastel et des Estampes, dans lesquels uil y a des nudités, mais ce sont des morceaux d'histoire" according to th epolice report.
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Louis Dunand, "Les estampes dites decouvertes et couvertes," Gazette des beaux-arts, LXIX, 1967, p. 237; Michel 2007, p. 123f

John James BONHOTE (fl. 1763-80), The Star, Hayes's Court, Soho, London 1766-80, haberdasher and supplier of pastels by Stoupan (q.v.). The business took over that of Lewis Pache & Co from the same address, 1765-67. John Russell (1772) describes Bonhote as the original importer of crayons ("the ingredients which compose these brilliant crayons are not to be met with in England"), but by 1773 they were being made by Charles Pache (q.v.) in London.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Simon 1998; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Thomas BONVOISIN, peintre de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu 1750, "peintre doreur et marchand de tableaux, place du vieux Louvre, rapelle qu'il fabrique les plus beaux crayons de pastel dont il a obtenu le secret de la part du célèbre Stouppan [Stoupan, q.v.] de Lausanne" (L'Avant-Coureur). In 1764 his shop was broken into, and among the pictures stolen was a pastel Tête de femme, artist unspecified.
Lit.: Guiffrey 1915; Chatelus 1991, pp. 42, 70; Michel 2008, pp. 123, 190

Raphaël BOUQUET (fl. 1894-1920) received a Mention Très Honorable in Tours in 1894, and subsequently established studios at 63, rue d'Isle, Saint-Quentin and 36, rue André Godin, Guise specialising in "photographie artistique, peinture, dessin, pastel". In 1920 his address was 45 bd Gambetta, Saint-Quentin. He is known for a series of competent pastel copies of the La Tour works at Saint-Quentin, but incurred much hostility when he collaborated with the Germans in the production of the French edition of Erhard 1918.
Lit.: Lapauze 1917; Saint-Quentin 2007

BOURSIN, "marchand de couleurs rue du Roule, à l'Aigle de Prusse", according to his advertisement, "après bien des recherches et des expériences, a mis enfin au point des crayons portés à la perfection. Il les fournit par boîte de 130 donnant autant de nuances différentes".
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 70

Claude BOUTET [possibly a pseudonym for Christophe Ballard (1641-1715)], author credited with the early Traité de la peinture en mignature…Auquel on a ajouté un petit traité de la peinture au pastel, avec la méthode de composer les pastels, The Hague, 1708; widely translated and reprinted.
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 23; Kuehni 2010

BOUTON (fl. Paris c.1690), papetier-cartier de la chambre du roi, paper supplier.
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 48

Robert BOYLE (1627–1691), scientist. In 1732, J. Peele published, for 1s., the Method of learning to draw in perspective, made easy, which included "the art of drawing in crayons, with receipts for making them after the French and Italian manner" &c., "chiefly from the MSS of the great Mr Boyle".

Joseph BOZE (l745-1826) developed his own method of fixing pastels.
Dictionary, artists

Charles-Paul-Jérôme de BRÉA (1739-1820), inventor of fixing method.
Dictionary, artists

Constant Joseph BROCHART (1816–1899), born in Lille, the son of a Spanish painter. He exhibited at the Paris salon from 1845. In the archives of Goupil & Cie, in addition to numerous records of his own work, there is a reference to a pastel by Rosalba from the Galerie du Palais Royal "retouché par Brochart".

Herr BROCK (fl. Kassel a.1800), Maler in Kassel, inventor of a fixing method.
Dictionary, artists

Adam van BROECKHUYSEN (?1682-1748), founded a crayon-making business.
Dictionary, artists

Alexander BROWNE (fl. 1659-1706), at the Blue Balcony, Little Queen Street, London, later Holborn Bridge, "practitioner in limning". He assembled A compendious drawing-book, published in 1669 (and presented to Samuel Pepys 27.V.1669), the second edition of which appeared in 1675 under the title of Ars pictoria; it described mezzotint processes and included recipes for fabricated sticks of coloured chalks. In the London gazette for 14-17.IV.1684 he advertised his collection of over 100 mezzotint plates after Van Dyck and Lely for printing which he had obtained an exclusive 14 year royal license, to be sold "at his House in Little Queen street at the blew Balcony near Lincolns Inn fields, where any Person may be furnished with all manner of foreign Prints and draughts, and all manner of Liming colours." Two years later he advertised prints after Largillierre. In a letter to her daughter, Dorothy, Lady Browne wrote to convey another daughter's request for her to "by her a set of croians which will cost a crown she us told; perhaps cheaper" from "Mr Browns att the Blew belkcaney in Little Queens Street" [13.II.1682; Joan Bennett, Sir Thomas Browne: "a man of achievement in literature", Cambridge, 1962, p. 51; Bennett transcribes the address as "Bell & Key"].

Henri BRUNEL, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Albert-Quentin-Marie-Catherine, chevalier Philippy de BUCELLY D'ESTRÉES (1777–1850), membre résident de la Société des sciences, arts, belles-lettres et agriculture de la ville de Saint-Quentin, and author of an early biography of La Tour which appeared in the Mémoires of the society. He was the second son of Albert Philippy de Bucelly d'Estrées (1745-1809), lieutenant des maréchaux de France, mousquetaire du roi.

J. J. BÜCHEL, 15 rue de Dôme, Strasbourg, "magasin de glaces des manufatctures de St Gobain et de Grey…fabrique de cadres dorés et de fantaisie…", label found on a 1783 pastel by Durand.

Adam BUCK (1759-1833), developed a method of mixing pastels with wax.
Dictionary, artists

Bainbrigg, or Baynbrigg, BUCKERIDGE, or Buckridge (1668-1733), poet, painter and author of an early history of British painters (appended to Savage's translation of de Piles, 1706), attributes the "Perfection of Crayon-Painting" to Britain (and specifically to Ashfield's extended palette); following a section of de Piles which is omitted from the translation, he defines "Pastils" as the "name formerly given…Crayons".
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 7; Oxford DNB

Adrian BURY (1891-1991), artist, poet and author of a study on La Tour. His pastel copy of the famous préparaton of Marie Fel appeared at acution in 2013.

Daniel CAFFÉ (1756–1815) instructed his brother Gottfried in the manufacture of pastels, "as good as those from Lausanne". They came in complete sets of more than 300 pieces, among them a particularly fine, stable green. They were available at a particularly low price in Dresden, "vor dem Pirnaischen Thore, No. 333".
Dictionary, artists

Cornelius CALLAGHAN, carver, gilder and looking-glass manufacturer recorded between 1822 and 1845 at 24 Clare Street, Dublin. Label on pastels by Hamilton, pendants at Chaalis: "Cornelius Callaghan / Carver and Gilder / Looking glass and picture Frame / Manufacture / Dublin". He was no doubt the Cornelius Callaghan baptised at St Mary's (Church or Ireland), Dublin, 17.IV.1784, son of Cornelius Callaghan, the glazier, painter, map and print-seller recorded between 1770 and 1815 in Britain Street and Mary Street. Callaghan Jr was succeeded by Nicholas Lombard, 2 Leinster Street, by 1850.
Lit.: Knight of Glin, "Dublin directories and trade labels", Furniture history, 1985, pp. 263

Bernardino CAMPI (1522–1591), Italian painter active in Cremona, who, according to Lomazzo, wrote a treatise about pastel.

Mr CAMPIONE, Italian, at the Golden-Head, near All Saints Church, in Oxford, advertised in the Oxford journal, 23.v.1772, various wares and artist's materials, including crayons.

Anatole CAMUS (fl. c.1888–1917), gardien-concierge au musée Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin. Legend has it that he replaced La Tour's pastels with copies he made himself to deceive the Germans during the First World War.
Lit.: Lapauze 1917; Saint-Quentin 2007

CARDEREAU, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Rosalba CARRIERA (1673-1757), pastellist credited with early progress in the method.
Dictionary, artists

Cellier, v. Sellier

Philippe CAYEUX (1688–1769), sculpteur, ornemaniste, and collector, rue Saint-Honoré: made, or lent, a frame for a pastel by Noel-Nicolas Coypel which he reclaimed on the artist's death in 1734.
Lit.: Guiffrey 1883, p. 314

Benvenuto CELLINI (1500-1571), artist; writing c.1560, he describes the use of pastelli which may or may not refer to fabricated sticks, and could be an established resource.
Lit.: McGrath 1998; Burns 2007, p. 4

Cennino CENNINI (c.1370-c.1440), painter and author of early treatise on artists' materials, Il libro dell'arte, which first noted the mixing of pigments with white fillers to create graded colours, for use in tempera painting

Marie-Louise Guibert, Mme Charles CHAISE ran a boutique at the corner of the rue de l'Echelle and the petite rue Saint-Louis, displaying a number of licentious pictures including five pastels probably by her husband.
Dictionary, artists; collectors, s.v. Charles Chaise.

William CHALMERS & Son, framers, 118 High Street, Edinburgh. Framers of a number of pastels by Skirving (q.v.)

William CHAMBERS, Berners Street, received a letter from Margaret Hay, Aberdeen, ordering some "crions" for her eldest, Betty, who is learning to draw tolerably well (30.I.1769, Royal Academy of Arts Archive, CHA/1/14)

James Wells CHAMPNEY (1843-1903), painter, studied in Écouen, Antwerp and Rome between 1866 and 1870 before returning to his native Boston. He subsquently returned to Europe for shorter trips: an inscription on the verso of a copy after Boucher suggests that he was in Paris, 19 quai Voltaire in 1893. He made numerous pastel copies after old master paintings and pastels, including works by La Tour, Vigée Le Brun, Rembrandt, Boucher, Nattier, Greuze, Rigaud, Mignard, Drouais and Raoux, some copied after pictures in the Louvre (a photograph of his studio, reproduced in Bunce 1897, reveals his competent copies of famous Louvre pastels by Prud'hon, Rosalba, Russell and Chardin). Some 210 pastels, many copies, were in his posthumous sale (21-21.I.1904). He owned a pastel by Russell. In 1875 he married Elizabeth Williams (1850–1922), a poet and novelist; she published an article on "The golden age of pastel" in the Century magazine, 1891.

Paul Romain CHAPERON (1732-1793), author of treatise on pastel.
Dictionary, artists

CHARMETON, no doubt a member of the extended family of painters and sculptors from Lyon, possibly the Jean (1701- ) who was married in Paris in 1742. Inventor of method of fixing pastel, who offered to sell the method to La Tour and then to anyone offering a reasonable sum. Subsequently there appeared in Le Mercure an advertisement for pastels: "La demoiselle Charmeton, faubourg Saint-Germain, rue Saint-Benoît, vis-à-vis de l'abbaye..., affirme que les artistes les plus fameux en ce genre, dont bien sûr le célèbre La Tour, préfèrent ses assortiments à tous les autres, depuis déjà quelques temps." (A similar piece appeared in Les affiches, 24.XI.1746.) This claim was supported by the appearance (as Lot 502) in Charles Coypel's posthumous sale of "Sept Tiroirs remplis de Pastels de meilleurs Fabriques; telles que celles de Moule, Charmeton & autres."
Lit.: Lieudé de Sepmanville 1747 (Dictionary, salon critique); Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Chatelus 1991, p. 70

Benjamin CHARPENTIER, of 430 Oxford Street, 1775, 24 Cumberland Street, 1778, Titchfield Street from 1795: supplied frame and glass for Russell's Mrs Jeans, 1798, for £12/9/-.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Jacques-Charles-Denis CHARTIER, framemaker, maître-menuisier, marchand ébéniste-miroitier, reçu 31.v.1760, rue Saint-Antoine, près de la rue Royale, Paris.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

J.-F. CHÉREAU, Au deux piliers d'or, rue de la Sorbonne, v. Joubert

Jean CHÉRIN (1734-1785; maître-sculpteur, reçu de l'Académie de Saint-Luc 1760; maître-menuisier p.1760, framemaker, rue de Charonne, Paris.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

Julien CHESNEAU (fl. Rouen 1770), marchand mercier, rue des Juifs, au coin de la petite rue de l'Hôtel de Ville, advertised in the Journal de Rouen, 28.IX.1770, p. 1, "Une partie de très-beaux Tableaux en pastel, avec des bordures dorées pour les apartemens, de toutes grandeurs & largeurs, le tout à très bon compte."

Jean-François CHEVALIER (fl. 1745-1778), peintre et doreur, who invented a "moulin à broyer les couleurs".
Dictionary, artists, s.v. Jean Chevalier

A. CHRAMOSTA, framemaker in Vienna; supplied oval frame for Borovikovsky pastel.

Charles-Nicolas COCHIN (1715-1790), artist; responsible for assessing inventions proposed to the Académie royale.
Dictionary, artists; Burns 2007

Jean-Jacques COIFFIÉ, framemaker, maître-mensuisier, rue des Carmes, Paris, reçu 23.iii.1751.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

Citoyen COIFFIER, manufacturer of crayons.
Dictionary, artists, s.v. Lemoine

Christian COLE (London 1673-1734), British diplomat and correspondent with Carriera.
Dictionary, artists

An "Arrest du CONSEIL D'ÉTAT du roi, du 15.VIII.1752, qui indique les Bureaux pour l'entrée dans le Royaume, des Verres & Ouvrages de Verrerie venant de l'Etranger; & fixe à trente livres du cent pesant les Droits sur les Verres blancs coulés en tables & sans boudines, propres à Estampes & Peintures en pastel, tant à l'éntrée des cinq grosses Fermes, que des Provinces réputés étrangéres…." appeared in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers, 25.IX.1751, p. 598f

COOKE (fl. Bath a.1801), manufacturer of pastels.
Dictionary, artists

Edward COOPER (fl. 1682; -1725), at The Three Pigeons, Bedford Street, later Half Moon Street, auctioneer, print seller, dealer and materials supplier: In an entry in his diary for 8.IV.1696 (18.IV.1696 new style), Constantijn Huygens (q.v.) purchased some crayons and red chalk from him; he looked at some of his drawings, but did not see any that he liked. Lutterell was among his debtors listed in his posthumous inventory.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; National Archives, PROB 3/24/190

M. CORTEY, droguiste, aux armes de Condé, rue de Grammont, Paris, supplier of Morvau's zinc white, mentioned by Chaperon 1788, p. 67.

Francis COTES (1726-1770), pastellist; his "Notes on Crayon Painting" were published in the European magazine in 1797. John Russell noted that Cotes restored a pastel by Carriera (Calista, belonging to Dr Chauncy) transferring it to another stetcher by soaking it.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Russell 1777, p. 22

Johann Melchior CROECKER (fl. Jena 1712) published his Wohlanführende Maler, ou le peintre instituteur in 1712 (a revised edition appeared in 1778) which taught amateurs oil, pastel and fresco painting. He was probably related to the engraver and bookseller Heinrich Christoph Croecker (fl. Jena 1706).
Paillot de Monabert 1829, I, p. 279; Nagler 1836

P. DACHON, painter from Lille (fl. 1755), to whom Scheppers (q.v.) vouchsafed his secret for fixing pastel.
Dictionary, artists

Édouard-Joseph DANTAN (1848-1897), academic painter borh in Paris into a family of sculptors. He made a pastel copy of La Tour's abbé Huber.
Lit.: Sophie de Juvigny, Edouard Dantan 1848-1897 : Des ateliers parisiens aux marines normandes, 2002

William DARRES (fl. 1745–56), printseller, bookseller and auctioneer at Coventry Street, near Haymarket, a warehouse for Peter De Braque; advertised crayons made by Stoupan (Public advertiser, 5.I.1756).
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Exeter working papers at bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk

Charles DAVIS (1740-1805), pastellist, and his son, also Charles (1769- ), artists' suppliers in Bath; their advertisements included crayons.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Les sieurs Gabriel DECOMBAZ & compagnie, libraire au Cap, in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 28.IV.1790 (p. 785), offered "boîtes de pastels & autres".

Jules-Alexandre Patrouillard DEGRAVE (1844-1904), directeur de l'École gratuite de dessin, Saint-Quentin, made numerous pastel copies after La Tour.
Lit.: Hilary Spurling, "How Matisse became a painter", Burlington magazine, CXXXV/1084, .VII.1993, pp. 463-70

Joseph DEIBEL (1716-1792), a pupil of Kugler (q.v.); wood carvers who supplied the frames for Rosalba's pastels in Dresden.
Lit.: Christoph Schölzel, "Der Dresdener Galerierahmen Geschichte, Technik, Restaurierung", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, XVI, 2002, pp. 104-29

William DELACOUR (c.1700-1767), supplier of pastels.
Dictionary, artists

Veuve DELARUELLE & Ledanseur, 20 rue du Petit-Thouars, quartier du Temple, Paris, fabricants et marchands de crayons et pastels. The Almanach des marchands for 1770 has a note on the firm: "crayons pour dessin et bureau, inventeurs d'un noir extra fin dit noir d'Etna, inventeurs de crayons de couleurs et de nuances à l'infini, pastels, crayons pour dessin...". M. Delaruelle, presumably the son, was awarded a silver medal, Athénée des Arts, 1828.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913, pp. 221f

Mrs DESPORTES & DE:ETANT, Ville de Paris, Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 25.XII.1790 (p. 1038), offered "tableaux en pastel" among other luxury goods.

Denis DIDEROT (1713-1784), influential writer and art critic. He encouraged research into encaustic painting in his 1755 treatise L'Histoire et le secret de la peinture en cire contre le sentiment du comte de Caylus, in which he supported Bachelier's claim to primacy which he preferred to Caylus's desire for secrecy; but he later dismissed Bachelier's oil pastels in the Salon de 1765.
Lit.: Hilaire-Pérez 2002

Sophie Friederike DINGLINGER (1736-1791) developed a method of fixing pastels adopted by Stock and others.
Dictionary, artists

Antonio Francesco DONI (1513-1574), painter and author of Disegno, 1549, describing the application of powder onto sheets; this may not refer to fabricated sticks.
Lit.: McGrath 1998; Burns 2007, p. 4

Johann Gabriel DOPPELMAYR (1677–1750), mathematician and scientist, author of Historische Nachricht von den Nürnbergischen Mathematikern und Künstlern, Nürnberg, 1730, where he discusses dry pastels.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 138

Robert DOSSIE (1717-1777), apothecary from Sheffield; he settled in London in 1757, and became a member of the Society of Artists, associating with Benjamin Franklin and Dr Johnson. His The handmaid to the arts, London, 1758, mentioned some 29 different pastel pigments.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Lowengard 2008

DUFROIR, Doreur, marchand d'Etampes/Fabrique et tient magasin de bordure etc., according to the label on the back of an anonymous late 17th century pastel (London, 16.IV.1999, Lot 152).

Antoine-Charles DULAC (fl. Paris 1762–65), maître-peintre, rue des Prêtres, paroisse Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois. His shop was damaged in a fire of 1762; the stock included pastels. Threee years later, he had reopened, selling "beaucoup de portraits en pastel, des estampes nudité qui sont morceaux d'académie; il vend quelquefois des mignatures gaillardes."
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Dunand 1967, p. 237; Michel 2007, p. 124

DUMAREST (fl. Paris 1780), rue de la Vieille-Draperie, quartier du Palais, developed a secret composition for pastels, for which the Académie had issued a certificate; the process had apparently been sold to Nadaux (q.v.) who supplied pastels from the same house as Dumarest. It is unclear if he is the Rambert Dumarest (1750–1806), dessinateur, graveur en médailles, who exhibited bronze medallions at the salon de 1793, from quai de l'Ecole; he also spent two years at teh Soho factory in England.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 71; 83

Thomas DUMONT, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Charles-Vincent, abbé DU PLAQUET (1730–1811), chanoine de l'eglise d'Auch, de l'ordre de Malte, censeur royal à Saint-Quentin, author of the Éloge historique de M. Maurice-Quentin de Latour, peintre du Roi…prononcé le 2 mai 1788, Saint-Quentin, 1789

Claude DUPUIS (fl. Paris a.1678), paper supplier to Nanteuil.
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 48

Bernard DUPUY DU GREZ (1639-1720) abandoned his position as avocat au parlement to found an École publique et gratuite de dessin, supported by Crozat and Cammas, and which in 1751 became the Académie royale. In his Traité sur la peinture, Toulouse, 1699, illustrated by Antoine Rivalz, he recommended that pastel sticks be bought ready made.
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 26

Michel-François DUTENS (1732-1804) published a Principes abrégés de peinture in Tours in 1779; it has several references to pastel pigments.

DUVAL (fl. Paris 1731), peintre, "qui fait d'excellent pastel" according to a letter from Raymond Falyt in Paris to Carriera (6.VII.1731)

Le marchand DUVAL, rue de la Comédie-Française, peintre et doreur en bâtiment, tient un magasin d'estampes montées et en feuilles, de portraits de fantaisie au pastel.
Lit.: Almanach des peintres, cited Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 13

Lazare DUVAUX (1703–1758), marchand mercier, rue de la Monnaie, Paris, jeweller and dealer in luxury items, including pictures.
Lit.: Livre-journal de Lazare Duvaux, marchand-bijoutier, 1748-1758, ed. J. Courajod, Paris, 1873; Michel 2008, pp. 30ff

Hendrik EBBENS (1726-1807), framemaker in The Netherlands, including of a number of Tischbein pastels.
Lit.: R. J. Baarsen, "Hendrik Ebbens (1726-1807) en de inlijsting van enkele stadhouderlijke portretten", Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, xxxix/4, 1991, pp. 453-64

Théophile ECK (1841–1907), conservateur au musée Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin. Lit.: Dictionary, s.v. Tirman; Saint-Quentin 2007

Pietro EDWARDS (1744–1821), Venetian connoisseur and restorer, from a family of English origin; permanent secretary of the Veneto Liberal Collegio di Pittura; member of the Accademia Clementina of Bologna from 1775, as well as of the San Luca in Rome and that of Parma. He carried out a number of inventories of Venetian collections, notably that of Ludovico Manin.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997; Tormen 2009, p. 245

Joseph EICHLER (1724-p.1783), pastellist and picture restorer.
Lit.: Dictionary, artists

Alexander EMERTON, colour-man at the Bell, Arundell Street, advertised "fine crayons of all sorts" in the Country journal or the craftsman, 28.xii.1728; advertisements continued to appear in the 1760s.

Charles ESCOT (Gaillac 1834–1902), portraitist, pupil of Constantin-Jean-Marie Prévost at Toulouse. He made remarkable pastel copies of the La Tour Rousseau and Liotard Mme d'Épinay at Geneva, now in Versailles; a similar copy of La Tour's abbé Huber is at Tourcoing.
Lit.: Salmon 1997, pp. 157–63

Charles ESPLIN & Co.'s Paper Wareroom, High Street, Edinburgh, sold artists' colours including crayons, according to an advertisement in the Caledonian Mercury, 12.vii.1783.

Pierre ESTÈVE (Montpellier 1720 - Paris p.1790), salon critic.

John EVELYN (1620-1706), mentions pastels several times in his Diaries.
Dictionary, artists

Kaspar FABER (1730–1784), a cabinet-maker, founded a pencil factory at Stein, near Nürnberg in 1761. A descendent married into the Castell family.

N. D. FALCK advertised in the Kentish gazette, 6.xi.1770, a series of six subscription lectures to take place in Canterbury covering the "natural history and doctrine of colours, relating to the various arts of painting, in water, crayons and oil."

Gustaf Johan FAST (1749- ), Swedish carver. Frames on Lundberg pastels from his workshop, c.1770.
Lit.: Laine & Brown 2006

André FÉLIBIEN (1619-1695), important early theorist; his Entretiens sur les vies…des plus excellens peintres…, Paris, 1680, includes advice on framing pastels.

Thomas FENTHAM (fl. London 1777-c.1800), framemaker and glass grinder, Strand, London. Supplied frame for Read, Simon and Etheldred Yorke.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

FLETCHER, picture frame-maker, carver and gilder at the Golden-head, near the Globe tavern, London, offered "straining-frames cloathed and pasted with paper fit for crayons" (Gazeteer and new daily advertiser,19.III.1766).

John FORD, Chandos Street, Covent Garden, London 1764-73, corner of Henrietta Street/Bedford Street, Covent Garden 1773-75. Artists' supplier; his trade card includes crayons.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Joseph FRATREL (1730-1783), avocat and former miniature painter to Stanislas Leszczynski, published La Cire alliée avec l'huile, ou la Peinture à huile-cire trouvée à Manheim par M. Charles Baron de Taubenheim in 1770; it contains extravagant praise for the medium of pastel.

Jeremiah FREEMAN (c.1763-1823), carver and gilder in Norwich, from c.1791 (label found on a pastel by Vaslet p.1829 cannot be of maker)
Lit.: British framemakers at npg.org.uk

Élie-Catherine FRÉRON (1718-1776), journaliste et critique
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 284ff

John David GALLIARD, 12 Noel Street, London, 1779, 227 Piccadilly 1783-85, 14 Barton Street and Marsham Street, Westminster 1790; Ann Galliard, Poland Street 1794. Artists' suppliers. Advertised Swiss crayons in the Public advertiser, 7.VI.1783, invented by the late Stoupan (q.v.) and improved by Pache (q.v.) and Galliard, who were, according to Galliard's 1784 trade card, awarded a prize by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers, & Commerce.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Pierre-Marie GAULT de SAINT-GERMAIN (1754-1842), artist, writer and inventor.
Dictionary, artists

Hubert GAUTIER de Nîmes (1660-1737), médecin, mathématicien, ingénieur de la marine royale, de l'Académie des sciences & belles-lettres de Dijon, author of L'Art de laver…, Lyon, 1687, an early treatise, offering the secret of M. le Prince Robert.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Monnier 1984, p. 109; Dictionary, artists, Ruprecht; Burns 2007, p. 21f

Paul GEORGES, framemaker, maître-menuisier a.1747, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Edmé-François GERSAINT ( -1750), Paris dealer and auctioneer.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

Philippe GIMBLET, publishers of the Nieuwen almanach der konst-schilders, vernissers, vergulders en marmelaers for 1777, which included an article "Van de Schilderinge in Pastel" (pp. 228–40)

GIRARD, rue l'Evesque, Paris, manufacturer of pastels in 1663.
Lit.: Huygens 1888-1950, IV, pp. 349, 30.V.1663

GIRAULT, French suppliers of pastels since 1780.

François-Simon-Alphonse GIROUX (c.1775-1848), ébéniste, established 1799, trading as Maison Alphonse Giroux or Giroux & Cie, 7 rue du Coq-Saint-Honoré, Paris; succeeded by his son, Alphonse Gustave Giroux in 1838: frame on Petit, homme, sd 1817

Jean-Baptiste GLOMY ( -1786), mounter and expert in public sales.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 43; Michel 2008

Ferdinand-Joseph GODEFROID ( -1741), peintre du prince de Carignan, picture dealer and restorer to the royal collection, partner of Charles Godefroy (q.v.), killed in a duel by Jérôme-François Chantereau over a disputed picture; his widow (∞1726), née Marie-Jeanne Van Merle ( -1764) took over his business with François-Louis Colins (1699-1760), a picture dealer from Brussels. Valade exhibited her portrait in the salon de 1755.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 45f; Marandet 2003a; Marandet 2008; Dictionary, artists, Chantereau; collectors

John GORE advertised "crayons…sold cheap for cash" in the Boston gazette (9.III.1761); five years later he offered "crayons in sets".

Three sons of Jean GOSSET, a Huguenot from Jersey: Gideon (1707-1785), Isaac (1713-1799) and Jacob or James ( -1788) were active as carvers, gilders and framemakers in London probably by 1733. Jean's brother Matthew Gosset (1683-1744), carver and wax modeller, was in London by 1709. Isaac was also a wax modeller, and is the most prominent member of the family; he is probably "Gosset the frame maker" (possibly Gideon) who supplied "architrave gold frames" and glasses to Arthur Pond, 1735-49, as well as for pastels by Hoare, Cotes and possibly Liotard (who portrayed him in profile), mainly dating to the 1740s.
Lit.: Tessa Murdoch, "Courtiers and classics: the Gosset family", Country life, CLXXVII, 1985, pp. 1282f; London 1985b; Simon 1996; British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Albert GRAND, restorer, dealer and collector.
Dictionary, collectors

Sebastian ("Bassanio") GRANDI (fl. London 1789-1806), 6 Brownlow Street, Long Acre 1806. Italian colourman; he sold crayons to Joseph Farington, 1796 (Farington 1978-84, III, p. 1009). In 1806 he received the Society of Arts's silver medal and premium, for materials including crayons "which are greatly superior to any in use"; the recipe consited of bone-ash powder mixed with spermaceti, to which the pigment was added, together with white chalk if softer pastels were required. He was portrayed by Reynolds and Opie. A colourful character, in 1806 he was tried for murder but acquitted.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Transactions of the Society of Arts, XXIV, 1802, pp. 85ff

François GRASSET (fl. c.1764), libraire à Lausanne, supplier of pastels by Stoupan (q.v.)

Pierre GRÉGOIRE [Petrus Gregorius] (1540-1597), of Toulouse, author of an early treatise which mentions the manufacture of crayons de couleur, Syntaxeon artis mirabilis, published in Lyon around 1574 (with other editions of similar dates).
Lit.: Lavallée 1949, p. 77; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p.138; Jeffares 2006, p. 23; Burns 2007, p. 5

William GRISBROOK (1831-1901), London picture restorer; succeeded by his son, William Jr; restored six pastels and chalk drawings for NPG, 1919.
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk

Georg Christoph GÜNTHER (1736-1777), author of an early manual on pastel painting.
Dictionary, artists

Detlev von HADLEN (1878–1935), from a military family, studied Venetian painting at Jena and Florence before working at Dresden and Berlin. During the First World War he served in the German army's Kunstschutz, and was responsible for the removal to Maubeuge of the La Tour pastels in 1917.
Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007

Mme HÉBERT (fl. Paris 1774-76), supplied imitations of Stoupan's pastels.
Dictionary, artists

Frau Christoph Johann Werner, née Anna Maria HAID (1688-1753), credited by some sources as the inventor of pastel.
Dictionary, artists

Pierre-Charles-Alexandre HELLE ( -1767), ingénieur, art expert and dealer, collaborator of Rémy (q.v.).
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008

Jean Christoph HELMOLDT, Hellmoldt, Helmholdt or Helmod, pastel manufacturer in Lausanne, successor to Stoupan (q.v.). From the early 1790s he was exporting to Leipzig, Berlin, London, St Petersburg, Moscow etc. In the autumn of 1793, Helmoldt recorded that he had visited London the previous summer, "les boites de pastel remplissant la vache attachée au dessus de la voiture".
Lit.: William Guthrie, Nouvelle géographie universelle, Paris, 1802, III, p. 244; Revue historique vaudoise, 1943, p. 171; Revue historique vaudoise, 1985, p. 68; Hugues Jahier, "Un article d'exportation lausannois vers l'Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle", n.d.

Mademoiselle HERBAN, rue de Condé, Faubourg Saint-Germain, supplied "crayons en boîtes & demi-boîtes, assorties pour peindre en pastel, dont la vivacité des couleurs ne cedent en rien à celle des crayons de Lausanne", according to Roze de Chantoiseau 1782-92, p. 58. This is perhaps a mistake for Mme Hébert (q.v.).

Nicolas HEURTAUT (1720-1771), probably the nephew of the homonumous sculptor reçu de l'Académie de Saint-Luc 17.x.1741; maître-menuisier 1753, framemaker, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

"S & I. L. HENRY, Pencil-Makers, No 20 William-street, [New York], nearly opposite the Post office. Returns thanks to their friends who have favoured them with commands, and informs them that they continually keep on hand, a general assortment of goods in the above line. Any orders sent will be executed with Punctuality and dipatch. They have for sale, a few sets of the beautiful crayon colour pencils, of 36, 24, and 18 different shades, neatly made and put up in paper or wood cases, to be used as Swiss Crayons....." Mercantile Advertiser, 29.VII.1799

Joseph HICK, of "No 56, Mill Hill, Leeds, Carver, Gilder, Picture Frame and Looking Glass Manufacturer, Old Glasses resilvered, ladies Needle Work neatly Framed and Glazed", according to his trade card, supplied at least one frame to John Russell (Paley, 1802).

Jean-François HONNETE (1735-c.1793), credited with the invention of wax pastel.
Dictionary, artists

Samuel van HOOGSTRAETEN (1627-1678), painter, engraver and author of an early treatise Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst (1678) with recipe for pastel fixative.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 138

Solomon HUDSON (fl. 1776-93), carver and gilder, 16 Great Titchfield Street, London 1782-93. Supplied frames for Russell pendants, Prince of Wales and Mrs Fitzherbert, 1791, £42 16s. paid .IX.1793.
Lit.: Miller 1976, p. 109; British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Mr HUDSON of 18 Angel Court, Princess Street, Westminster (possibly a relative of Solomon Hudson, q.v.), manufacturer of Swiss crayons stocked by James Poole (q.v.) in 1787.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Joel HULBERT ( -c.1816), carver and gilder, 12 Camden Street, Dublin, in 1798; he was appointed toll collector at Monastereven, near Dublin, in 1800, and became an informer against the United Irishmen. His sons George and William were recorded as carvers and gilders, 36 Dawson Street, in 1798 but are absent from 1799 on. Robert Hulbert, presumably a third son, is recorded in 1799. Frames on pastels by Hamilton, Mrs La Touche; and the Misses La Touche, c.1795, with Camden Street label.
Lit.: Paul Caffrey, in Gorry Gallery exh. cat. 2-12.III.2005; Knight of Glin, Irish furniture, 2007, p. 293

HUYGENS family.
Dictionary, artists

Ferrante IMPERATO (1550-1625), author of Dell' historia naturale, Naples, 1599, in which composition of drawing sticks is discussed.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Kosek 1998, p. 2, n.16; Grove art online

"On trouve à l'IMPRIMERIE ROYAL DU CAP", in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 7.VII.1784 (p. 424, and later dates) offered "boîtes de couleur pour la miniature, pastels & autres…".

Étienne-Louis INFROIT (1720-1794); maître-sculpteur 14.viii.1759; maître-menuisier 1768, 24 rue Amelot; and his sons Louis-Claude and Claude Infroit (fl. 1777-p.1810); maître-sculpteur; maître-menuisier 26.iii.1777, rue de la Roquette 1777, rue Amelot by 1794, framemakers, Paris. A stamped frame appears on a pastel by Mlle Capet.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

Fernand-Léon-Oscar ISRAËL (1872–1926), adjoint 1917, puis conservateur des musées de Saint-Quentin. Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007

Benjamin JAGGER advertised in the Norfolk chronicle, 31.viii.1793, offering the stock from his shop in the Market Place, Norwich which he was compelled to leave; it included glasses, frames, "a few good Pictures; fine Drawings on Vellum, chalks andothers...some sets of Crayons."

Mr JOHNSON, presumably Thomas Johnson (1723-1799), is credited in the exhibition catalogue with the frame for a pastel by Daniel Dodd, of Mr Vivarez, exhibited at the Free Society in 1762.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Anon. "abonné de JOINVILLE en Champagne, homme caracterisé et digne de foi", advertised a method of fixing pastel in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers of .III.1758; in 1766 he added that pastels fixed in this way could have a varnish applied in place of the glass.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149

Louis-Quentin JOLY, doreur et peintre, rue Saint-Honoré, à côté de l'Opéra, member of the Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu 1770; probably the Joly who supplied a numbner of frames to the pastellist Boze.

Charles-Antoine JOMBERT (1712-1784), author of Méthode pour apprendre le dessin, Paris, 1755, and editor of the 1766 edition of de Piles's Elémens de peinture

JOUBERT took over the buseiness of J.-F. Chéreau, Au deux piliers d'or, rue de la Sorbonne, just before 1800; he supplied "toutes fournitures et assortiments en Géographie, Globes, Sphères, Musique, Papiers, Caryons, Psatels, Boëtes de couleur, etc.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913, p. 253

François JOULLAIN (1697-1778), Paris engraver, publisher, dealer and auctioner. His son Charles-François Joullain supplied frames.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008

Sébastien JURINE (Lyon 1722 – Geneva 1779), a clothing maker settled in Geneva, recommended by Liotard to the Earl of Bessborough for fixing pastels "as well as Loriot" in Paris. He was the father of the celebrated surgeon and naturalist Louis Jurine. He advertised in the London Gazeteer & new daily advertiser on 28.I.1765: "Sebastian Jurine continues to fix Pictures in Crayons, to the entire Satisfaction of all who put such Paintings in his Hands: His Method not only prevents the colours from falling or fading, or being easily rubbed off, but likewise takes out every Spot of Mouldiness, and hinders the forming of others. I need not enlarge on the Utility of fixing Pictures drawn in Crayons, their aptness to be spoiled when not thus secured, in a sufficient Proof of the Value of my Discovery, and the Certificates of several persons of Distinction now in my Hands, and which I am ready to produce, will remove any Doubt concerning the Efficacy of this Method; I shall here mention only few of them, namely, the Countess of Bolingbrooke, the Earl of Besborough, and General Conway, but I shall readily shew several more to such as are desirous of seeing them. As my Affairs require my Presence in other Countries, my stay here will not exceed three Months more at most: I continue to lodge at Mr Brochet's, Jeweller, in Suffolk-street, near Charing Cross. P.S. I fixed for that celebrated Painter, Mr Coste, one half of a picture in Crayons, without at all touching the other Half; it was exposed to public View in the Great Room belonging to the society of arts, etc. in the Strand: No one could distinguish the Side which was fixed, from that which was not. I am always to be met with at my Lodgings at One o'Clock till the Evening every Day, Saturdays excepted." (Lady Bolingbroke, a pastellist, was better known as Lady Diana Beauclerk, q.v..) This announcement was followed by another in the same paper on 15.iii.1765: "Mr Jurine gives notice to those who have Crayons to fix, that his Stay in England will be no longer than this Month."
Lit.: Roethlisberg & Loche 2008, p. 740, reprinting Liotard's letter of 28.VI.1763

Elizabeth Randall KEATING (fl. London 1782-92). In a 3-page memorial to the President and Council of the Royal Academy (RA Archives, RAA/SEC/2/91/1, 1792), she offers to demonstrate her method of manufacturing crayons, and makes reference to Valentine Green. See also "Regarding Mrs. Keeting and her Swiss-style crayons", 3.V.1782, Committee Minutes of the Committee on Polite Arts, [R]SA Minutes of Various Premium Committees 1781-82 [R]SA PR.GE/112/12/23. She may have been related to the colourman Robert Keating ( –1758) of The White Hart, Long Acre, who supplied canvases for oil painting to Katherine Read in 1755.
Lit.: Lowengard 2008

Thomas KEYSE was awarded a bounty of 30 gns "for the discovery of his method of painting in fixed crayons" by the Society of Arts in 1764.
Dictionary, artists
Lit.: Museum rusticum et commerciale, II, 1764, p. 376

Josef KRIMPACHER made the gilt frames for a series of pastels of the abbots of St. Peter by J. G. Troger (q.v.) in Salzburg in 1754.

Mattheus KUGLER (1692-1752), and his pupil Joseph Deibel (q.v.); wood carvers from Munich who supplied the frames for Rosalba's pastels in Dresden.
Lit.: Christoph Schölzel, "Der Dresdener Galerierahmen Geschichte, Technik, Restaurierung", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, XVI, 2002, pp. 104-29

Jacques LACOMBE, salon critic, author of Dictionnaire portatif des beaux-arts, 1753; mentions pastels.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 10f

Étienne LA FONT DE SAINT-YENNE (1688-1771), salon critic.

Philippe de LA HIRE (1640-1718), author of an early Traité de la pratique de la peinture, 1699, published by the Académie des sciences in 1730; it describes pastel sets manufactured to provide homogeneous consistency.
Dictionary, artists

Gerard de LAIRESSE (1640-1711), painter and author of Het groot schilderboek, 1707, in which the process of mezzotint was compared with crayon drawing on dark paper.

André LAMBERT (1753-1807; maître-sculpteur 1783), framemaker, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançois de LALANDE (1732-1807), astronome, de l'Académie des sciences; he published a number of articles related to pastel fixatives, paper etc.
Lit.: Burns 2007

Lambertye, v. Paillard

La comtesse de LAMOTE-BARACÉ, née Thérèse de Virieu (1814-p.1894), amateur pastellist, made, at the age of 80, a competent pastel copy of a 1794 portrait by Marchand (signed Ctesse de LB).

Charles Lapause, dit Henry LAPAUZE (1867–1925), historien et critique d'art. He was a member of the Conseil supérieur des beaux-arts, and was appointed director of the Petit-Palais in 1905. He published his influential study on the La Tour pastels at Saint-Quentin in 1898. Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007

Maurice-Quentin de LA TOUR (1704-1788), inveterate experimenter in pastel, believed to have a secret method of fixing them which the Goncourts tantalisingly suggested was described in a letter which Frédéric Villot would publish.
Dictionary, artists

François LAURAIRE, peintre et doreur de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu sculpteur 1759, rue des Prêtres Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois, "a ouvert un magasin de bordures dorées et de portraits au pastel". He also offered "des mignatures indécentes et beaucoup de portraits".
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Dunand 1967, p. 237; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 13

L'abbé Jean-Bernard LE BLANC (1707-1781), early writer who discussed La Tour's fixing of pastels in his 1747 Lettre sur l'exposition….
Dictionary, collectors; salons critiques, 1747

Jean-Baptiste-Pierre LE BRUN (1748-1813), dealer.
Dictionary, collectors

L'abbé LE BRUN, author of the Almanach historique et raisonné des architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs et ciseleurs, published in Paris, 1776 and 1777

Florent LE COMTE (?1655-1712), collector and author of a critique of the Salon de 1699 in which Vivien's pastels are discussed.
Lit.: Jal 1872

LEFRANC, Paris, suppliers of pastels from 1775. The firm's origins date to c.1720, witn an ancestor, Charles de La Clef, who founded a "commerce de pigments et d’épices" in the quartier St Germain with the encouragement of Chardin.
Lit.: Kosek 1998

Placide-Auguste LE PILEUR D'APLIGNY, author of a Traité des couleurs materielles, Paris, 1779, describing a method of preparing canvas for pastel with coatings of oil and glass powder, similar to Pelelchet's process; it seems to have been used by Rotari.
Lit.: Shelley 2002, p. 11, n.37

LEONARDO da Vinci (1452-1519).
Dictionary, artists

Henri LÉTONNÉ, picture and print frame maker, reçu maître-menuisier 9.vi.1773, active until 1791. He lived on the quai d'Orléans, près du Pont-Rouge, and then rue de l'Ile-Saint-Louis. Stamped frames on a pastel by Desangles, Sophie Arnould; a copy of Kucharski's Louis XVII (MV 6520); and a pair of anonymes pendants.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998

Antoine LEVERT, framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 14.XII.1774, Saint-Jean-de-Latran, Paris. Stamped frames on pastels by Ducreux, Mme Poisson and Mosnier, duchesse de Laval.
Lit.: Vial 1912–22; Harden 1998

Pierre-Charles LEVESQUE (1736-1812), protégé of Diderot who completed the Dictionnaire des arts of Watelet (q.v.) before writing the history of Russia.

Marin-Cyprien-Antoine de LIEUDÉ DE SEPMANVILLE, secrétaire du roi, from Rouen, early writer who discussed La Tour's fixing of pastels in his 1747 Réflexions nouvelles d'un amateur….
Dictionary, salons critiques, 1747

Jean-Étienne LIOTARD (1702-1789), pastellist and theorist, credited with technical innovations.
Dictionary, artists

Mme LOGHADÈS, née Léonie Tchoumakoff (Paris 1859-1938x46), copyist in pastel, known for a copy of Nattier's Mlle de Lambesc (MV 8959) and also recorded as having copied Nattier's Mme Tessin.

Alexis III LOIR (1712-1785), pastellist, who experimented with pastel on wood and on copper.
Dictionary, artists

Giovan Paolo LOMAZZO (1538-1600), painter and theorist, mentions Leonardo's invention of pastel in 1584.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 136; Burns 2007, p. 4f; Dictionary, s.v. Leonardo

LOMBERQUE (fl. Paris 1731), pastel maker, presumably a misspelling of Lundberg.
Dictionary, artists, Lundberg

L. de LONGASTRE (c.1747-p.1806), pastellist, provided information on pastel techniques to Constant de Massoul (q.v.).
Dictionary, artists

Antoine-Joseph LORIOT (1716-1782), inventor of a method of fixing pastel (among other things such as a mechanical table for the Trianon and a cement for mending broken statues). His process was advertised in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers for 3.X.1753 (his address is given as Paris, château des Tuilleries, avant cour des Princes); it was approved by the Académie a few days later, and certified again 1.XII.1753 (when examples including Carriera's pastels demonstrated the process's ability to treat mould and revive colour). Loriot was awarded a pension of 1000 livres. The process was made famous at the Salon of 1763 by Valade's portrait of the inventor, half of which was fixed by his undetectable method. This picture descended to Auguste Pellechet, no doubt a relation of Loriot's first wife, Anne-Marie Pellechet, probably a daughter of another pastel innovator, Sr Pellechet (q.v.). By 26.XI.1779, the crown had purchased Loriot's invention, and he duly communicated the secret in a memoir (Procès-Verbaux, 5.II.1780). L'Art de fixer le Pastel, de l'invention du sieur Loriot, was on sale in the colonades du Louvre according to Roze de Chantoiseau 1782-92, p. 58. Loriot had a logement in the Galeries du Louvre, where Anna Rajecka, later Mme Gault de Saint-Germain (q.v.), stayed with his widow in 1783 before the apratment was reassigned to de Montucla.
Lit.: "Details du secret de Mr. Loriot pour fixer la peinture au pastel," 8.X.1753, Extrait des registres de l'Académie royale de peinture et sculpture, AN O/1/1915 50; letters from d'Angivller to Pierre, 26.XI.1779; 9.II.1780; Guiffrey 1885, pp. 138ff; Chatelus 1991, p. 69; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 144ff; Burns 2007

Edward LUTTERELL (c.1650-c.1724), pastellist who used engravers' prepared copper plates. His manuscript Epitome of painting (1683) describes his method.
Dictionary, artists

Macle, v. Roché

Carlo Cesare MALVASIA (1616–1693), scholar and art historian, author of Felsina pittrice, vite de’ pittori bolognesi, 1678, in which he reports on early Bolognese pastellists.

Carlo MARATTI (1625-1713), artist and restorer, said to have used pastel to restore paintings.
Dictionary, artists

Antoine de MARCENAY DE GHUY (1724-1811), engraver. Together with Peters he organised the Salons du Colisée after the dissolution of the Académie de Saint-Luc.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 156f

Pierre-Jean MARIETTE (1694-1774), collector and writer.
Dictionary, collectors

Jean-François MARMONTEL (1719-1798), de l'Académie française, écrivain, subject of a pastel by La Tour
Lit.: Chatelus 1991

Constant de MASSOUL, author of A treatise on the art of painting, and the composition of colours, which appeared in London in 1797, apparently as a translation from the French. However the author was a colourman with a shop in Bond Street, London. It described pastel techniques, relying on information supplied by Longastre, and reviewed those available commercially, in Lausanne, Vevay, Nürnberg and Paris.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Lowengard 2008

MAUCLERC, author of Traité des couleurs et vernis, Paris, 1773.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 80; Lowengard 2008

Charles-Élisabeth MAUGÉ (c.1747–p.1793), procureur au présidial de Rennes, procureur au présidial de Rennes, the subject of a portrait in oil by Perronneau (Salon de 1765), published a letter "sur un moyen de fixer le Pastel" in the Journal oeconomique, .VII.1770, p. 324 in which he mentions "[son] gout pour cette sorte de peinture qui a tant de graces & d'éclat". His recipe, offered because Loriot kept his secret, involved vinegar and sugar-candy, to be applied with care and experience.
Lit.: Almanach sous verre, 1769, cited Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149; Goncourt & Goncourt 1867

G. MERCIER fils, 3 rue Saint-Benoît, Paris 3e: early 20th century frame-maker and luxury book-binder. Label on verso of copy of Perronneau, Mme Duval d'Espreménil, with an oval frame and elaborate ribbon bow offers "Rentoilages, restauration de tableaux/fabrique de cadres, encadrements/…pastels & miniatures…dorure chimique/photographie, gravure".

Louis-François METRA [Métra, Mettra] (1738–1804), journalist, critic, banker and correspondent of Friedrich der Grosse; publisher of the Correspondance littéraire.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991

Pierre MEUNIER (1735– ), framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 8.vii.1767, rue du faubourg saint-Antoine, later rue de la Roquette, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Mme MEUNIER, a nineteenth century pastel copyist known for one work in Versailles (MV 6534).

Christian MICHEL, pipemaker in Ruhl, supplied pastels of a new kind, which could be mixed with water and applied to supports prepared with oil paint. A box of 36 sticks cost one ducat.
Lit.: Busch 1820, p. 101f, citing Journal für Fabrik, .XI.1797, p. 395

François MICHOD, nephew of Stoupan (q.v.), established a pastel supply in Vevay, not far from Lausanne, by 1779, using the same process.
Lit.: Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 1779, p. 564

Nicholas MIDDLETON ( -1824), stationer and pencil maker, trading in the Strand from the mid-18th century. Although an early 19th century trade card refers to "crayons" these were "de plomb noir" and probably not pastel.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Pierre-François MILLET, framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 1767, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998

Claude-Louis-Octave, vicomte de MILLEVILLE (1751- ), écuyer de main du comte d'Artois 1775-81, capitaine au régiment Boufflers-Dragons, and a freemason, living in Versailles, presented his recipe for varnish capable of fixing pastels to the Académie royale, who were "sensible au zèle de M. le Vicomte de Milleville d'employer ses loisirs à la conservation des productions des Arts", and to d'Angivilliers. He was asked to return with specimens on 5.XI.1785, but sent his apologies.
Lit.: Procès-Verbaux, 29.X.1785; "Lettre de le vicomte de Milleville à le comte d'Artois sur la decouverte d'une vernis pour le pastel," 5.XII.1785, AN O/1/1918 476; Goncourt & Goncourt 1867

Jean-Baptiste MILLIET (1745–1774), philologue à la Bibliothèque du roi, author of a Lettre sur la peinture en pastel, 1775.

MOREAU, rue Saint-Denis, marchand de couleurs
Lit.: Almanach dauphin, 1776, cited Haroche-Bouzinac 2011, p.27

Henry Robert MORLAND (c.1719-1797).
Dictionary, artists

M. de MORVAU, inventor repsonsible for zinc white, mentioned by Chaperon 1788, pp. 65ff.

MOULE: pastel manufacturer in Paris before 1752. Lot 502 in Charles Coypel's posthumous sale included "Sept Tiroirs remplis de Pastels de meilleurs Fabriques; telles que celles de Moule, Charmeton & autres."

Johann Heinrich MÜNTZ (1727-1798), Swiss painter and writer, interested in encaustic, which he thought could be used to fix pastels. An English translation of his Encaustic, or, Count Caylus's method of painting in the manner of the ancients: to which is added a sure and easy method for fixing of crayons appeared in 1760.
Lit.: Burns 2007

NADAUX, engraver and draughtsman, advertised in the Journal de Paris, 1780, that he had obtained from Dumarest (q.v.) his secret composition for pastels, for which the Académie had issued a certificate. His advertisement was from rue de la Vieille-Draperie, quartier du Palais, the same house as Dumarest; to avoid counterfeit, he advertised that he would not supply any dealer, and that the pastels could thus only be obtained from him; of couse he would deliver "en province". One of several engraved trade cards issued c.1780 reads "NADAUX FABRIQUE Royale de CRAYONS de Composition du S. Nadaux Breveté du Roi, Approuvé par les Académies, Pastels de sa composition SEUL DÉPOT en sa maison, rue de la Vieille Draperie, dans la Cité, à Paris." He may be the "Sr Nadeau" from whom J.-B. Huet obtained his "crayons de couleur" for the quatre têtes de filles engraved by Bonnet with this legend.
Lit.: [a.15.VII.1780], AN F/12/2237; Chatelus 1991, p. 71; John Grand-Carteret, Papeterie et papetiers de l'ancien temps, Paris, 1913, pp. 275-76Lowengard 2008; Katie Scott, "The Waddesdon Manor trade cards: more than one history", Journal of design history, XXIII, 2004, pp. 91-104, p. 103, n.26

G. & I. NEWMAN, Little Chelsea, later at Bridge Row, Ranelagh, Chelsea c.1786 (apparently unconnected with James Newman). Colour makers; in 1786 their trade card advertised "crayon pencils equal to the Swiss".
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

James NEWMAN, Gerrard St, London 1784-1801. Leading supplier of artists' materials, including "fine soft crayons" (The times, 5.V.1787).
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Sieur NIODOT fils, Au Griffon d’Or/N° 43/Cloître St Germain l’auxerrois, à Paris. According to his trade card, "NIODOT fils, M[archan]d papetier, tient le Dépôt des véritables Crayons d’Isabey de toutes les qualités, Papiers vélin anglois superfin, cartons tendus et apprêtés de toutes grandeurs pour dessiner à sa manière, Idem sur chassis et Tiradors &c.... Cartons encadrés et dorés pour dessiner et laver, colle les Dessin, Gouaches, Pastels de toutes façons, tient en général tout ce qui est relatif à la Papeterie." He appears in earlier sources (Almanach des six corps, 1769) as "Nodot", and in 1788 at the sign Au Chant de l'Alouette, place du Vieux-Louvre, 21; another label records "Niodot jeune, rue Richeleiue, no. 70".
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913; Lugt L.1944a; Lettre de la miniature, 8.IX.2011, p. 2

Nodot, v. Nodiot

Edward NORGATE ( -1650), author of Miniatura or the art of limning, 1627–28, revised 1648-50 correcting the confused account of extracting ultramarine under the heading "The Pastil". The treatise provided directions "to make Crayons...of ordinary Colours of all mixtures".
Lit.: modern eds. of 1919, 1997; Burns 2007

Frank NOWLAN (c.1835-1919), London and Dublin, restorer. Repaired and copied G. Romney, William Cowper, in 1905; restored Humphry, Stanhope, for NPG in 1904 (4 gns).
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk

PACHE & Davis 1758-63, succeeded by Lewis Pache & Co 1765-67 (v. q. Bonhote), Hayes's Court, Soho, London. Suppliers of artists' materials, including "The noted Swiss Crayons called Pastels Assortie, the Box being a compleat Assortment of Shades and Colours" (Public advertiser, 20.VI.1758); on 30.IV.1760, they were described as made by Stoupan (q.v.) and recommended by "that famous Painter Liotard".
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Charles PACHE, 2 Oxendon Street, near Coventry Street, London 1774. Pastel maker; possibly nephew of Lewis Pache. Bonhote (q.v.) advertised Pache's pastels, citing him as a former partner of Stoupan (q.v.) at Lausanne, noting that Pache had obtained a premium from the Society of Arts and Sciences (London evening post, 8.IV.1773). Soon after Pache advertised (London evening post, 24.V.1774) that he had set up in business on his own, mentioning that he had received a Bounty from the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, for establishing a manufacture of crayons in England.
Lit.: "Regarding crayons invented by Mr Pache", 4.XII.1772, [R]SA Minutes of the Committee on Polite Arts, [R]SA Minutes of Various Premium Committees 1772-73 [R]SA PR.GE/112/12/14; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Lowengard 2008

Mammès-Claude-Catherine PAHIN CHAMPLAIN DE LA BLANCHERIE (1752-1811), journalist, art critic, founder of the Salon de la Correspondance which exhibited numerous pastesl during its existence betwwn 1779 and 1787, author of the Nouvelles de la république des lettres; subject of pastels by Ducreux and Lenoir.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 146ff; Auricchio 2002

PAILLARD, Paris, suppliers of pastels from 1788. Jacques-Michel Paillard, 15 rue des Francs-Bourgeois au Marais, Paris, in 1850, took over the business originally started by P. C. Lambertye in 1788 and continued by his pupil Joseph Panier, specialising in watercolour in dry cakes. Paillard defended his rights to the Lamberty and Panier trademarks in an action in 1858 against Albert Allmayer and Jacob Schloss who had sold colours in breach of his trademark.
Lit.: Kosek 1998

Alexandre-Joseph PAILLET (1743-1814): Paris art dealer, expert and auctioneer, active from c.1770.
Lit.: Jo-Lynn Edwards, Alexandre-Joseph Paillet, expert et marchand de tableaux à la fin du XVIIIe siecle, Paris, 1996; Grove 1996; Marandet 2003a

Anthony PASQUIN, the pseudonym of John Williams (1758–c.1821), journalist and art critic. His antipathy to pastel is neatly summarised in his note on Russell (Pasquin 1796a): "To investigate the merits of miniature and crayon painters, is scarcely a toil worthy the pen of a biographer. There is no province of the polite arts so thoroughly gulling and imposing as crayon painting; it capivates the vulgar eye, by a smoothness and gaudiness which should render it disgusting; and even a bad artist may pass muster in this pursuit, who would be scouted in any other. It requires a great portion of skill not to make the tints too garish for nature; and that species of knowledge no man possessed in so eminent a degree as Mr Coates, and even he was not strictly correct on this essential point."
Lit.: Cullen 2000

PAULMIER, de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, marchand de couleur, rue Saint-Denis, vis-a-vis le Sépulcre. His notices read "Paulmier, peintre, vend pastelle, couleurs et vernis".
Guiffrey 1915, p. 77

PELLECHET (a.1764), inventor of a type of oil pastel, a method of preparing canvas or silk so that special pastel could be applied directly, analogous to Reifenstein's process. On 2.VI.1764, a subcommittee consisting of Hallé, Bachelier, La Tour and Roslin reported on this method on the application of Pellechet's widow: "le résultat est que ce pastel s'attache et prent toute la consistance d'un tableau peint à l'huile"; the procedure was easy to apply, and the results stable. A certificate was issued, and Mme Pellechet wrote to Marigny offering to sell the invention to the crown; she enclosed a printed prospectus offering prepared materials giving chez Mlle Cellier (q.v.) as the address. Cochin wrote to Marigny confirming that the artists' reports were favourable, La Tour in particular having tested the method; its principal use was for painters who wanted pastel studies to be passed among students for copying without damage. In view of veuve Pellechet's health, a pension for her and her five daughters was recommended. The Académie's certificate was renewed on 6.XII.1783 on the application of Pellechet's daughter, Marie, Mme Danican or Danycan de l'Épine, who was able to demonstrate that the 1764 samples had not degraded. It seems likely that her father was the Jean-Antoine Pellechet, ingénieur, Inspecteur des travaux en ciment des maisons royales, originaire de Pontarlier, whose papers (now in the Archives départementales des Yvelins) included numerous documents relating to Loriot, who had married an Anne-Marie Pellechet (q.v.)
Lit.: "La veuve Pellechet et le secret à faire le pastel au huile inventée par son feu mari", 23.II.1767, AN O/1/1911 14; letter Cochin to Marigny, 14.III.1767; Ratouis de Limay 1946, pp. 141f; Chatelus 1991, p. 70

Claude PÉPIN, framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 25.i.1775, rue de Lappe, Paris, fl. –1785. His workship specialised in de luxe sculpted giltwood frames. Stamped frame on Labille-Guiard morceau de reception, Pajou (1782); also on 1776 Frédou pnt. a/r Roslin, Louis le dauphin and on Berjon, still-life (probably not original as the pastel is early 19th century).
Lit.: Salvert 1962; Harden 1998

Dom Antoine-Joseph PERNETY (1716-1796), Benedictine monk, librarian to Friedrich der Große, founder of the Société des illuminés d'Avignon with count Grabianka, explorer, hermetic, author. He described the manufacture of pastel sticks in his Dictionnaire portatif de peinture, sculpture et gravure, 1757, pp. 446f, and also included a section in the preface (pp. cxxviff), "De la peinture en pastel", which he described as "une espece de dessein estompé". Pernety claims to have seen La Tour fix his pastels between two sheets of glass, acknowledging however the greater convenience and popularity of the method designed by M. Lauriot [Loriot].

Jean PERRÉAL [Jehan de Paris] (c.1455-1530), source of Leonardo's pastel recipe.
Dictionary, artists

Bernard PERROT or Perroto, Italian glassmaker who had settled in Orléans, discovered (1688) the process of making molten glass flow onto smooth iron tables where it was rolled and cooled; a necessary process before large scale pastels could be made.
Lit.: Elphège Frémy, Histoire de la manufacture royale des glaces de France au XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1909

Johann Anton de PETERS (1725-1795), pastellist and exhibition organiser.
Dictionary, artists

Louis PETIT DE BACHAUMONT (1690-1771), amateur and critic.
Dictionary, collectors

August Ludewig PFANNENSCHMID, colourman in Hannover, late 18th century. His widow offered an assortment of 160 Pastellfarben according to a reference in 1796.
Lit.: Ludwig Hoerner, Agenten, Bader und Copisten, 1995, p. 131; Lowengard 2008

Michel PHLIPAULT [Phelippeaux etc.] ( -1778), concierge de l'Académie royale de peinture, Paris 1757-78 (succeeded by his son Pierre-Alexandre in 1778); supplied pastels from Lausanne (presumably by Stoupan, q.v.) for 52 livres for two boxes containing a complete range.
Lit.: Procès-verbaux; Ratouis de Limay 1907, citing letter of 27.V.1763 from Nicolas-Charles de Silvestre de Aignan-Thomas Desfriches (q.v.).

PIERI, peintre doreuer du roi, rue Froimenteau 1, Paris: frame label on pastel by Pougin de Saint-Aubin, 1746.

Sig.r PIETRO (fl. Venice 1725): An entry in Rosalba Carriera's diary for 28.III.1725 records a payment of 2 zecchini and 2 silver ducats "per colori e vernice".

Roger de PILES (1635-1709), art critic and connoisseur, conseiller honoraire de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture; famous for his defence of colour against drawing. He described pastel manufacture. His Premiers Elémens de la peinture pratique, first printed in 1684 (with engravings by Jean-Baptiste Corneille, sometimes listed as a co-author), and includes a section "De la peinture au pastel". He also recommended buying ready made pastels from several suppliers in Paris.

Mrs Laetitia PILKINGTON, née van Lewen (c.1709–1750), the divorced wife of an Irish clergyman, set up a print shop in St James's, London, c.1740 but was arrested for debt. Amongst her stock were pastel cut-outs by Nathaniel Bermingham (q.v.). Her Memoirs are a useful source of gossip.

Arthur POND (1701-1758), pastellist and supplier of copies, prints etc.
Dictionary, artists

James POOLE, 163 High Holborn, London, fl. 1764-1801. Artists' supplier; he advertised Swiss crayons in 1786. He stocked Swiss crayons made by Mr Hudson (q.v.) (Morning herald, 24.I.1787). Poole was a major supplier of artists' canvases, obtaining the freedom of the Weavers' Company in 1764. Following the new Linen Act of 1784, artists' canvases were brought into the charge for linen duty, and were stamped accordingly as British Linen; stencilled numbers included the year in four digits, running vertically at the right edge. Poole's stamps appear on numerous oil paintings and at least one pastel.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Hans POSSE (1879–1942), director of the Dresden Gemäldegalerie from 1910; author of catalogues of the collection.
Lit.: Henning 2009, pp. 285ff

Jean-Baptiste POURVOYEUR (fl. 1762-83), inventor of fixing method, and party to the case which opposed the artists of the Louvre to those of the Académie de Saint-Luc.
Dictionary, artists

Roch-Henri PRÉVOST DE SAINT-LUCIEN (1730-1808), v. s.v. Watin

William REEVES (?1739-1803), and his brother Thomas Reeves (1736-1799). Leading artists' suppliers in London from 1766, in partnership at the Blue Coat Boy, 2 Well Yard, Little Britain, West Smithfield 1780-82, 80 Holborn Bridge 1782-83, and subsequently independent, Thomas continuing at Holborn Bridge while William Reeves traded from the Strand. Trade cards and advertisements (e.g. Morning herald, 24.X.1782; Daily universal register, 2.V.1785) mention fine Swiss crayons and English crayons, as well as "Double & Single Setts of Crayons, in all the Different Shades equal to the Italian". Nevertheless, according to their advertisement in The times of 1.XI.1792 and a number of later dates (by 1795, as Reeves & Inwood), T. Reeves & Son "have just imported a large quantity of Italian crayons, very fine; complete sets of English crayons" were also supplied. By 1797 the heading of the advertisements had changed to Swiss Crayons, Reeves having "lately imported a quantity of exceeding fine Swiss Crayons in setts."
Lit.: Kosek 1998; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

James (or Jacques) REGNIER (fl. 1710, -c.1754), succeeded by his niece Nicole Celeste Regnier (fl. 1754-67), who married a fellow Huguenot, the sculptor Louis-François Roubiliac, in 1756. Printsellers, at the Golden Ball, Newport St, Long Acre, London. Advertised (Daily courant, 30.XI.1728, 3.II.1729; Universal spectator, 21.III.1730 etc.; Public advertiser, 1.VIII.1754 etc.) "all Sorts of the finest Water-Colours, Dry Crayons, or Pastels, Hair and Black Lead Pencils, Red, Black and White Chaulk and Paper for Drawings".
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

J. J. REHBACH, Ratisbonn, exhibited pastels and ordinary crayons at the Exposition de 1867; they were exported to France and England. The manufacture of crayons in Bavaria was widespread, resulting from high quality of the naturally occurring seams of graphite.

Johann Friedrich REIFENSTEIN (1719-1793), inventor of fixing method.
Dictionary, artists

Pierre RÉMY (1715-1797), Paris art expert.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008

Antoine RENOU (1731-1806) published the Secret pour fixer le pastel, a description of the Loriot process, in 1780.
Dictionary, artists

George RILEY (1743-1829), Queen St, Mayfair, London 1770, Stone's Head, Curzon St, Mayfair 1772-81, St Paul's Churchyard 1781, Newgate Street 1783, Ludgate Street 1783-95, 3 Creed Lane, 1794-98; Old Bailey 1798-; stationer and crayon pencil supplier. In The World (5.IV.1788), Riley advertised "New Invented Coloured Crayon Pencils of elegant shades, put in fine Cedar, to use as a Black Lead pencil, price only £1 7s. the complete set, or 9d. single prepared and sold by G. Riley, sole Patentee"; these crayon pencils were made to the patent of the late Thomas Beckwith (q.v.). Riley described these in A concise treatise on the elementary principles of flower-painting and drawing in water-colour... , 1807. Advertisement appeared, such as his letter to the Newcastle courant, 25.X.1788 from 33 Ludgate Street, enclosing an endorsement from the Edinburgh artist George Walker.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Archibald ROBERTSON (fl. 1765; -1804), Saville Row Passage, adjoining Squib's Auction Room, Conduit Street, 1781; 15 Charles Street, St James's Square 1782-96. Engraver and publisher, landscape painter and drawing master. His trade card from c.1781 included the "best Swiss-Crayons".
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Henri ROCHÉ (1837–1925), biologist and chemist, established La Maison du pastel in Paris c.1875, taking over the business of S. Macle originally established in 1720 at Versailles, moving to the rue Saint-Honoré in Paris, and, from 1766 to 1912, the rue du Grenier-Saint-Lazare. It claims to have supplied La Tour, Perronneau, Chardin and Carriera.
Lit.: Monnier 1984, p. 117; Cabezas 2008; firm's website; Roché 2009

Léon ROGER-MILÈS (1859-1928), art critic, author of the Paris 1908a catalogue.

Alexander ROSLIN (1718-1793), pioneer in oil pastel, probably using the Pellechet process.
Dictionary, artists

André ROUQUET, Swiss enamelist who visited London and published L'État des arts en Angleterre, 1754, translated as The present state of the arts in England, London, 1755, observing the popularity of portraits

Jacques ROZE, framemaker, maître-menuisier, reçu sculpteur de l'académie de Saint-Luc, .vii.1752.
Lit.: Harden 1998

RUPELVOËR (fl. Paris 1771), pastellist, inventor and vendor of new crayons.
Dictionary, artists

RUPRECHT von der Pfalz (Prague 1619 - London 1682)
Dictionary, artists

John RUSSELL (1745-1806), described his methods in Elements of painting with crayons, 1772.
Dictionary, artists

"Mrs RYLAND, having removed from Oxford-street, to No. 102, in New-Bond-street, two doors from Brook-street, most respectfully solicits the continuance of the same kind support she has hitherto been favoured with from her friends and the public" according to her advertisement in The times, 28.III.1787, which adds that "Fine crayons, and other materials for drawing, may be had."

Alphonse SAINT-MARTIN established a publishing and artists' supply business at 6 (later 4) rue de Seine, "A la palette de Rubens", which was later continued by his widow. Active in the first half of the 19th century, some sources suggest the business was originally established in 1785. The firm's stamp is found on the canvas of a later copy of La Tour, Marie Leszczynska.

Joseph, chevalier de SAINT-MICHEL (fl. 1756-85), inventor of fixing method, which it is alleged he stole from the principe di Sansevero (q.v.). It was submitted to Bachelier and Roslin at the Académie on 6.VI.1772, and offered by subscription.
Dictionary, artists

According to an advertisement in the St Petersburg Gazette in 1794, a shop на Мойке в доме .No 284 при пудреной фабрике offered various types of paper, parchment, and everything required to draw, including assorted coloured chalks.

"Le citoyen SALMON, rue de Thionville, ci-devant Dauphine, no. 26, à Paris", advertised, among other artistic supplies, "boîtes de crayons de pastel, de 6, 12, 20 et 24 l. la boîte" (Gazette nationale, 21.VII.1793, no. 202, supplément, p. 180; they were previously advertised in the Mercure de France, .X.1786, supplément, p. 11).

Matthew SANDERSON, "chymist, colour-maker, arid perfumer" advertised in the Manchester Mercury, 23.ix.1783, various wares including crayons.

Sir William SANDERSON (1586–1676), historian, published Graphice: or, The use of the Pen and Pensil, in Designing, Drawing and Painting, in 1658; with details "of Croyons or Dry-Colours, by Pastils or Powders; the way of making them, and working with them: with rare Receipts and Observations of the best Masters of this Art."

Charles SANDYS ( -1786) by 1759, at Dirty Lane, Long Acre, 1760-63, as Sandys & Middleton, 79 Long Acre 1773-74, 81 St Martin's Lane 1778. Artists' colourmen; a trade card advertised that they "Make & Sell all Sorts of Crayons". According to J. H. Muntz 1760 he was teh source of "perfect sets" of crayons.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Barker & al. 2009, p. 113

Raimondo di Sangro, principe di SANSEVERO (Torremaggiore 1710 - Naples 1771), Scientist, inventor, esotericist, soldier, freemason and man of letters. He invented a process of fixing pastel described in numerous treatises (v. Chaperon; Saint-Michel).
Lit.: Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und der freyen Künste, IX/1, 1770, pp. 181f; Mariette 1851-60; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 147f

Jacques SAVARY DES BRUSLONS (1657-1716), son of the celebrated economist; his Dictionnaire universel de commerce was published posthumously (Paris, 1723 and later editions)

M. SCHEPPERS, probably Louis-Joseph Scheppers (1734-1795), son of a marchand graissier, himself a future director of the chambre de commerce, inventor of "l'art de fixer le pastel et de l'embellir même au lieu de l'altérer", which he advertised in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers, 1755, and which he made available to Dachon, a painter from Lille.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149

Charles SCHOFIELD, 123 Aldersgate Street, London, 1779-1808. Oil and colourman, house painter and gilder, advertised materials including "fine crayons" (The gazetteer and new daily advertiser, 20.I.1783).
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

John SCOTT ( -1838), of 419 Strand, London, from 1782, sold materials for watercolours and drawings; advertised "Crayons in sets, ditto of Swiss Crayon Pencils, a curious article, being in wood after the manner of Black-lead, in sets of 50 and 70, of all different tints" (General evening post, 25.I.1783, 23.XII.1783, 6.I.1784); and "British & Swiss Crayons, & the true Italian Crayon Pencils, in sets of every Colour, of which Scott is the only importer" (St James's chronicle, 12.VIII.1788). Listed as "crayon manufacturer" (Wakefield's directory, 1790).
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Le sieur SEGUINEAU, aîné, négociant, in Saint-Domingue, advertised in Les Affiches americaines on 13.XII.1775 (p. 594) the receipt of varied merchandise from Paris, including "tableaux en pastel sur divers sujets".

Mlle SELLIER or Cellier, de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, au bain de la Seine, rue Guénégaud, près le Pont-Neuf, Paris: vendor of materials for the oil pastel procedure invented by Pellechet (q.v.).
Lit.: Guiffrey 1915; Chatelus 1991, p. 70f

SERISE, rue Greneta, marchand de couleurs.
Lit.: Almanach dauphin, 1776, cited Haroche-Bouzinac 2011, p.27

William SITTENHAM (1861–1938), restorer, including apparently 18th century pastels, art dealer and real estate investor, active in New York, known from a printed sheet "Crayon and pastel portraits : restoring oil paintings a specialty".

Jean-Baptiste SLODTZ ( -1759), peintre du duc d'Orléans, restorer and partner of Rémy (q.v.). A pastel by Carriera was among those he restored.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a

SMITH'S Color Manufactory, St Faith's Lane, Norwich, advertised various colours in the Norfolk chronicle, 15.viii.1789, including "Superfine CRAYONS, equal to the Swiss, single or in Setts, from 6s. to 21s. each."

SMITH, WARNER & Co, a partnership between the experimental chemist, Charles Smith ( -1845) and Peter Warner ( -1824), 211 Piccadilly, London by 1800. Leading artists' supplier; advertised a method for fixing soft crayon and chalk drawings (Morning herald, 25.VII.1800).
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

A. SOLARO SCHLÜSS, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

SPEAKMAN & CARTER, of Market Street, Philadelphia, chemists and druggists, offered "a few sets of fine crayons to be disposed of low." (Pennsylvania journal, 29.VI.1774).

Francis STACY, artists' colourman, at The St Luke, corner of Long Acre, next to Drury Lane, London 1769-72, 39 Drury Lane 1773, Long Acre 1774-1785, 76 Long Acre 1777. A trade card includes crayons.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk

Friedrich STAEDTLER commenced the manufacture of graphite pencils in Nürnberg in 1662. J. S. Staedtler introduced coloured oil pastel pencils in 1834 and exhibited pastels and crayons at the Exposition universelle de Paris, 1867.

STANLEY (fl. London c.1764–69), artist and inventor.
Dictionary, artists

William STORER (fl. London 1777–90) invented the Royal Accurate Delineator, a technically superior camera obscura, using three lenses and and a system of adjustable boxes, designed to work without the need for sunlight; it was patented in 1778, but mentioned by Horace Walpole in a letter to Henry Seymour Conway of 16.IX.1777. In 1783 Storer published a Syllabus, to a course of optical experiments for use with the instrument; it contained a lengthy list of patrons. Several pastellists, including Mrs Adams, Bateman, Dobson and Guest (qq.v.), mentioned it in advertisements. Nevertheless Storer was made bankrupt in 1784.
Lit.: Clercq 2008; John H. Hammond, "The royal accurate delineator", The photographic collector, V, 1984, pp. 181ff;

Bernhard or Bernard STOUPAN, Stupan or Stupanus ( -a.1779), celebrated pastel-maker of Lausanne; possibly the same as, or a relative of, the Bernard-Augustin Stoupan who was professor of mathematics and a Ratsherr in Lausanne; he was related to the celebrated mathematician Jacob Bernoulli. A Benjamin Stoupan also appears in various sources. Bernard Stoupan's sister was married to a merchant called Isoot, and they provided bonds for the apprenticeship to a watchmaking and jewellery business of a certain Jean-Baptiste Michod, presumably a brother of Stoupan's nephew François Michod (q.v.), mentioned as continuing the pastel business. Stoupan's pastels were celebrated from the middle of the century, and by 1770 had achieved "un haut degré de perfection (éclat de couleurs)". The chevalier de Boufflers (Dictionary, artists) noted in 1764 that Lausanne "est connu dans toute l'Europe par ses bons pastels"; his editor noted "on peut s'addresser pour les avoir, ou à M. Stoupan lui-même, ou à M. François Grasset libraire à Lausanne." Stoupan's pastels were "recommended for the best in Europe" according to a 1766 receipt from Bonhote (q.v.), who supplied them in London. Bonvoisin and Phelippeaux (qq.v.) supplied them in Paris, and they were advertised in the Avant-Coureur (1762, p. 491; 1769, p. 85; 1771, p. 503; 1773, pp. 435f). This announcement appeared in the Frankfurter Frag- und Anzeigungs-Nachrichten, 20.xii.1776 and other dates: "Es sind von dem so bekandt als berühmten Pastell Farben Fabriquanten, Herrn B. A. Stupanus in Lausanne, verschiedene Assortiments darer feinsten Pastell Farben allhier angelangt, davon die grösseren Assortiments 9. Laubthaler, die feineren aber 5. Laubthaler, vier genommen zu stehen kommen, und können die darzu Lusttragende, bey Ausgeber dieses vernehmen, bey weme solche zu finden sind." Reifenstein (Dictionary, artists) reported to Caroline Luise von Baden (.v.1761) that he had seen a pastel by Handmann fixed with the process invented by Stoupan, involving an atomised mixture of strong vinegar and egg white. Sulzer 1798, III, p. 719 mentions "Herr Stupan, von Geburt ein Basler, der sich in Lausanne aufhält, wird schon längstens für den besten Zubereiter dieser Farben behalten". "Personne n'a jusqu'ici pu atteindre le brun de Stoupan", wrote Guthrie, noting that his successor was Helmoldt (q.v.).
Lit.: Chaperon 1788; William Guthrie, Nouvelle géographie universelle, Paris, 1802, III, p. 244; Georges-Antoine Bridel, Les Pastels de Lausanne, 1944; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 138; Revue historique vaudoise, 1943, p. 171; Marcel Francillon, "Notes sur la famille Stoupan bourgeoise de Lausanne", Der schweizer Familienforscher, 1947, pp. 115ff; Revue historique vaudoise, 1985, p. 68; Burns 2007, p. 20

Johann Georg SULZER (1720-1779), Mathematiker und Philosoph, author of Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, 1771-74; rev. ed., Frankfurt & Leipzig, 1798; the article on pastel (III, p. 718f), after mentioning La Tour, Liotard, Mengs and the collection of Rosalba at Dresden, includes a simple recipe for pastel, but notes "Aber die beste Zubereitung der Pastelfarben ist doch ein Geheimniß".

Mrs John SURTEES, née Elizabeth Thompson Royal (1828-p.1877), of Higher Broughton, Manchester: her pastel copies of two Russell portraits are at Chatsworth. In 1872 she married the Newcastle upon Tyne landscape painter John Surtees, an artist from, the son of a butcher. He was evidently the painter who exhibited in form 1843 on. Mrs Surtees exhibited a landscape at the Royal Academy in 1877 from 111 Gower Street.

The Tarif des Douanes nationales de France, decreed by the Assemblée nationale, 31.I.1791, imposed an import duty of 5 livres le quintal on all "crayons en pastel & autres de toutes sortes". A decree of 15.viii.1752 imposed a duty on glass for pastels: "Ordonne au surplus Sa Majesté que les Verres blancs coulés en table sans boudines, propres à estampes & peintures en pastel, continueront de payer à l'entrée du Royaume, tant des Cinq Grosses Fermes, que des Provinces réputés étrangères, trente livres de quintal; & qu'à cet effet les Marchands & Voituriers seront tenus de les mettre dans des caisses séparées, & de déclarer le poids desdites caisses, sous peine de confiscation, & de pareille amends de trois cent livres."

Domenico Marchi TEMPESTI (c.1655-1737), provided an important account of Nanteuil's practices.
Dictionary, artists

Johann Alexander THIELE (1685-1752), credited by some sources as the inventor of pastel.
Dictionary, artists

Denis TOUPILLIER (fl. 1764–91), framemaker, reçu maître-ébéniste 30.vii.1764, rue Jean-Beausire, then rue des Tournelles, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998

André TRAMBLIN, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Robert Samuel TULL (c.1731-1758), carver and gilder, apprenticed to Jacob Gosset (q.v.), in 1745. His account books include pastels for Katherine Read.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Théodore TURQUET DE MAYERNE, author of an early treatise Pictoria, sculptoria & quae subalternarum artium spectantia (1620-46) with recipe for pastel fixative.
Lit.: Meder 1923

Gerard VANDERGUCHT, Jr ( -a.1776).
Dictionary, artists s.v. Benjamin Van der Gucht

Hans Christian Hansen, kaldet VANTORE (Kettinge, Lolland 1861 – Copenhagen 1928), Danish pastellist who copied numerous old master portraits, often to a very high standard.

François-Antoine VASSÉ (1681-1736), sculpteur du roi. Frames on Lundberg pastels commissioned by Niclas Peter von Gedda, 1728.
Lit.: Laine & Brown 2006

T.-S. VASSEUR, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998

Jean-Nicolas VERNEZOBRE, peintre de l'Académie de Saint-Luc (reçu 1750), the subject of a pastel by La Tour and the husband of a known pastellist (Dictionary, artists), himself advertised in Le Mercure, XX, 1756, p. 236: "Le Sieur Vernezobre, Peintre, continue de débiter avec succès les Crayons pour peindre en pastel. Il se flatte d'avoir trouvé le secret de rendre tendres ceux qui sont ordinairement trop durs, & les pointes s'en soutiennent: les assortimens sont plus parfaits qu'à l'ordinaire. Il demeur sur le Quai Pelletier, au Lion d'or." In 1779 he was evidently still supplying these, from the pont Saint-Michel, when the chevalier de Boufflers (q.v.) wrote to ask his sister to buy "un assortiment de pastels fermes pour peindre le paysage et la figure en petit", from "un marchand de couleurs nommé Vernezèbre", for 24 livres. The Almanach du commerce de Paris, 1811, contained an entry for "Vernezobre, pastels, crayons à dessiner, couleurs fines, rue Pavée-Saint-Sauveur, 10"; this appears again in 1816.
Lit.: Gaston Maugras, La Marquise de Boufflers et son fils le chevalier de Boufflers, Paris, 1907, p. 414

George VERTUE (1684-1756), art historian and early commentator on the vogue for pastels (1742).
Dictionary, collectors

Thomas VIALLS (1719-1781), London carver and gilder; framed two pastels by Read for James Grant of Grant (1764).
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk

Arnauld VINCENT DE MONTPETIT (1713-1800), artist and inventor.
Dictionary, artists

Jacques VIVIEN, sculpteur sur bois, reçu 1683 by the Académie de Saint-Luc, who must be the picture frame maker paid 174 livres by the Bâtiments du roi on 7.XI.1700 for three frames of the portraits of the royal princes by his brother, Joseph Vivien (q.v.).

Giovanni Battista VOLPATO (1633-1706), painter, mathematician and philosopher; experimented with pastel binders around 1670.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135

Parry WALTON ( -1702), restorer of the King's pictures.
Dictionary, artists, Greenhill
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk

Claude-Henri WATELET (1718-1786), co-author with Pierre-Charles Levesque (q.v.) of the Dictionnaire des arts de peinture, sculpture et gravure, 1792.
Dictionary, collectors

Jean-Félix WATIN (1728-1804), art supplier from his shop in Paris, à la Renommée, carré de la porte Saint-Martin; he appears as the author of the L'Art du peintre, doreur, vernisseur, published in 1772 with numerous subsequent editions, but in fact written by Roch-Henri Prévost de Saint-Lucien (1730-1808), a lawyer and author on a wide range of subjects. It included a stock list with prices, including (p. 348) Grandes boîtes de pastel assorties, for 12 livres, with petites boîtes for 8..
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 80; Lowengard 2008

Edward Façon WATSON (1804-1892), London dealer and restorer until 1877. Advertised "crayon drawings carefully restored" (The artists' directory 1875, p.190).
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk

Werner, v. Haid

Ann WILLIAMS (fl. London 1768-83), pastellist, "makes and sells caryons"
Dictionary, artists